(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Quarterly journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences"



NOimiUSNIjJJVINOSHJLIINS S3 I ti VU 8 11 ""l! B R AR I ES^SMITHSONIAN^INSTITU 




m 
~LI BRAR I ES SMITHS0NlAN~INSTITUTI0N W N0!iniIlSNrNVIN0SHIilMS C/, S3 I MVH 

^NouniiisN^NViNosHiiws^sa i avaan Z LiB rar i es^smithsonian^institui 

2 \ ~? CO — 





^ H > 
_.^_I2 -J 2 

_LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniUSNl NVIN0SH1IWS S3IHVH 
N0liniliSNrNVIN0SHllWS W S3 I HVU 8 n~LI B RAR I ES^SMITHSONIAN'lNSTITU 

10 2 CO 2 ..... 00 2 v. 

LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniUSNl NVINOSHlllAIS^SS I a Va 
i ^ ^ to 5 „ . w ^ ^ ^ - v . to 





NouniiisNi^NviNOSHiiws ssiavaan LIBRARIES^SMITHSONIAN^INSTITU 

z r- „ 2 i- 2 r- 

— /^^^\ DO ^'f^O^nX ° jrjfar... rr, x^o^o 

-. (it ' ' ' * \<>\ TO 

* > 

\^«18'i'/ ~ «. 5s — \/i,X^ 

LI B RAR I ES SMITHSONIAN^INSTITUTION^NOIinillSN^NVINOSHHWS^SH I ava 
s v, to 2 » 2 to 

z 







5 '\\^ > \^S^ 5 

' NOHniliSNI__NVINOSHllWS t/) SHiaVaan :Z LIBRARIES W SMITHSONIAN INSTITUT 

^ ^ ^ 5»- \ to t — CO 

— /6\ 






< 

CQ 

3l±nillSNI~NVIN0SHllWS S3IHVUai1 LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN^INSTITUTION 





B RAR I ES C/5 SMITHSONIAN~INSTlTUTlON t °NOIinillSNI~NVINOSHllkMS S3 
to ^^ z » c/> z to 

DlinillSNI NVINOSHJLIWS^Sa I H VH 3 II LIB RAR I ES^SMITHSONJAN^INSTITUTION 
5 \ to ^ co 






IBRARIES SMITHSONIAN^INSTITUTION NOIinillSMI^MVINOSHll^S^SB 
— to £ — co \ ~ 

.ouniiiSNi nvinoshiiws saiuvaan libraries Smithsonian institute 

z „ _ to z , c .,.. w z 

IRARIES^SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOiirUUSNl NVIN0SH1IWS W S3IMV: 
co 5 ^ ^ to ^^ — CO 

Olini!lSNl" - NVINOSHllWS Z S3 I H VH 8 II^LI B RAR I ES^ SMITHSONIAN^! NS 

r- „ z r^ Z 








co v " — co — ± to 

IBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOimillSNI NV1N0SH1IWS S3IHVHSI' 
co Z * to z 

lOlinillSN! NVINOSHIIWS^SS 1 U VH a II^LI BRAR I ES^SMITHSONIAN 

CO — CO 






:"- L i:XC-' : ' 



4$ti%3\ 12 



i /^^ 



Quarterly Journal 

of the 

Florida Academy of Sciences 

Vol. 35 March, 1972 No. 1 



CONTENTS 

The Armadillidae of Florida (Isopoda, Oniscoidea) George A. Schultz 1 

Reassignment of Balanus tintinnabulum maroccana Broch Dea B. Beach 5 

Intestinal parasites of the lizard Lygosoma laterale Garnett R. Brooks 8 

Observations on the arboreal snail Orthalicus floridensis Alan K. Craig 15 

Nereid shell blisters in the southern quahog clam 

John L. Taylor and Carl H. Salomon 21 

Occurrence of a rare skate in the western North Atlantic 

Robbin R. Blackman 27 

First Gulf of Mexico record of Ranzania laevis 

Robert W. Topp and David L. Girardin 29 

Five-year creel survey of two Florida lakes 

Forrest J. Ware, Wesley V. Fish, and Louie Prevatt 31 

The presence of Hyla squirella in the Bahamas Ronald I. Crombie 49 

Additions to the Pleistocene avifauna of Arredondo, Florida 

Carl David Frailey 53 

Avifauna of Little Tobago Island James J. Dinsmore 55 

Birds of the Lluidas Vale (Worthy Park) region, Jamaica 

Alexander Cruz 72 



Published August 25, 1972 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 
Editor: Pierce Brodkorb 



The Quarterly Journal welcomes original articles containing sig- 
nificant new knowledge, or new interpretation of knowledge, in any 
field of Science. Articles must not duplicate in any substantial way 
material that is published elsewhere. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

Rapid, efficient, and economical transmission of knowledge by means of 
the printed word requires full cooperation between author and editor. Revise 
copy before submission to insure logical order, conciseness, and clarity. 

Manuscripts should be typed double-space throughout, on one side of 
numbered sheets of 8 ^ by 11 inch, smooth, bond paper. 

A Carbon Copy will facilitate review by referees. 

Margins should be 1% inches all around. 

Titles must not exceed 55 characters, including spaces. 

Footnotes should be avoided. Give Acknowledgments in the text and 
Address in paragraph fonn following Literature Cited. 

Literature Cited follows the text. Double-space and follow the form 
in the current volume. For articles give title, journal, volume, and inclusive 
pages. For books give title, publisher, place, and total pages. 

Tables are charged to authors at $25.00 per page or fraction. Titles 
must be short, but explanatory matter may be given in footnotes. Type each 
table on a separate sheet, double-space, unruled, to fit normal width of page, 
and place after Literature Cited. 

Legends for illustrations should be grouped on a sheet, double-spaced, in 
the form used in the current volume, and placed after Tables. Titles must be 
short but may be followed by explanatory matter. 

Illustrations are charged to authors ($17.00 per page or fraction). 
Drawings should be in India ink, on good board or drafting paper, and 
lettered by lettering guide or equivalent. Plan linework and lettering for re- 
duction, so that final width is 4% inches, and final length does not exceed 6% 
inches. Do not submit illustrations needing reduction by more than one-half. 
Photographs should be of good contrast, on glossy paper. Do not write 
heavily on the backs of photographs. 

Proof must be returned promptly. Leave a forwarding address in case 
of extended absence. 

Reprints may be ordered when the author returns corrected proof. 



Published by the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Printed by the Storter Printing Company 

Gainesville, Florida 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

of the 

FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Vol. 35 March. 1972 No. 1 

The Armadillidae of Florida (Isopoda, Oniscoidea) 

George A. Schultz 

Three species of terrestrial isopod crustaceans of the family 
Armadillidae are present in Florida. Cubans murina Brandt was 
introduced and Venezillo evergladensis Schultz and V. pisum 
(Budde-Lund) are most probablv endemic. Schultz (1961) noted 
the presence of C. murina in south Florida and in 1963 he de- 
scribed V. evergladensis as new and also from south Florida. In the 
National Museum of Natural History the author discovered a single 
gravid female specimen about 5 mm long of Cubans pisum Budde- 
Lund (1885) (USNM 45605) collected at the mouth of the Indian 
River (near Jupiter Inlet?). It was collected in March 1874 (by E. 
Palmer) before the species was actually described by Budde-Lund, 
and the specimen was identified by Harriet Richardson. Since it 
was first described it has not been collected again, but the species 
is included in Van Name's (1936) summary of New World terres- 
trial isopods along with earlier references to it. The name of the 
species is now Venezillo visum (Budde-Lund) since the former 
subgenus Venezillo now is considered to be a full genus. The single 
specimen conforms in morphology to the very general description 
of Budde-Lund (1885). 

Venezillo pisum is briefly redescribed here and comparison is 
made with the two other species of Armadillidae from Florida. The 
species has never been illustrated before. 

Frontal margin of cephalon slightly raised above tergum of 
cephalon and broadly rounded in frontal view. About 15 ocelli. 
Peraeonal segment I only slightly flared with shallow indentation 
in expanded lateral part of segment. Lateral margin of peraeonal 



2 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 




Fig. 1. Armadillidae of Florida. Cubans murina Brandt: 1, ventral view 
peraeonal segments I and II; 2, pleotelson; 3, lateral view. Venezillo pisum 
(Budde-Lund): 4, ventral view peraeonal segments I, II and III; 5, pleotel- 
son; 6, lateral view anterior part. Venezillo evergladensis Schultz: 7, ventral 
view peraeonal segments I, II and III; 8, pleotelson; 9, lateral view anterior 
part. 



segment I with deep, well defined notch on posterior half of mar- 
gin. Outside edge of margin (lateral view) higher or more dorsally 



Schultz: Armadillidae of Florida 3 

located, but extending caudadly more than inside edge (Fig. 6). 
Peraeonal segment II with large inner notch and peraeonal seg- 
ment III with very small interior notch (Fig. 4). Posterior margin 
of pleotelson almost equal in width to width at medial part of 
pleotelson (Fig. 5). 

The placement of the species in Group Ila of Van Name ( 1936, 
p. 330) is confirmed. According to Budde-Lund, V. pisum is uni- 
formly brown, perhaps reddish brown in color and reaches a length 
of about 5.5 mm. The specimen described here has no pigment 
because it has been stored in alcohol for a long time. 

The terrestrial isopods of Florida have never been collected on 
a systematic, widespread, and intensive scale, so many regions of 
the state never have been explored by carcinologists looking for 
terrestrial isopods. Whether or not populations of the species still 
are to be found remains to be seen. The species of the genus 
Venezillo tend to live in the drier habitats when compared to most 
common terrestrial isopods. They might be living in loose, but not 
completely dry leaf litter, around the bases of buildings and under 
refuse which is not subjected to the direct rays of the sun for a long 
time during the day. The specific habitat preferences of V. pisum 
remain unknown. 

Venezillo evergladensis is a relatively small (maximum length 
about 5.5 mm), gray and white isopod which is abundant around 
the bases of houses in dense shaded leaf litter. It is abundant in 
residential Miami and in surrounding suburbs. Schultz ( 1963 ) in- 
cludes a discussion of some ecological aspects of specimens from 
along the Tamiami Trail in the Everglades. 

Cubans murina is frequently an associate of V. evergladensis 
in leaf litter and around the bases of houses ( Schultz, 1961 ) . It at 
times is also abundant under the loose bark of rotten logs. The 
species is distinct from both species of Venezillo in the nature of 
the lateral edge of peraeonal segment I (Fig. 1). The specimens 
have a larger average length than the two species of Venezillo, and 
they are frequently 12 mm long. Specimens are a brick red in 
color when seen in the field, but change to dark, somewhat reddish 
brown in alcohol. The following key can be used to distinguish the 
species: 



4 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

la. With notch on posterior part of lateral border of peraeonal 
segment I 2 

lb. With notch inside or below (when viewing ventral aspect of 

isopod) lateral border of peraeonal segment I (Fig. 1) 

Cubaris murina Brandt 

2a. Notch deep, well defined and slightly less than one-half length 

of lateral border of peraeonal segment I (Fig. 4) 

Venezillo pisum Budde-Lund 

2b. Notch less than one-fourth length of lateral border of peraeonal 
segment I ( Fig. 7 ) ... Venezillo evergladensis Schultz 

Acknowledgments 

The author wishes to thank Dr. Thomas E. Bowman of the Di- 
vision of Crustacea, National Museum of Natural History, Smith- 
sonian Institution for aid in viewing V. pisum. He would also like 
to thank the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Fund of the American 
Museum of Natural History for providing a stay at the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Literature Cited 

Budde-Lund, G. 1885. Crustacea Isopoda terrestria per familias et genera 
et species descripta. Copenhagen, pp. 1-319. 

Schultz, G. A. 1961. Cubaris murina Brandt, an isopod crustacean new to 
the United States. Crustaceana, vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 169-170. 

. 1963. Venezillo evergladensis, a new species of terrestrial isopod 

crustacean from Florida. Trans. Amer. Micro. Soc, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 
209-213. 

Van Name, W. G. 1936. The American land and fresh-water isopod Crus- 
tacea. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 71, pp. 1-535. 

15 Smith Street, Hampton, New Jersey 08827. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Reassignment of Balanus tintinnabulum maroccana Broch 
Dea B. Beach 

In the process of revising the barnacle subgenus Megabalanus 
Hoek, 1913, specimens from the type lot of Balanus (Megabalanus) 
tintinnabulum maroccana Broch, 1927, were examined (Figs, la-i) 
and were found to possess characters inconsistent with those of the 
subgenus. 

Megabalanus differs from other subgenera of the genus Balanus 
da Costa, 1778, by the possession of well developed radii permeated 
by pores parallel to the basis. Additionally B. tintinnabulum tintin- 
nabulum Linnaeus, the type of the subgenus Megabalanus, and 
other subspecies in the B. tintinnabulum complex exhibit 1) radii 
whose summits are nearly horizontal, 2) a tergal spur that never ex- 
ceeds one-fourth of the basal margin, 3) a spur furrow that is en- 
tirely or partially closed by the infolding of the carinal and scutal 
sides of the tergum resulting in the elevation of the spur above the 
inner surface of the valve, and 4) distinct secondary denticulae on 
both sides of the radial sutural edge. 

The radii of B. maroccana are not permeated by pores (Fig. li), 
and possess oblique summits (Fig. le). Secondary denticulation 
is not well developed (Fig. li). In the description of B. maroccana, 
Broch ( 1927, p. 21 ) indicates that the spur is "one third to one half 
of the greatest diameter of the plate" and that "the spur fasciole is 
broad and shallow, and never closed . . ." (Figs. la-b). 

The open spur furrow, the breadth of the tergal spur, the promi- 
nence of the adductor ridge, the width of the radii, and the colora- 
tion of the shell suggest relationship to the B. amphitrite complex. 
However, it does not appear that B. maroccana can be readily iden- 
tified with any other known member of this complex. It is there- 
fore retained as a distinct species, and is transferred to the subgenus 
Balanus. 

Literature Cited 

Broch, H. 1927. Studies on Moroccan Cirripeds (Atlantic Coast). Bull. 
Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc, vol. 7, pp. 11-38, pis. 1-4, text-figs. 1-10. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology, California Academy of 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 




Fig. 1. Shell, opercular valves, and mouth parts of a specimen from the 
type lot of Balanus maroccana Broch: a, interior of tergum; h, exterior of ter- 
gum; c, interior of scutum; d, exterior of scutum; e, external view of shells; /, 
labrum; g, maxilla I; h, mandible; i, thin section of sutural edge of radius; ad, 
X 7.5; e, X 2; f-i, X 100. 



Beach: Reassignment of a Barnacle 7 

Sciences, San Francisco, California 94119. Present address: Pro- 
gram in Environmental Sciences, University of North Carolina at 
Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina 28401. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Intestinal Parasites of the Lizard Lygosoma laterale 
Garnett R. Brooks 

The intestinal parasites of Lygosoma laterale, the ground skink, 
have been described by Harwood (1932) and by Byrd (1937). In 
a later paper, Harwood ( 1936 ) correlated the incidence of several 
parasite species with the type of soil habitat associated with Lygo- 
soma near Houston, Texas. 

As part of a study on the biology of Lygosoma in Florida, data 
were obtained which relate degree of parasitism with host age, sex, 
and locality. These data also afford a comparison between two 
widely separated populations of a single species. Information con- 
cerning the food habits and population ecology of Lygosoma can 
be found in Brooks (1963, 1967). 

Methods and Materials 

Between August, 1960, and April, 1962, 381 skinks, of which 269 
were adults, were collected near Gainesville, Florida. Adults are 
defined as those with a snout- vent length (SVL) of 35 mm or 
longer; juveniles, as those with a SVL of 34 mm or less. In each 
individual, the entire digestive tract and the body cavity were 
examined under a dissecting scope. Parasites were prepared for 
study following standard procedures. Dr. M. A. Byrd, College of 
William and Mary, aided me with species identification. Soil de- 
scriptions were taken from "Soil Survey: Alachua County, Florida", 
Series 1940, No. 10, produced by the U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

Description of Localities 

Five populations of Lygosoma were restricted to very localized 
areas, each of which afforded a sufficiently large sample size to 
allow a comparison of parasite incidency between sites. None of 
the localities, however, was uniformly sampled over a year's period. 
The five localities, their soil types, and their dominant vegetation 
are described below. At all sites, Pinus taeda was the most fre- 
quent species of pine and Quercus laurijolia and Q. nigra the most 
abundant species of oaks. 

Site A. This locality was in the Medicinal Plant Gardens on the 



Brooks: Parasites of a Lizard 9 

University of Florida campus and contained soil described as Fel- 
lowship loamy fine sand. Dominant vegetation consisted of pines 
and oaks; the herb layer, mainly grasses and sedges, was periodi- 
cally mowed. A small stream flowed through the center of this site. 

Site B. This locality was a cleared, well-drained, park-like area 
bordered by pine woods. The soil is a complex of Arredondo-Fel- 
lowship loamy fine sands. Dominant vegetation consisted of scat- 
tered pines and oaks with a herb layer of grasses, sedges, and 
weeds. 

Site C. This site, located in a park-like pasture on a gentle 
slope, has soil described as Fellowship loamy fine sand which re- 
tains moisture and is well suited for pasture grasses. Dominant 
vegetation consisted of scattered pines, oaks, and hickories, with no 
understory; pasture grass and weeds comprised the herb layer. A 
small herd of beef cattle roamed freely through this site. 

Side D. This locality consisted of overgrown lawns near two 
abandoned dwellings, and the adjacent wooded areas. The soil, 
Kanapaha fine sand which typically has good surface and internal 
drainage, contained a variable amount of organic material. Scat- 
tered pines and oaks, and a mixture of weeds, lawn grass, and 
sedges at the herb layer constituted the dominant vegetation. 

Site E. This site consisted of a small woods and adjacent 
cleared areas, and contained soil classified as Arredondo loamy fine 
sand-fine sand complex. The wooded area was a mixed deciduous 
forest but some clearing of the understory had occurred prior to 
this study. A small stream flowed through a portion of this site. 

Results 

Five species of worms were recovered, four of which had been 
described previously by Harwood ( 1932 ) . Four of the worms 
could definitely be identified, a tapeworm, Cylindrotaenia ameri- 
cana; a fluke, Mesocoelium americanum; and two nematodes, Phys- 
aloptera squamatae and Thubunoea leiolopismae. The fifth worm 
was an unidentified larval acanthocephalan. 

Yamaguti (1959) lists the nematotaeniid tapeworm, C. ameri- 
cana, as being found in various anurans (Bufo, Hyla, Acris, Rana, 
Pseudacris, Leptodactylus, Scaphiopus, and Arthroleptis), in one 
genus of salamander (Desmognatlius), and in Lygosoma. Har- 



10 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 






3 O ^ 

oo E-i 



05 


t- 


t- 


CM 


CM 


1— 1 


00 


co 


00 


rH 


TP 


cq 


ca 


(M 


■>* 


1—1 








oo 

CO 



CO CN CO 
lO lO CQ 



I o oq 

1 CD -*" 



I I I I 






s + 






J < £ JS 
f -1 S "3 a 



.2 s 



£ 5 

< 



S u 



o o 



Brooks: Parasites of a Lizard 11 

wood (1932), however, seriously questioned Joyeux's (1924) iden- 
tification of C. americana in the South African frog genus Arthro- 
leptis. The number of tapeworms per skink was not determined 
since they broke into numerous fragments when removed and were 
unfortunately discarded. All were located in the intestine im- 
mediately posterior to the pyloric sphincter. 

All of the flukes found could be assigned to Mesocoelium ameri- 
canum. This species was found in two genera of lizards (Eumeces 
and Lygosoma ) and in a snake ( Storeria ) by Harwood ( 1932 ) . In 
adult skinks, the number of flukes ranged from 1-33 (mean = 5.6) 
and in juveniles from 1-27 (mean = 4.8). In both groups all were 
found in the intestine immediately posterior to the pyloric sphincter. 

The two species of nematodes were both spiruroids. Harwood 
(1932) lists Physaloptera squamatae as being found in Lygosoma 
and in a snake, Agkistrodon; Thubunaea leiolopismae, in Lygosoma 
and in a frog, Acris. Individuals were found mainly within the 
stomach, esophagus, or encysted on the stomach wall. In a few 
cases several were found in the intestine or free in the body cavity. 
In adult skinks, the number of P. squamatae ranged from 1-15 
(mean = 2.2), that of T. leiolopismae from 1-33 (mean = 4.6). 

Three larval acanthocephalans were found encysted in the pos- 
terior intestine; one in one lizard, two in another. 

Table 1 shows the percentage of male and female adult and 

TABLE 2 

Percentage of parasitism and mean number of parasites per skink in 

L. laterale listed by size group 











Snout-vent 


length 


in mm 








18-25 


26-30 


31-35 


36-40 


41 


-50 


Parasite 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


C. americana 


40 


— 


43 


— 


51 


— 


56 


— 


49 


— 


M. americanum 


17 


1.4 


23 


5.5 


33 


5.8 


32 


5.7 


23 


5.7 


P. squamatae 


7 


1.0 


6 


1.7 


8 


2.5 


28 


2.2 


34 


2.4 


T. leiolopismae 





— 


9 


1.0 


20 


1.6 


22 


3.4 


47 


5.1 


P. squamatae + 


7 


1.0 


15 


1.3 


29 


1.9 


42 


3.3 


65 


5.0 


T. leiolopismae 






















No Parasites 


47 


— 


34 


— 


18 


— 


15 


— 


9 


— 


Age in Months 5 


0-3 


3 


-6 


6-10 


9-18 


14-42 


Sample size 




30 


47 




49 


132 


123 



•From Brooks (1967). 



12 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

juvenile skinks parasitized. Adults have a higher percentage of 
parasitism in all categories. Although seemingly striking, the per- 
centage differences of parasitism between adult males and females, 
even in the case of nematodes, are not significant (tapeworms: 
x 2 = 0.38, P>0.05; flukes: x 2 = 1.86, P>0.05; nematodes: x 2 = 2.38, P 
>0.05). The probability of an adult skink harboring all three types 
of worms could be expressed as 0.53X0.28X0.51 or 7.6 per cent 
(see Table 1), whereas the observed frequency is only 4.5 per cent. 
Likewise, the expected frequencies of adults harboring tapeworms 
and flukes, tapeworms and nematodes, and flukes and nematodes 
could be estimated as 14.8 per cent, 27.0 per cent, and 14.3 per cent 
respectively. There is no significant difference between the ex- 
pected and observed values ( x 2 = 2.86, P>0.05). 

Table 2 lists the percentage of parasitism for five age groups of 
Lygosoma (age can be estimated by snout-vent length, see Fig. 6 
in Brooks, 1967). The incidence of both species of nematodes and 
the mean number per skink are directly correlated with age; that of 
tapeworms and flukes are not. Both tapeworm and fluke parasitism 
decrease slightly in the oldest age group. The number of nonpara- 
sitized skinks decreases with increasing age. 

The percentages of parasitism for adult skinks from five different 
localities are given in Table 3. Each locality has a unique distribu- 
tion of parasite occurrence. The greatest difference appears be- 
tween Sites C and E, where the difference in fluke incidence is 10 X 
and in nematode incidence, 6X. 



TABLE 3 

Percentage of parasitism and mean number of parasites per skink in 

five populations of L. laterale adults 













Locality 














A 




B 




C 




D 




E 


Parasite 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


% 


Mean 


C. americana 


43 


— 


68 


— 


76 


— 


42 


— 


65 


— 


M. americanum 


41 


6.5 


18 


1.3 


66 


9.8 


16 


3.0 


6 


3.3 


T. leiolopismae 


39 


3.9 


18 


2.8 





— 


23 


2.1 


56 


5.3 


P. squamatae 


33 


1.4 


32 


1.4 


10 


1.7 


54 


2.3 


13 


1.3 


T. leiolopismae + 


51 


3.9 


50 


1.9 


10 


1.7 


63 


2.7 


58 


5.5 


P. squamatae 






















No parasites 


12 


— 


11 


— 


3 


— 


26 


— 


10 


— 


Sample size 




49 




28 




29 


43 


48 



Brooks: Parasites of a Lizard 13 

Discussion 

Harwood (1932) found several worms, a fluke, Brachycoelium 
daviesi, in 23 per cent, and two nematodes, Oswaldocruzia pipiens 
and Cosmocercoides dukae, both in less than 5 per cent of his speci- 
mens, that were not identified in Floridian skinks. My results also 
differ from his in a quantitative manner. For all species in common 
the incidence of parasitism in Floridian skinks was appreciably 
higher than in the Texan population. 

C. americana was present in 37 per cent of the Texas skinks 
(Harwood, 1932) and were abundant in skinks living on clay soils 
but absent from those living on sandy soils (Harwood, 1936). The 
high incidence of infection ( 53 per cent ) by this worm in Floridian 
skinks might be explained by habitat differences. All of the Flor- 
idian skinks were collected on a substrate of loamy fine sand or fine 
sand. Harwood ( 1936 ) offered no explanation for the correlation 
between clay soils and incidence of C. americana, and since my re- 
sults are in direct opposition, any explanation must await an under- 
standing of the life history of C. americana. If C. americana has 
a direct life cycle as suggested by Joyeux (1924), the major limit- 
ing environmental factor night well be moisture content (see be- 
low) rather than soil type per se. 

Less than 5 per cent of the Texan skinks were parasitized by M. 
americanum (Harwood, 1932) compared to 28 per cent for Flor- 
idian skinks. Since the life history of this fluke is unknown, it is 
not possible to compare intermediate host prevalence and ecology 
between the two sites. Approximately 10 per cent of 381 skinks 
from Florida contained pulmonate snails as food items (Brooks, 
1963). There are no comparable data for the Texan skinks. 

Thubuneae leiolopismae and Physaloptera squamatae were 
found in less than 20 per cent and 4 per cent respectively of Texan 
skinks (Harwood, 1932). Comparable figures for adult, Floridian 
skinks were 32 per cent and 28 per cent respectively. Again, it is 
not feasible to attempt an explanation of these differences since the 
life histories of these nematodes are not known. 

Locality site has a profound effect on the incidence of para- 
sitism (Table 3). The level of parasitism by C. americana is the 
least variable, but a range from 42-76 per cent is significant. These 
extreme differences between localities, especially in the case of the 



14 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

fluke and nematodes, emphasizes the importance of local habitat 
conditions on parasite species abundance. 

Since even the smallest skinks have a high level of tapeworm 
parasitism (Tables 1 and 2), C. americana might either have a 
direct life cycle (see Joyeux, 1924) or a small and relatively com- 
mon intermediate host( s ) . Cylindrotaenia americana produces pro- 
glottids, each containing eight embryos, which exit within fecal 
pellets. The fecal mass of Lygosoma is relatively moist compared 
with that of other lizards, and mature proglottids can be seen mov- 
ing on the deposited mass. An interesting question is whether 
another, or the same skink, would eat these proglottids. Small 
skinks feed on very small food items and motion is the stimulus 
which initiates feeding behavior. 

Literature Cited 

Brooks, G. R. 1963. Food habits of the ground skink. Quart. Jour. Florida 
Acad. Sci., vol. 26, pp. 361-367. 

. 1967. Population ecology of the ground skink, Lygosoma laterale 

(Say). Ecol. Monogr., vol. 37, pp. 71-87. 

Byrd, E. E. 1937. Observations on the trematode genus Brachycoelium 
Dujardin. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, pp. 183-199. 

Harwood, P. D. 1932. The helminths parasitic in the amphibia and rep- 
tilia of Houston, Texas, and vicinity. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 81, 
pp. 1-71. 

. 1936. The effect of soil types on the helminths parasitic in the 

ground lizard, Leiolopisma laterale (Say). Ecology, vol. 17, pp. 694- 



Joyeux, C. 1924. Recherches sur le cycle evolulif des Cylindrotaenia. Ann. 
de Parasitol., vol. 2, pp. 74-81. 

Yamaguti, S. 1959. Systema helminthum, vol. II. The cestodes of verte- 
brates. New York, Interscience Publishers.. 

Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Virginia 23185. 



Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Observations on the Arboreal Snail Orthalicus floridensis 
Alan K. Craig 

Interest in the famous tree snails of southern Florida can be 
traced back at least as far as the relatively early scientific account 
of De Pourtales (1877). Investigators of the last century were pri- 
marily concerned with the zoogeography of Liguus and the closely 
related Orthalicus because they believed them to be unusually use- 
ful in demonstrating certain aspects of Darwinian evolutionary the- 
ory and the processes involved in speciation. These colorful snails 
were also recruited as evidence to support geological theories re- 
garding genesis of the Florida Keys. Pilsbry (1905, p. 38) sug- 
gested that the occurrence of a single species of Liguus across a 
wide range of south Florida islands supported Agassiz's theory that 
the Florida Keys were merely erosional remnants broken up from 
what had once been a continuous landmass. This pioneer explana- 
tion remained popular until the concept of eustacy became well 
established. 

Simpson seems to be the first to have suggested an alternative 
explanation for the discontinuity of distribution: namely, that these 
snails are randomly dispersed throughout southernmost Florida by 
the action of hurricanes. This scattering of colonies is evident in 
the comprehensive map prepared by Pilsbry (1912) who showed 
all known populations of Liguus and Orthalicus that had been dis- 
covered by field workers prior to that date. In this monograph 
Pilsbry discussed both genera and concluded that Orthalicus was 
less extensive (but perhaps more abundant), being found from 
Cape Sable to Pavilion Key and in the "southern keys." Today the 
situation is completely reversed: colonies of Liguus have become 
virtually extinct while Orthalicus continues to flourish. 

Since both snails belong to the South American family Bulimuli- 
dae it is apparent they represent faunal elements that have been 
introduced into Florida from the south. In the case of Orthalicus 
there are species ranging from southern Brazil to northern Mexico. 
Consequently, we have three possible dispersal routes by means of 
which this snail or its evolutionary progenitors arrived in Florida. 

The least likely explanation involves a spread either naturally or 
with human assistance from northern Central America across the 



16 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

southern Gulf Coast region and ultimately into the Florida penin- 
sula. This movement could only have occurred during some inter- 
glacial interval of the Pleistocene when the climate was much 
warmer in winter than at present. It is not at all certain that such 
conditions actually existed; if they did then we must eliminate the 
intervening Gulf Coast range and treat the Florida colonies as a 
relict population. However, no fossil specimens of this genus have 
been reported from Florida, thus invalidating this dispersal route 
and the possibility that it evolved locally. Liguus is believed to be 
a very recent (Holocene), recurrent introduction from either Cuba 
or Hispaniola where related species are widespread. But, lack of 
an indigenous Orthalicus in those localities means that it is very 
unlikely to have had the same dispersal history. Species from 
Central America are taxonomically similar to O. floridensis and we 
must conclude that it was transported directly across the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Florida Keys. The question as to whether this oc- 
curred on a single or on multiple occasions (by means of hurri- 
canes ) has not been resolved. 

The present observations were made in connection with a de- 
tailed phytogeographic study of Pavilion Key, southernmost of the 
Ten Thousand Island group and part of the Everglades National 
Park. The preliminary comments in this paper relate only to the 
Pavilion Key population where a comprehensive study by special- 
ists is much needed. 

As Pilsbry (1912) shrewdly observed, these snails are basically 
nocturnal and most active during wet intervals. Prolonged dry 
weather will induce temporary estivation in Orthalicus without for- 
mation of the strong mucus seal that is produced in the fall with the 
onset of cold weather. Their internal distribution on the beach 
strand vegetation of Pavilion Key suggests these snails are also rela- 
tively halophobic. While the island maintains a vigorous popula- 
tion, few specimens can be found on vegetation located along the 
exposed foreslope of the beach strand where it is subjected to salt 
spray. No specimens were observed feeding on the leeward man- 
grove community. The greatest concentration of snails seems to 
occur on certain preferred food trees at or near the inland boundary 
of beach strand vegetation where plant density and microclimatic 
conditions approach the characteristics of a true tropical hammock. 

This avoidance of the extreme peri-littoral habitat does not nee- 



Craig: An Arboreal Snail 



17 



essarily apply to choice of estivation sites, specimens occasionally 
having been noted in cavities of storm-killed black mangrove [Avi- 
cennia germinans (L. ) Sterns] that line the western winter beach 
berm of Pavilion Key. A few snails were noted estivating in ex- 
posed positions high above ground in the branches of red man- 
groves ( Rhizophora mangle L. ) immediately adjacent to the eastern- 
most boundary of beach strand vegetation. It seems likely that 
these specimens represent snails that were either wind-blown into 
this habitat or wandered across interlocking upper branches. The 
diurnal incursion of salty water at high tide makes deliberate migra- 
tion overland unlikely. 

Since the existing literature contains few explicit references to 
feeding habits of arboreal snails in Florida it may be of interest to 
note that Orthalicus have been observed actively feeding on Flor- 
ida privet [Forestiera segregata (Jacq. ) Krug & Urban], Jamaica 
dogwood [Piscidia piscipula (L. ) Sarg.], wild papaya (Carica pa- 
paya L. ) [see Fig. 1] white stopper [Eugenia axillaris (Sw. ) 
Willd.], and strangler fig (Ficus aurea Nutt. ) in order of prefer- 
ence. These snails were also observed on African bowstring hemp 
(Sansieveria thyrsiflora Thumb.) key lily (Hymenocallis keyensis 
Small ) , red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle L. ) , buttonwood ( Con- 




Fig. 1. Orthalicus feeding on wild papaya, Pavilion Key. 



18 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

ocarpus erectus L.) and agave (Agave decipiens Baker), but evi- 
dence of feeding was not noted. 

Some tentative identifications of fungi and algae present on Ja- 
maica dogwood from Pavilion Key have been made in an effort to 
determine the probable diet of these snails. Applying standard in- 
cubation techniques, I.M. Master (research asst., Functional Biol- 
ogy Dept, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences) 
was able to identify Fusidium, Zygosporium, Gliocladium, Clado- 
sporium, Macrophoma, and Rhizopus colonies growing on the sur- 
face of the branches. From separate cultures transferred to agar 
plates Syncephalastrum, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, 
Streptomyces, Verticillium, Cephalosporium, Fusidium, and Phoma 
were identified. Most of these fungii are common general sapro- 
phytes having a widespread distribution; no predominant fungus 
was noted on the sample tested. 

Thirteen adult specimens of Orthalicus were transferred in Oc- 



8 



>/••<► 



20 40 60 80 100 

Fig. 2. Scatter diagram; Length (mm) -Age (yrs) for Orthalicus floriden- 



sts. 



Craig: An Arboreal Snail 19 

tober from Pavilion Key to a latitudinally equivalent location on the 
east coast of Florida where they were released on a variety of exotic 
ornamentals. The majority escaped within 48 hours but several that 
remained on ylang-ylang ( Cananga odorata Hook, f . & Thorns. ) for 
longer periods were observed to feed sporadically although no 
macro-epiphytic flora was apparent. Better results were obtained 
by placing the snails on banana plants (Musa sapientum) where 
they ingested the cutin layer of petioles. This diet was evidently 
not entirely acceptable as 11 specimens eventually relocated them- 
selves on two mature cultivated papaya trees whose trunk surfaces 
supported a flourishing algae mat. In slightly less than 14 days the 
snails completely removed all visible trace of algae from the host 
trees. They then began to disperse across a residential grass lawn 
(treated with herbicides and insecticides) and were all found dead 
within a few meters of the trees. 

A statistical age-growth study was made from a representative 
sample of dead shells collected at various points on Pavilion Key. 
The results are shown on the scatter diagram (Fig. 2) which indi- 
cates a mean age of 3.36 years and a corresponding length of 51.6 
mm. The largest specimen collected measured an impressive 
92 mm by 48 mm making it perhaps the largest indigenous terres- 
trial snail ever recorded from the United States and one of the 
largest arboreal snails found anywhere in the world. This excep- 
tional specimen was so faded that no variceal age estimate could 
be made. If each major dark brown variceal does in fact correspond 
to a winter estivation period, then the maximum age noted among 
the sample specimens was 7. However, any analysis based on these 
markings may be affected by intermittent markings induced from 
temporary estivation during dry spells. If the more prominent vari- 
ceals correspond to a winter estivation instead of being continuously 
deposited and resorbed, then all specimens in the sample died dur- 
ing a winter season. This suggests Orthalicus is particularly sensi- 
tive to cold. Every empty shell examined was intact without indi- 
cations of crushing or breaking by crabs or other predators ( Rhoads, 
1899, p. 45). 

The absence of Orthalicus colonies in the less accessible areas 
of the heavily urbanized Florida east coast is probably related to the 
lack of a suitable forage habitat. Their introduction into the few 
remaining stands of hammock vegetation is recommended where 



20 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

specimens of preferred food trees are present. A program of care- 
ful redistribution would disperse the population and help insure 
survival by reducing the possibility of extinction through destruc- 
tion of the few remaining colonies. 

Literature Cited 

DePourtales, L. F. 1877. Hints on the origin of the flora and fauna of the 
Florida Keys. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 11, pp. 137-144. 

Pilsbry, Henry A. 1905. Land shells of the Florida Keys. The Nautilus, 
vol. 19, 37-41. 

. 1912. A study of the variation and zoogeography of Liguus in Flor- 
ida. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 15, pp. 429-471. 

Rhoads, Samuel N. 1899. Annotated list of land and fresh-water shells re- 
cently collected in the vicinity of Miami, Florida. The Nautilus, vol. 
13, pp. 43-48. 

Department of Geography, Florida Atlantic University, Boca 
Raton, Florida 33432. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Nereid Shell Blisters in the Southern Quahog Clam 
John L. Taylor and Carl H. Saloman 

The nereid polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata Moore = Ne- 
anthes caudata (della Chiaje), is the apparent cause of shell 
blisters discovered in a population of the quahog clam, Mercenaria 
campechiensis Gmelin, sampled in Boca Ciega Bay, Florida. Thus 
far, nereid blisters have not been reported in quahogs from other 
areas of Tampa Bay or in other coastal regions of the United States. 
The worm-inhabited blisters were similar in appearance to scallop 
blisters caused by the nereid Ceratonereis tridentata (Webster), 
but different in appearance from blisters in hard clams caused by 
the spionid Polydora ciliata (Wells, 1965; Landers, 1967). Addi- 
tional reports on biogenous disfiguration of shells include those by 
Wells and Wells (1962); Wells, Wells, and Gray (1964); Davis 
(1967; Blake (1969); Evans (1969); Haigler (1969); and Jones 
(1969). 

Blister Incidence, Location, and Damage 

Shell blisters in Boca Ciega Bay quahogs were discovered in a 
sample of living clams collected near the island of Tierra Verde on 
December 9, 1968 (Fig. 1). The clams in that locality were six 
years old and had the following average shell dimensions: length, 
100.8 mm; height, 95.3 mm; width, 57.7 mm (Taylor and Saloman, 
1970). During the following 16 months, monthly samples of at 
least 100 living clams were taken. Incidence of blisters in that 
period averaged 37 per cent and ranged from 30 per cent (March 
and October, 1969) to 51 per cent (December 1969). Among 
empty shells randomly collected in the same vicinity, a 44 per cent 
incidence of blister damage was also noted. Live worms were col- 
lected only from living shells, parasitism or another benefit to the 
worm from some activity or function of the clam is indicated. 

Shell blisters in 91 per cent of the clams were found on one 
valve only, at the posterior end. Nine per cent of the quahogs had 
blisters on both valves. Up to one-half of the inner shell surface 
was raised by well-developed blisters, and in some clams the pos- 



22 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 













o 

c 

-n 

o 

-n 

m 
X 

n 
O 


if 


"\ HILLSBOROUGH^^""^ 
*\A^OlDSMAR /Z^^^ 
\W^a^ //RIVER 

/old 3 ^ n ^ 


28° 
00' 

50' 
-40' 

27° 
"30' 


/ATER J7 "^NetK IItAMPA 

r 1 tampa \ z \i^y^ 


/ ~\^iU l/ 9 | 


►O 
O 




/ ^V-N* V *■ HIUSBOROUGH<1 

P ^(^ 10^**, ) bayC 

V t 2 ^ n fkd 

N ST. PETERSBURG £ Pj 

$L y ^ TAMPA aX 
5> ly?-\\& \- / * 


— k-^ \°" \ — 7 

\ \ V^^Cs if KILOMETERS 

\_ \ ><-"!-, ^1=^0 5 10 


r \ / ! ¥- r ¥ V 'i 1 1 ' 1 ' 1 1 *? 


\ \^/ 1 2 3 < 5 > 
*. \ \^-^ / NAUTICAL MILES \ 




50' 40' 82°30W. 



Fig. 1. Sampling transects of a benthic survey in Tampa Bay, Florida. 
The star indicates the location of a bed of quahog clams ( Mercenaria cam- 
pechiensis) infested with a nereid polychaete (Neanthes arenaceodentata) 
found in shell blisters. 



terior adductor and retractor muscles were partially destroyed 
( Figs. 2 and 3 ) . Density of worms in the sediment of the infected 
clam bed was about 128 worms per m 2 , computed from the num- 
ber of animals in five substrate samples obtained with a plug 
sampler (Taylor and Saloman, 1969a). 



Taylor and Saloman: Blisters in Clam Shells 



23 




Fig. 2. Damage from a shell blister containing the nereid polychaete 
(Neanth.es arenaceodentata) in the quahog clam (Mercenaria campechiensis) 
collected in Boca Bay, Florida. 



Ecology of the Worm 

Neanthes arenaceodentata has been reported from shallow water 
in temperate to tropical seas around the world. It inhabits floating 
masses of algae, crevices, and interstices among rocks, shells, foul- 
ing organisms, and sediments of sand or mud. Its diet consists 
mainly of algae, but may include small animals (Pettibone, 1963; 
Hartman, 1968). To our knowledge, N. arenaceodentata has never 
been reported in shell blisters. 

Results of a benthic survey (Taylor, 1966) in which N. arena- 
ceodentata was collected at 72 stations in Boca Ciega Bay and por- 
tions of Tampa Bay, substantiate previous observations on the 



24 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 




Fig. 3. Tissue damage to the posterior adductor and retractor muscles 
( tip of arrow ) of a quahog clam ( Mercenaria campechiensis ) from Boca Ciega 
Bay, Florida, at the margin of a shell blister containing the nereid polychaete 
( Neanthes arenaceodentata ) . 

worm's habitat. At more than one-half of the stations inhabited by 
the worm, the bottom was covered with sea grasses and attached 
algae. Average sediment particle size was 2.6 phi (fine sand), and 
the average shell (calcium carbonate) composition by weight was 
10.3 per cent ( Taylor and Saloman, 1969b ) . 

N. arenaceodentata was caught mainly in relatively high salin- 
ity water in Tampa Bay. About 91 per cent of its occurrences were 
seaward of transect 13 (Fig. 1), where average annual salinity ex- 
ceeds 25 ppt. All collections containing more than 100 worms per 
sample from a 14.2 liter bucket dredge (Taylor, 1965) came from 
the shallow vegetated bottom of Boca Ciega Bay where salinity 
normally exceeds 30 ppt ( Taylor and Saloman, 1969b ) . 

In northern waters, the upper size limit of N. arenaceodentata 
is about 70 mm long by 4 mm wide ( Pettibone, 1963 ) . The largest 
specimen collected in our survey was 30 by 4 mm, and the largest 
found inside a shell blister was 20 by 1 mm. Worms longer than 
15 mm were sexually mature, and gravid individuals were collected 
in February, April, May, September, and November. Water tern- 



Taylor and Saloman: Blisters in Clam Shells 25 

peratures during those months range between 9-31 C, and it seems 
likely that the worm breeds in every month of the year. Year- 
round breeding in subtropical waters has been found in a number 
of other polychaete species in Biscayne Bay, Florida ( McNulty and 
Lopez, 1969). 

No epitokous state has been reported for N. arenaceodentata, 
and females produce from 143-791 young. The embryos are in- 
cubated by the male for about 21 days, and during that time there 
is a strong male-male and male-female fighting reaction. Embryos 
are unciliated and do not pass through a pelagic stage. The young 
reach sexual maturity in about two months, and males may repro- 
duce more than once. Females are either eaten by the males or 
die after spawning (Reish, 1957). 

Shell Blisters and Quahog Fisheries 

The shell blisters containing N. arenaceodentata consisted of a 
raised conchiolin membrane, which is produced by the clam and 
separates the worm from the mantle cavity. In the blister cavity, 
the worm accumulates fecal material and detritus, which gives the 
blister a dark and unattractive appearance. Such a conspicuous 
abnormality makes infested individuals unacceptable for commerce 
in half-shell and steamer clams. Furthermore, blister formation 
probably impairs the vitality of the host, and in well-developed 
blisters, damage to soft tissues may cause clam mortality. Conse- 
quently, recreational and commercial quahog fishermen should re- 
gard N. arenaceodentata as a possible threat to hard clam fisheries 
and report clams containing blisters to local or Federal conservation 
agencies. 



ilTERATURE 



Cited 



Blake, J. A. 1969. Systematics and ecology of shell-boring polychaetes from 

New England. Amer. Zool., vol. 9, no. 3, ed. 2, pp. 813-820. 
Davis, J. D. 1967. Polydora infestation of Artie wedge clams: a pattern of 

selective attack. Proc. Nat. Shellfish Assn., vol. 57, pp. 67-72. 
. 1969. Polydora infestation of Mercenaria mercenaria. Nautilus, vol. 

83, no. 2, p. 74. 
Evans, J. W. 1969. Borers in the shell of the sea scallop, Placopecten magel- 

lanicus. Amer. Zool., vol. 9, no. 3, ed. 2, pp. 775-782. 
Haigler, S. A. 1969. Boring mechanism of Polydora wehsteri inhabiting 

Crassostrea virginica. Amer. Zool., vol. 9, no. 3, ed. 2, pp. 821-828. 



26 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Hartman, O. 1968. Atlas of the errantiate polychaetous annelids from Cali- 
fornia. Allan Hancock Found., Univ. of Southern California, Los An- 
geles, 828 pp. 

Jones, M. L. 1969. Boring of shell by Caobangia in freshwater snails of 
southeast Asia. Amer. Zool., vol. 9, no. 3, ed. 2, pp. 829, 835. 

Landers, W. S. 1967. Infestation of the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, 
by the boring polychaete worm, Polydora ciliata. Proc. Nat. Shellfish 
Assn., vol. 57, pp. 63-66. 

McNulty, J. K., and N. N. Lopez. 1969. Year-round production of ripe 
gametes by benthic polychaetes in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Bull. Mar. 
Sci., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 945-954. 

Pettirone, M. H. 1963. Marine polychaete worms of the New England 
region. 1. Aphroditidae through Trochochaetidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
227, pt. 1, v. + 356 pp. 

Reish, D. J. 1957. The life history of the polychaetous annelid Neanthes 
caudata (della Chiaje), including a summary of development in the 
family Nereidae. Pac. Sci., vol. 11, pp. 216-228. 

Taylor, J. L. 1965. Bottom samplers for estuarine research. Chesapeake 
Sci., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 233-234. 

. 1966. Benthic project. In J. E. Sykes, editor, Report of the Bureau 

of Commercial Fisheries Biological Station, St. Petersburg Beach, Flor- 
ida, Fiscal Years 1962-1964. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Circ. no. 239. 
pp. 5-8. 

Taylor, J. L., and C. H. Salomon. 1969a. Benthic project. In J. E. Sykes, 
editor, Report of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Labor- 
atory, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, Fiscal Year 1968. U. S. Fish 
Wildl. Serv., Circ. no. 313, pp. 3-10. 

. 1969b. Sediments, oceanographic observations, and floristic data 

from Tampa Bay, Florida, and adjacent waters, 1961-65. U. S. Fish 
Wildl. Serv., Data Report no. 34, 561 pp. on 9 microfiche. 

. 1970. Benthic project. In J. E. Sykes, editor, Report of the Bureau 

of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, 
Florida, Fiscal Year 1969. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Circ. no. 342, pp. 
3-10. 

Wells, H. W. 1965. Nereid blisters in Florida scallops. Quart. Jour. Florida 
Acad. Sci., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 123-128. 

Wells, H. W., and M. J. Wells. 1962. The polychaete Ceratonereis trident- 
ata as a pest of the scallop Aequipecten gibbus. Biol. Bull., vol. 122, 
no. 1, pp. 149-159. 

Wells, H. W., M. J. Wells, and I. E. Gray. 1964. The calico scallop com- 
munity in North Carolina. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribbean, vol. 14, no. 
4, pp. 561-593. 

National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Laboratory, 75 - 
33rd Avenue, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida 33706. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972. 



Occurrence of a Rare Skate in the Western North Atlantic 
Robbin R. Blackman 

Captures of Dactylobatus armatus Bean and Weed (1909), a 
bizarre skate and only known member of its genus, have previously 
been limited to five specimens. The original account was based on 
two syntypes, an immature male, 278 mm total length (TL), 
USNM 62914, Albatross Sta. 2624, 32°36' N, 77°29' W, 472 meters; 
and a female, 264 mm TL, USNM 62915, Albatross Sta. 2666, 
30°47'30" N, 79°49' W, 494 meters. Bigelow and Schroeder 
(1953) gave a detailed description of Bean and Weed's immature 
male. The next reported captures (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1965) 
were two females, one 316 mm TL, MCZ 42474, Silver Bay Sta. 
3095, 28° 23' N, 79° 49' W, 338-348 meters; and the other, 250 mm 
TL, MCZ 43073, Silver Bay Sta. 3726, 29°42' N, 80° 10' W, 338-348 
meters. Recently, they (1968) reported another male, 263 mm TL, 
MCZ 45883, Oregon Sta. 5753, 29°29' N, 79°53' W, 667-695 meters. 

This report adds six additional specimens collected from 1960- 
1965 by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service exploratory fishing ves- 
sels Silver Bay and Oregon I. Available data are one female, 300 
mm TL, Silver Bay Sta. 2074, 29°43' N, 80°07'30" W, 366-369 
meters; two specimens, sex unknown, one 290 mm, the others 
length unknown, Silver Bay Sta. 3095, 28°23' N, 79°49' W, 338-347 
meters; one female, 662 mm TL, USNM 202499, Silver Bay Sta. 
5483, 27°40'30°' N, 79°48' W, 371-366 meters; one specimen, sex 
and length unknown, Oregon Sta. 5232, 29°59 / 30°' N, 80°08' W, 
384-402 meters; and one specimen, sex and length unknown, Ore- 
gon Sta. 5265, 29° 13' N, 79° 56' W, 549 meters, now UF 12951, 9 , 
184.2 TL, 300 fms. 

Of the eleven specimens known, nine were captured between 
Vero Beach and St. Augustine, Florida in 338-695 meters, one off 
Georgia in 494 meters, and one off Charleston, South Carolina in 
472 meters. The six specimens reported here do not extend the 
known range of the species. 

The largest female (662 mm) is twice as long as the largest 
specimen previously reported (316 mm). Measurements compar- 
able to those made by Bean and Weed (1909) and Bigelow and 
Schroeder (1953) revealed no significant differences in body pro- 



28 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

portions or other morphological characteristics. The reproductive 
system of this large female resembled that of nearly mature de- 
velopmental stages of Raja erinacea described by Richards, Merri- 
man and Calhoun (1963). The uterus, oviduct, and shell glands 
were well developed, and the ovaries contained small pale globules. 
The apparent near maturity of this 662 mm specimen indicates 
that Dactylobatus armatus is one of the moderately large skates. 

Literature Cited 

Bean, B. A., and A. C. Weed. 1909. Description of a new skate (Dactylo- 
batus armatus) from deep water off the southern Atlantic coast of the 
United States. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 36, pp. 459-461. 

Bigelow, H. B., and W. C. Schroeder. 1953. Fishes of the western North 
Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found, for Marine Bes., no. 1 part 2, pp. 323-327. 

. 1965. A further account of batoid fishes from the western Atlantic. 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 465-467. 

. 1965. New records of two geographically restricted species of 

western Atlantic skates: Breviraja yucatanensis and Dactylobatus ar- 
matus. Copeia, 1968, no. 3, pp. 630-631. 

Bichards, S. W., D. Merriman, and L. H. Calhoun. 1963. Studies on the 
marine resources of southern New England IX. The biology of the 
little skate, Raja erinacea Mitchill., Bull. Bingham Oceanographic Col- 
lection, vol. 18, Article 3, pp. 15-18. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
St. Simons Island, Georgia 31522. Present address: U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District, P. O. Box 4970, Jackson- 
ville, Florida 32201. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



First Gulf of Mexico record of Ranzania laevis 
Robert W. Topp and David L. Gdrardin 

A large specimen of the molid fish, Ranzania laevis (Pennant), 
was caught in February 1967 by Mr. Ray Thornton, a commercial 
fisherman, who hand-captured it in the surf two miles north of 
Little Marco Pass, Florida (26°02'N; 81°46'W). The specimen, 
in excellent condition, has been accessioned into the Florida Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources collections ( FSBC 4681 ) . Data for the 
specimen are as follows: total length 671 mm; length from snout to 
upper posterior point of body, excluding clavus 611 mm, including 
clavus 648 mm; greatest body depth 334 mm; predorsal length 548 
mm; length of dorsal base 86 mm; preanal length 572 mm; length of 
anal base 73 mm; length of pectoral fin 118 mm; head length 232 
mm; snout length 86 mm; postorbital length of head 115 mm; length 
of orbit 32 mm; basal elements in clavus 19; branched rays of clavus 
19; dorsal rays 19; anal rays 19; pectoral rays 13; vertebrae 18; 
weight at capture 10 kg. 

Since R. laevis apparently does not exceed a length of 800 mm 
( Fraser-Brunner, 1951, p. 98), we judge our specimen to be an 
adult. Gonads, however, were macroscopically indistinguishable. 

Robins (1966) reviewed western Atlantic records of R. laevis, 
and described a specimen, presumably a juvenile, obtained from 
off Palm Beach, Florida, representing the first record from Atlantic 
waters of the United States. Of the four molid species known from 
Florida, three have now been reported from the Gulf of Mexico. 
Dawson (1965) summarized published records of Mola mola (Lin- 
naeus) and Masturus lanceolatus (Lienard) from the Gulf, and 
added new records of each. The example herein described, rep- 
resenting the third species, constitutes the first record from the 
Gulf of Mexico and the first adult from waters adjacent to the east- 
ern United States. 

We thank Mr. Leon Kenney, President of Pinellas Seafood, St. 
Petersburg, for donating the specimen, and Mrs. Rita M. Moore of 
the Suncoast Medical Clinic, St. Petersburg, for providing radio- 
graphs. 



30 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Literature Cited 

Dawson, C. E. 1965. Records of two headfishes (family Molidae) from the 
north-central Gulf of Mexico. Proc. Louisiana Acad. Sci., vol. 28, pp. 
86-89, 2 figs. 

Fraser-Brunner, A. 1951. The ocean sunfishes (family Molidae). Bull. 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Zool., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 89-121, 18 figs. 

Robins, C. Richard. 1966. The molid fish Ranzania laevis in the western 
Atlantic. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 287-289. 

Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Lab- 
oratory, St. Petersburg, Florida 33731. Contribution No. 145. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Five-Year Creel Survey of Two Florida Lakes 
Forrest J. Ware, Wesley V. Fish, and Louie Prevatt 

Lakes Griffin and Harris, with surface acreages of 9,100 and 
16,500 respectively, were the study areas selected for this project. 
Located in central Florida near the city of Leesburg, these natural 
lakes provide a popular recreation area for this section of the State. 
Historically, Griffin and Harris enjoyed excellent reputations for 
their sport fisheries, but in recent years considerable local criti- 
cism has developed concerning fisheries quality, especially in Lake 
Griffin. Both lakes are showing signs of environmental degradation 
from cultural eutrophication and can be considered eutrophic. Pres- 
ent conditions are characterized by turbid waters supporting dense 
blue-green algal populations, extensive bottom muds, and large 
carrying capacities for fishes. Of the two lakes, Griffin is considered 
more advanced in its eutrophic state. 

During 1966 a creel survey of the present design was imple- 
mented to document existing fisheries and monitor changes or 
trends through time. The survey provided for seasonal and annual 
estimates of fishing pressure, catch composition, and fishing success. 
Results have been compiled and analyzed for the past five years. 
The purpose of this paper is to present these findings, documenting 
the fisheries quality of two Florida lakes and discuss aspects of the 
creel design. 

Creel Method 

The Griffin and Harris creel program evolved from a random- 
ized systematic creel census that was employed by our agency 
during the early Sixties. By 1964, certain limitations were realized 
and a more efficient program sought. Dr. Don W. Hayne, Institute 
of Statistics, North Carolina State University, was contacted for 
consultation, and, working with Mr. James P. Clugston of the Com- 
mission, he designed the stratified creel survey with non-uniform 
probability sampling currently in use. The design was computerized 
by the Cooperative Statistical Unit and now serves as a model for 
creel surveys in other Southeastern States. 

Stratification of the roving creel survey involves the designation 



32 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

of areas within lakes, periods of time, and kinds of days (weekday 
or weekend day). Within each time stratum samples are selected 
randomly and with non-uniform probabilities, which are propor- 
tional to the predicted daily patterns of fishing activity ( determined 
by prior study). Both stratification and unequal probabilities are 
imposed to reduce the variance of estimates below those which 
would occur if simple random sampling were used. In a practical 
sense the area stratification facilitates implementation of the survey 
over large areas of the lake and allows for separate area estimates. 
Sampling in time, with non-uniform probability based on fishing ac- 
tivity, ensures that most of the creel clerk's effort will coincide with 
most of the fishing activity. The basic value of the non-uniform 
probability sampling scheme is discussed by Pfeiffer ( 1966 ) . 

Creel sampling schedule was set up on a basis of two-week peri- 
ods the year around. Within each period five days were scheduled 
for sampling each lake by random selection and included at least 
one weekend day. This allowed for 10 work-days and four off-days 
per sample period. Each sample day was also divided into two 
periods; 7:00 am-1:00 pm and 1:00 pm-7:00 pm in order to include 
the entire day. The non-uniform probabilities were then assigned 
to each sample period within a day and according to the type of 
day (weekend or weekday). Because of their large size, Lakes 
Griffin and Harris were separated into six approximately equal areas 
( Figs. 6 and 7 ) . This facilitated the collection of data by requiring 
the clerk to spend one hour in each area and provided for separate 
area estimates ( not presented here ) . 

Creel data were transferred to I.B.M. cards and shipped to 
North Carolina State University, where estimates were calculated 
on the I.B.M. 360 System Computer, Model 75. Dr. Robert E. 
Mason, Assistant Statistician, North Carolina State University, was 
responsible for computer processing. He also served as primary 
consultant concerning the mechanics of the design. 

One characteristic of our creel survey, often not found in others, 
is the measurement of fishing success by species effort. It is be- 
lieved that such information provides a more accurate estimate of 
the fishery quality for a species. In practice, only those fishermen 
determined (by interview) to be fishing for a particular fish were 
used in the estimate calculation of success for that species. This 
accomplishes a measurement of the catch rate of bass, for example, 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 



33 



TABLE 1 
Estimate precision for lakes Griffin and Harris creel survey 









Approximate 


Per Cent 


Year and Lake Criteria 


Estimate 


SD 


sd of the Mean 


1966-1967 










Lake Griffin 


Total Pressure 


255,090 


26,529 


10.4 


Lake Griffin 


Total Catch 


238,620 


65,620 


27.5 


Lake Harris 


Total Pressure 


230,838 


24,469 


10.6 


Lake Harris 


Total Catch 


202,710 


48,042 


23.7 


1967-1968 




Lake Griffin 


Total Pressure 


240,246 


32,546 


13.5 


Lake Griffin 


Total Catch 


219,018 


40,028 


18.3 


Lake Harris 


Total Pressure 


175,944 


16,715 


9.5 


Lake Harris 


Total Catch 


125,994 


30,994 


24.6 


1968-1969 




Lake Griffin 


Total Pressure 


327,066 


50,041 


15.3 


Lake Griffin 


Total Catch 


300,942 


61,091 


20.3 


Lake Harris 


Total Pressure 


180,444 


23,870 


13.2 


Lake Harris 


Total Catch 


166,248 


48,361 


29.1 


1969-1970 




Lake Griffin 


Total Pressure 


265,890 


54,175 


20.4 


Lake Griffin 


Total Catch 


270,744 


88,330 


32.6 


Lake Harris 


Total Pressure 


199,238 


24,646 


12.4 


Lake Harris 


Total Catch 


180,600 


38,480 


21.3 


1970-1971 




Lake Griffin 


Total Pressure 


230,498 


27,579 


12.0 


Lake Griffin 


Total Catch 


222,892 


75,494 


33.9 


Lake Harris 


Total Pressure 


244,720 


25,293 


10.3 


Lake Harris 


Total Catch 


330,574 


88,255 


26.7 



by bass fishermen and excludes other incidental catches of bass. 
However, there are periods when estimates cannot be made by the 
computer program in this manner. This occurs when there are no 
records of fishing for a particular species or when catches are inci- 
dental to fishing for other fishes. Mr. D. E. Holcomb of the Com- 
mission implemented this modification in creel design during the 
1967 creel year. 

Computer output for our program provides estimates of fishing 
pressure, both total and species-directed pressure in man-hours, 
total numerical catch by species, and fishing success (number of 



34 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



fish per man-hour of effort ) . Two important limitations of the data 
are recognized; there is no estimation for weight of fish harvested 
or of man-day use. Both of these criteria could be answered by ad- 
ditional sampling, but this was not done in this study. 

Another useful element of the computer output is the value of 
"approximate standard deviation" (usually called standard error) 
that is provided for each summary estimate. This gives an approxi- 
mate plus or minus value as an estimate of precision. It should be 
understood however, that an exact confidence interval cannot be 
computed for these figures because the underlying distribution of 
the estimates is not normally distributed (Dr. Don W. Hayne, per- 
sonal communication). Examples of the precision of estimates ob- 
tained in this study are provided in Table 1. 

Findings 

The principal fishes sought-after by sport fishermen at lakes 
Griffin and Harris were largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) , 




fj = PRESSURE 



Fig. 1. Estimated fishing pressure, catch, and fishing success for lakes 
Griffin and Harris, 1966-1971. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 35 

black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) , bluegill (Lepomis macro- 
chirus), and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) . For the pur- 
pose of collecting creel data bluegill and redear were recorded in 
aggregate and categorized as "bream". Catfish species were also 
reported as a composite since they constituted a relatively minor 
portion of the fisheries. Species of Ictaluridae included channel 
catfish, (Ictalurus punctatus), white catfish (I. catus), brown bull- 
head ( 7. nebulosus ) , and yellow bullhead ( I. natalis ) . 

Fishing Pressure and Catch. Annual estimates of fishing pres- 
sure, catch, and success for the five year period ( 1966-71 ) on Lakes 
Griffin and Harris are shown in Fig. 1. In general, the data show a 
positive correlation between fishing pressure and catch, as pressure 
was increased the catch also increased. 

Fishing pressure was higher on Lake Griffin for all years except 
1970-71. Range in annual pressure was from an estimated low of 
230,498 man-hours in 1970-71 to a high of 327,066 man-hours during 
1968-69 (Fig. 1). Calculations of fishing pressure on a per acre 
basis varied from 25.3 man-hours per year to 34.9 man-hours per 
year. 

Annual catch from Griffin was correspondingly higher for all 
years but 1970-71. Catch varied from an estimated low of 219,018 
fishes in 1967-68 to a high of 300,942 fishes in 1968-69 (Fig. 1). 
Annual harvest per acre ranged from 24.5 to 33.2 fishes. 

Fishing pressure and catch for Lake Harris, the larger lake, 
ranged from an estimated low in 1967-68 of 175,944 man-hours of 
fishing and a catch of 125,994 fishes, to a high in 1970-71 of 244,720 
man-hours fishing and a catch of 330,574 fishes; the highest yield 
for either lake during the study period ( Fig. 1 ) . Calculated on a 
per acre basis, exploitation of the fishery resource by sport fishing 
was relatively minor in Harris, ranging from 7.6-20 fishes per year. 
Fishing pressure per acre varied from 10.7-14.8 man-hours per year. 

Lake Griffin Catch Composition and Fishing Pressure by Spe- 
cies. The data in Fig. 2 illustrate fishing pressure directed at each 
species and estimated composition of the catch over the five year 
period. These data show that the sport fishery of Lake Griffin was 
sustained largely by panfishes. 

Black crappie was the most sought-after species by sport fisher- 
men, sustaining 42.7 per cent of the estimated total pressure over a 
four year period (species fishing pressure was not determined dur- 



NUMBERS OF FISH AND MAN-HOURS (THOUSANDS) 




Fig. 2. Estimated fishing pressure by species and catch composition of 
Lake Griffin, 1966-1971. 'Pressure by species not available. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 37 

ing the first creel year 1966-67). Annual estimates of pressure for 
crappie varied from 98,778-130,374 man-hours (Fig. 2). Similarly, 
crappie accounted for over one-half the estimated total catch (51.2 
per cent) for the creel period. The highest annual yield of this 
species was 173,112 fishes during 1970-71 (19 fish/acre), and crap- 
pie composed 63.9 per cent of the total catch for that year. Ac- 
cording to our creel clerk the estimated average size black crappie 
taken from Griffin is 12 ounces. 

Bluegill and redear, categorized as "bream", ranked second in 
fishermen's choice at Lake Griffin, based on man-hours of effort ex- 
pended by fishermen. The four year summary indicated 32.4 per 
cent of the total pressure was for these species. Annual fishing 
pressure estimates for "bream" ranged from 72,192-110,742 man- 
hours, while annual catches varied from 88,644-137,358 fishes (Fig. 
2). "Bream" comprised 41 per cent of the total catch for the five 
year period. Average weight of these species in Griffin is reported 
at 8 ounces. 

Almost one-fourth of the total fishing pressure ( 23 per cent ) was 
directed toward largemouth bass. Yet, this species provided only 
6.4 per cent of the total catch during the period of study. Avail- 
able evidence suggests the fishery is declining. In the first three 
creel years, the catch of largemouth bass varied between an esti- 
mated 19,434-23,772 fish and composed between 7.9 per cent and 
9.4 per cent of the total catch, whereas in the last two years, the 
catch dropped to 7,374 fish and 9,371 fish, a composition of 2.7 per 
cent and 4.2 per cent of the total catch respectively (Fig. 2). Fish- 
ing pressure for bass also declined from a high of 82,380 man-hours 
in 1968-69 to a low of 47,684 man-hours in 1970-71. However, the 
pressure drop was not proportional to the decrease in catch (Fig. 
2 ) . Observations indicated the average creel-size bass was approx- 
imately 2 pounds. 

Catfish comprised a minor portion of the Griffin sport fishery. 
Total fishing pressure for these species amounts to less than one per 
cent for any creel year. Highest annual catch was estimated at 
5,994 fish, a composition of 2.5 per cent ( Fig. 2 ) . 

Lake Harris Catch Composition and Fishing Pressure by Spe- 
cies. Fig. 3 shows the estimated fishing pressure for each species 
and catch composition for Lake Harris during the five year study. 
Several differences appear when comparing the Harris fishery with 



NUMBERS OF FISH AND MAN-HOURS (THOUSANDS 




Fig. 3. Estimated fishing pressure by species and catch composition of 
Lake Harris, 1966-1971. 'Pressure by species not available. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 39 

Lake Griffin. Probably most significant is the better distribution of 
the catch or "balance in fisheries quality" for Lake Harris. 

Largemouth bass was the number one species fished for by sport 
fishermen at Lake Harris. Of the total fishing pressure that was 
estimable at the species level (4 years), 38.9 per cent was directed 
at largemouth bass. Annual fishing pressure for bass was relatively 
stable, fluctuating between 72,414-83,058 man-hours (Fig. 3). Only 
during one creel year, 1970-71, did other species ("bream") out- 
rank bass in fishing pressure. Estimated annual catches of bass 
varied between 27,246-39,084 fish (Fig. 3). Annual yields fluctu- 
ated between 1.6-2.3 bass per surface acre. Bass composition of 
the catch for the five year creel was 16.4 per cent. Their highest 
catch composition was 23.5 per cent during 1967-68. The reported 
average creel-size largemouth bass from Harris was 1 pound 8 
ounces. 

Bluegill and redear ranked second in fishing pressure by a nar- 
row margin over black crappie. The "bream" fishery comprised 28.7 
per cent of the estimated total fishing pressure. Annual fishing 
pressure for these species varied between 38,850-88,387 man-hours 
(Fig. 3). During 1970-71 they were the most popular species 
sought by fishermen. "Bream" dominated the catch of the Harris 
fishery, comprising 51.9 per cent of the total harvest for the five year 
period. Annual estimated catches of "bream" ranged from 56,322- 
201,943 fishes (Fig. 3). Highest annual yield per acre was 12.2 fish 
in 1970-71. Average size of these species taken in the Harris creel 
was estimated at 6 ounces. 

Black crappie attracted 27.9 per cent of the total pressure and 
provided 28.8 per cent of the estimated catch in Harris during the 
study. Annual estimates of pressure varied between 40,422-71,996 
man-hours, while annual catches ranged from 34,734-83,628 fish 
(Fig. 3). Maximum estimated annual yield was 5 crappie per 
acre. The average creel-size black crappie for Harris was reported 
at 8 ounces. 

Catfish in Lake Harris, as in Griffin, were a relatively minor 
component of the fishery. The highest annual catch was 10,563 
fishes, a composition of 3.2 per cent, and pressure attracted by these 
species amounted to less than one per cent for any given year 
(Fig. 3). 

Seasonal Distribution of Catches. Seasonal trends in the fish- 



NUMBER OF FISH ( THOUSANDS ) 



T$-|-° 



30 






I Dl 



Fig. 4. Estimated seasonal distribution of catch for lakes Griffin and Harris, 
1966-1971. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 41 

eries for certain species were strongly evident and followed similar 
patterns in both lakes. Depending on species, a high proportion of 
the catch was generally made during one or two seasons of the 
year. Fig. 4 shows seasonal harvest by species for lakes Griffin 
and Harris over the five year creel period. Trends depicted for 
these lakes are generally representative for most waters in South 
Florida (authors observations). 

Distribution of seasonal catch was most restricted with black 
crappie. The principal harvest occurred during winter in both 
lakes (Fig. 4). Substantial catches were also evident during early 
spring, but dropped rapidly after mid-April. The harvest of crappie 
was relatively insignificant during summer and fall seasons. 

Bluegill and redear were also seasonal in the fisheries they pro- 
vided. Highest yields were taken during spring, although summer 
provided a significant portion of the harvest (Fig. 4). Relatively 
few "bream" were caught during winter. 

Largemouth bass showed very minor seasonal differences in 
catch ( Fig. 4 ) . In Lake Griffin, bass were caught in greatest num- 
bers during winter, in the next greatest numbers during spring. 
Lowest bass yield was during summer. The largest proportion of 
the Lake Harris bass catch was during spring and summer, but 
seasonal differences were small for any given period in this lake 
(Fig. 4). 

Fishing Success. In this study success is determined by the 
catch rate of numbers of fish for the man-hours of fishing effort. The 
data are presented in two forms for Lakes Griffin and Harris, gen- 
eral fishing success determined by total fish caught divided by total 
fishing pressure for a given unit of time (Fig. 1), and fishing suc- 
cess for each species as determined from data obtained from fisher- 
men fishing for a particular species ( most fishermen fished for a cer- 
tain species in this study). Fig. 5 presents fishing success by spe- 
cies for Lakes Griffin and Harris from 1967-1971. Calculations of 
species success could not be made for creel year 1966-67 because of 
limitations previously mentioned in creel design. 

Overall fishing success for Lake Griffin was relatively stable for 
the study period. Annual success estimates ranged from 0.91-1.01 
fish per man-hour ( Fig. 1 ) . The stability exhibited by the Griffin 
fishery has been largely related to the consistently good fishing af- 
forded by panfishes ( Fig. 5 ) . 



LARGEMOUTH BASS 
BLACK CRAPPIE 





LAKE HARRIS = BLUE 


.75 - 




.50 - 


^#- .^ 
















. J*"' 


25 - 


+ 




^--. 

--•--" 


00 - 


• 




s 




s 




• 




• 


75 - 


s 

* 


50 - 




25 - 





,50 



LAKE GRIFFIN 



1967-1968 1968-1969 1969-1970 1970-1971 

Fig. 5. Fishing success by species effort for lakes Griffin and Harris, 1967- 
1971. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 43 

Fishing success for largemouth bass at Griffin has shown a grad- 
ual but steady decline. Our earliest estimate in 1967-68 found an 
average catch rate of 0.26 bass per man-hour. By 1970-71 success 
had dropped to an average of 0.14 bass per man-hour (Fig. 5). The 
decline in bass fishing success is believed to be related to the lake's 
accelerated eutrophication or rate of degradation. Considerable 
evidence has been collected in Florida showing largemouth bass to 
be one of the first species to disappear from a fishery as lakes enter 
into advanced stages of eutrophication ( Fla. Game and Fish Memo 
Reports, unpublished). 

Black crappie have exhibited a relatively stable catch rate in 
Lake Griffin. Extremes in the estimates of average success have 
ranged from a low of 0.93 crappie per man-hour in 1968-69 to a high 
average of 1.22 crappie per man-hour for 1969-70 (Fig. 5). The 
stabilized nature of the crappie fishery was somewhat unexpected 
since the species is reputed to be cyclic in its fishery quality. 

Lake Griffin bluegill and redear showed the greatest fluctuation 
in fishing success. The lowest catch rate recorded was in 1967-68, 
average success of 0.91 "bream" per man-hour, whereas best fishing 
occurred the following year, an average catch rate of 1.43 "bream" 
per man-hour (Fig. 5). One interesting aspect of these data is the 
apparent lack of deterioration in fisheries quality for panfish at a 
time when lake habitat conditions are known to be degrading (Wil- 
bur, 1969). 

Sport fishing quality in Lake Harris showed considerable shift- 
ing during the period of study, possibly reflecting better ecosystem 
dynamics than Griffin. Studies have indicated better habitat con- 
ditions and fish population structures associated with Harris (Fla. 
Game and Fish Memo Reports, unpublished). General fishing suc- 
cess on an annual basis varied between a low of 0.72 fish per man- 
hour and a high of 1.35 fish per man-hour. During the last three 
years the catch rate has been maintained at 0.90 fish per man-hour 
or above ( Fig. 1 ) . 

Good fishing for largemouth bass, the most sought-after species 
on Harris, was indicated during the period of record. Success fluc- 
tuated very little, ranging between 0.34 bass per man-hour and 0.40 
bass per man-hour annually (Fig. 5). Although not as high as re- 
ported from some Florida waters ( R. L. Wilbur, personal communi- 
cation ) , the Harris average catch rate of one bass for less than three 



44 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



LAKE GRIFFIN - LAKE COUNTY 
9, 100 ACRES 



OKLAWAHA RIVER 



I 




Fig. 6. Creel areas for Lake Griffin. 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 45 

hours effort compares favorably with national estimates reported 
by Lagler (1956). 

Black crappie maintained a catch rate above one fish per man- 
hour during three of the four years of record on Harris. During 
1967-68 the estimated fishing success was a low 0.70 crappie per 
man-hour, whereas in the years following fishing success ranged be- 
tween 1.03-1.17 crappie per man-hour (Fig. 5). 

The Lake Harris "bream" fishery provided the highest fishing 
success of the creel survey. Annual average catch rates were esti- 
mated between 1.24-1.55 "bream" per man-hour (Fig. 5). 

Discussion and Summary 

Although lakes Griffin and Harris are located within the same 
watershed and adjacent to the same populous area, the creel survey 
has shown their fisheries to be of distinctly separate qualities. Sport 
fishing on Lake Griffin has been largely supported by panfishes; 
black crappie during the winter months, and bluegill and redear in 
the late spring and summer. The fishery for largemouth bass has 
declined steadily since the study began. Bass fishing is now con- 
sidered to be relatively poor. Fishing pressure and yields per acre 
were higher on Lake Griffin. 

Conversely, the Lake Harris fishery has shown a better catch 
distribution among available game fishes. Largemouth bass were 
chiefly responsible for the difference, providing a substantial portion 
of the annual yield for each creel year. Bass also attracted a major 
segment of the fishing pressure, which was probably related to the 
relatively good catch rate. The fishery for panfish showed a trend 
of general improvement during the study period. Bluegill and red- 
ear comprised the greatest portion of the catch, although black crap- 
pie yields were of significant importance, especially during winter 
months. 

Fishing success of Lakes Griffin and Harris compared favorably 
with other waters in the southeast. Davis and Hughes ( 1963 ) pre- 
sented a summary of fishing success for 10 southern reservoirs show- 
ing catch rates varying from 0.50-1.96 fish per man-hour. Half of 
these reservoirs maintained a success rate below 0.90 fish per man- 
hour, which was the approximate mode for Griffin and Harris. A 
recent study conducted on Beaver Reservoir, a relatively new im- 



46 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 




I 



\ (LITTLE HARRIS) 



Fig. 7. Creel areas for Lake Harris. 



poundment in Arkansas, found an average catch rate of 0.62 fish 
per man-hour (David Morais, personal communication). Jarman 
et al. ( 1967), reporting on 12 state owned lakes in Oklahoma, found 
catch rates ranging from 0.1-0.6 fish per man-hour. Reported fish- 
ing success from a popular western reservoir, Lake Meade, was 
shown to range from 0.30-0.81 fish per man-hour during a 10 year 
period (Espinosa and Deacon, 1971). 

Intensity of fishing pressure and yields from our Florida lakes 
were generally lower, when compared to other southeastern lakes. 
Byrd and Crance (1965) found average annual yields of 573 fishes 
weighing 173 pounds per acre from 20 state owned lakes in Ala- 
bama. They did not provide fishing pressure data in man-hours, 
but as fisherman-trips, which averaged 135 per acre annually. Fish- 
ing pressure on Oklahoma's state owned lakes varied between 138- 
622 man-hours per acre, whereas yields ranged from 68-242 fishes 
per acre (Jarman et al., 1967). In a study of Bull Shoals Reservoir, 
Burress ( 1962) reported fishing pressure as high as 113.9 man-hours 



Ware et al.: Five-Year Creel Survey 47 

per acre and yields varying between 44-76 fish per acre. The high- 
est annual yield from lakes Griffin and Harris was 33.2 fishes per 
acre (Griffin) while the heaviest annual fishing pressure was 34.9 
man-hours per acre (Griffin). These data indicate the sport fish- 
eries of Florida lakes could withstand considerably more fishermen 
utilization. 

Creel census design used in this study proved suitable to our 
needs. Man-power required for the water area involved and com- 
pilation of data was felt to be reasonable. The creel clerk's job was 
full time (260 man-days a year), while preparation of data for 
computer processing approximated 12 man-days a year. Activities 
of the project leader required only routine supervision of personnel 
and review of field data and computer output. 

Creel estimates provided by the program, as shown in Table 1, 
were considered to be within acceptable limits. Percent standard 
deviation of the estimate mean was below 25 per cent for three- 
fourths of the estimates. The highest per centage was 33.9 per cent 
(Table 1). For investigators desiring greater estimate precision 
intensification of sampling effort would be indicated. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors extend their sincere appreciation to Dr. Don W. 
Hayne and Dr. Robert E. Mason, North Carolina State University, 
for their cooperation and assistance throughout the study. Mr. 
Dennis Holcomb, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commis- 
sion, and Mr. James P. Clugston, University of Georgia, are recog- 
nized for their contributions to the early phase of the project. 

This study was financed in part by Florida Federal Aid in Fish 
Restoration Project F-12. 

Literature Cited 

Burress, Ralph M. 1962. Quantitative creel census on two arms of Bull 
Shoals Reservoir, Missouri. Proc. 16th Ann. Conf. S. E. Assoc. Game 
& Fish Coram., pp. 387-397. 

Byrd, I. B., and Johnie H. Crance. 1965. Fourteen years of management 
and fishing success in Alabama's state-owned public fishing lakes. Trans. 
Amer. Fisheries Sco., vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 129-134. 



48 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Davis, James T., and Janice S. Hughes. 1963. Creel census on Bussey 
Brake Beservoir for the first three years. Proc. 17th Ann. Conf. S. E. 
Assoc. Game & Fish Comm, pp. 284-289. 

Espinosa, F. A., Jr., and James E. Deacon. 1971. Comparative angler suc- 
cess at Lake Mead (Arizona-Nevada). Prog. Fish Culturist, vol. 33, no. 
3, 170-174. 

J arm an, Bon, Charles Bennet, Charles Collins, and Bradford E. Brown. 
1967. Angling success and recreational use on twelve state-owned 
lakes in Oklahoma. Proc. 21st Ann. Conf. S. E. Assoc. Game & Fish 
Comm., pp. 484-494. 

Lagler, Karl F. 1956. Freshwater fishery biology. W. C. Brown Co., 421 
pp. 

Pfeiffer, Peter W. 1966. The results of a non-uniform probability creel 
survey on a small state-owned lake. Proc. 20th Ann. Conf. S. E. Assoc. 
Game & Fish Comm., pp. 409-412. 

Wilhur, B. L. 1969. The redear sunfish in Florida. Florida Game and Fish 
Comm. Fish Bull. no. 5, 64 pp. 

Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, South Florida Region 
Office, 2202 Lakeland Hills Blvd., Lakeland, Florida 33801. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



The Presence of Hyla squirella in the Bahamas 
Ronald I. Crombie 

Barbour (1904) was the first to record the tree frog Hyla 
squirella Sonnini from the Bahamas, on the basis of Museum of 
Comparative Zoology (MCZ) 2419 and 51983 collected by G. M. 
Allen on Stranger's Cay, a small island north of Grand Bahama. 
Stei'neger (1905) accepted this and included H. squirella in the 
Bahamian fauna. Barbour (1914, 1930, 1935) retained the species 
as part of the Antillean fauna in his zoogeographic study and in his 
first and second lists of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. How- 
ever, he deleted Hyla squirella from the third list (1937) without 
comment; the species has remained unreported and the record un- 
confirmed since. 

Barbour (1914) re-examined the two Stranger's Cay specimens 
and compared them with Hyla femoralis and H. carolinensis 
( =cinerea). He concluded that "there can be no doubt" that they 
were squirella, although he did not compare them with the native 
Bahamian species, H. septentrionalis. 

The two "squirella" were reidentified as juvenile Hyla septen- 
trionalis in the mid 1930's. This presumably was Barbour's reason 
for deleting the species from his 1937 list. I have examined the 
specimens and agree that they are recognizable as H. septentrio- 
nalis, although both are immature (20.3 and 21.1 mm, respectively) 
and not particularly well preserved. 

Despite the reidentification of Barbour's material, the question 
still remains whether squirella does actually occur on Stranger's 
Cay. Barbour (1904) said of the supposed squirella, "Here they 
were common; and their chirp, as was pointed out at the time by 
Dr. Allen, who found them, was noticeably different from that of 
the other indigenous batrachians." He reported no other "indig- 
enous batrachians" from Stranger's Cay in either 1904 or 1914. 
Furthermore, neither the call of Hyla septentrionalis nor that of 
Hyla squirella could be accurately called a "chirp". It must be as- 
sumed that Allen was mistaken in his belief that the frogs he col- 
lected were producing the sound. Thus, based on present infor- 
mation, it seems unlikely that Hyla squirella occurred on Stranger's 
Cay in Allen's time. 



50 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 



/ 




1. Map of the Little Bahama Bank, showing Grand Bahama localities 
Stranger's Cay is indicated by an arrow. 



Fig. 
for Hyla squirelta ( solid dots ) 



While studying the MCZ Bahamian collections, I found a num- 
ber of specimens of recently collected Hyla squirella, and later 
found that additional specimens were recorded in the Albert 
Schwartz Field Series (ASFS). All are from Grand Bahama; the 
specimens examined include: MCZ 50631-3; Lucaya, Sept. 15; Oct. 
28, 1964. MCZ 52210-2; Lucaya Beach, Dec. 9 and 16, 1964. ASFS 
V2036-41; West End, July 5, 1959. ASFS V7155; 8 mi. SE West 
End, Jan. 24, 1966. ASFS V7175-6; 8.2 mi. SE West End, Jan. 24, 
1966. ASFS V13604-7; 8.7 mi. NW Eight Mile Rock, Jan. 14, 1968. 

All this material is from the western, more heavily populated 
section of the island. The field notes of James J. O'Hara state that 
ASFS V2036-41 were collected in a chorus at the West End Inter- 
national Airport. The most easterly record of the species is Lu- 
caya, which is very close to the Freeport International Airport. 



Crombie: Squirrel Treefrog in Bahamas 51 

The Grand Bahama population is unquestionably the result of 
an introduction. However, the exact means of introduction is un- 
certain. The centers of population density around the Bahamian 
airports plus the abundance of squirella around the Miami Inter- 
national Airport freight areas would suggest that the introduction 
is a byproduct of the heavy air traffic between Miami and Grand 
Bahama. It is strange, however, that squirella has not been found 
in the vicinity of Nassau on New Providence, since that city shares 
with Grand Bahama immense popularity as an easily accessible 
foreign vacation area. It seems logical that stowaways could have 
turned up there also. 

In view of the hit-and-miss prospects for survival of most intro- 
duced populations, it is conceivable that the species has been car- 
ried to other islands and has not survived. The possible salt toler- 
ance of squirella ( Neill, 1958 ) would indicate that this species may 
be an effective island colonizer and it would not be surprising to 
find additional colonies on other Antillean islands in the future. 

No deleterious ecological effects seem likely from the introduc- 
tion of Hyla squirella. Although the species appears to be well 
established and breeding on Grand Bahama (MCZ 50633 is a 
gravid female), it is not likely to become a pest. Hyla squirella 
is a small, arboreal species, which breeds in fresh water pools. It 
is unlikely that it competes with the local Eleutherodactylus, which 
are terrestrial frogs that breed in wet earth. It is even less likely 
that squirella represents any threat to the much larger Cuban tree 
frog, Hyla septentrionalis. These two species already occur sym- 
patrically in the Keys and along the southern coasts of Florida with 
no apparent conflict. In fact, it is possible that septentrionalis may 
inhibit the spread of squirella in the Bahamas. The Cuban tree 
frog is an extremely adaptable and hardy creature that can and 
does feed on other frogs. This species' spread from its native Cuba 
has been aided by an apparently high salt tolerance (Neill, 1958; 
Peterson et al., 1952) and by an ability to adapt to life around 
humans. 

Summary 

Whereas the earlier record of Hyla squirella (Salientia: Hyli- 
dae) from Stranger's Cay (Barbour, 1904) is refuted, a relatively 
recent, unreported population on Grand Bahama is discussed. This 



52 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

colony probably resulted from the heavy air traffic between Miami 
and Freeport-West End. No injurious results of this introduction 
are foreseen. It seems possible that Hyla squirella will become es- 
tablished in other suitable Bahamian localities in much the same 
manner as the Grand Bahama population. 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to thank Drs. James A. Peters and George R. Zug for 
reading the manuscript and for providing laboratory space. I am 
grateful to Drs. Ernest E. Williams and Albert Schwartz for the 
loan of specimens and for providing working facilities on my visits 
to Cambridge and Miami. Dr. Schwartz also deserves special 
thanks for his continued encouragement and for pointing out the 
intricacies of the problem dealt with in this paper. 

Literature Cited 

Bareour, Thomas. 1904. Batrachia and Reptilia from the Bahamas. Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 46, no. 3, 55-61. 
. 1914. A contribution to the zoogeography of the West Indies, with 

especial reference to amphibians and reptiles. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 205-359. 
. 1930. A list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Zoologica, vol. 

11, no. 4, pp. 61-116. 
. 1935. A second list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Zoologica, 

vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 77-141. 
. 1937. Third list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 77-166. 
Neell, Wilfred T. 1958. The occurrence of amphibians and reptiles in salt- 
water areas, and a bibliography. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, 

vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-97. 
Peterson, Harold W., Ronald Garrett, and John P. Lantz. 1952. The 

mating period of the giant tree frog Hyla dominicensis. Herpetologica, 

vol. 8, pt. 3, p. 63. 
Stejneger, Leonhard. 1905. Batrachians and land reptiles of the Bahama 

Islands. In George B. Shattuck, editor, The Bahama Islands. Geog. 

Soc. Baltimore, xxxii + 630 pp. 

Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, U. S. National Museum of 
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560. 
Present address: Division of Amphibians/ Reptiles, National Zo- 
ological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20009. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Additions to the Pleistocene Avifauna of Arredondo, Florida 

Carl David Frailey 

Late Pleistocene deposits at Arredondo, Alachua County, Flor- 
ida, contain a rich avifauna (Brodkorb, 1959). It represents two 
ecological communities, one a fresh water marsh with adjacent wet 
meadows, and the other a scrub community. Two additional birds 
are now added, an extinct vulture and the living short-eared owl, 
both from Arredondo II. With these additions the total known 
avifauna from the Arredondo Pleistocene stands at 45 species. 

Family Cathartidae 
Coragyps occidental™ (L. Miller) 

Distal end of juvenile right tibiotarsus, PB 8422. This element 
is more robust than in the living black vulture, C. atratus (Bech- 
stein ) . 

The least anterior width of the intercondylar sulcus measures 
4.3 mm in the Arredondo fossil. Six tibiotarsi of C. occidentalis 
from the Pleistocene of Reddick, Florida, measure 3.6-4.2 (mean 
4.3). In recent specimens the comparable measurement is 2.7-3.7 
(mean 3.2) in nine C. a. atratus from Florida, and 2.9-3.1 (mean 
3.0) in three C. a. brasiliensis from the tropics. 

The distal width of the Arredondo tibiotarsus is 13.4 mm, and 
it is 13.0-13.9 (mean 13.5) in four C. occidentalis from Reddick. 
In nine Recent C. a. atratus it measures 11.3-12.0 (mean 11.7), and 
in three Recent C. a. brasiliensis 13.0-13.9 (mean 13.4). The mea- 
surements of the fossils from Arredondo and Reddick compare well 
with those of 17 tibiotarsi of C. occidentalis from the Pleistocene of 
San Josecito, Nuevo Leon ( Howard, 1968 ) . 

Coragyps occidentalis is known from three sites in Florida, Red- 
dick (Brodkorb, 1957), Haile XI B (Ligon, 1965), and now Arre- 
dondo. 

Family Strigidae 

Asio flammeus ( Pontoppidan ) . Distal end of right tibiotarsus, 
PB 8423. 



54 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

The short-eared owl is separable by size from all other owls 
except Asio otus. Although very similar superficially, the shaft of 
Asio otus is smaller, and there is a small groove on the anterior, 
inner (intercondylar sulcus facing) surface of the external condyle 
not found on A. flammeus. 

This is only the second fossil occurrence of Asio flammeus in 
Florida. Ligon (1965) reported the first from Haile XI B. 

These additions to the avifauna strengthen the conclusion that 
the sites at Reddick, Arredondo, and Haile XI B are of approxi- 
mately the same age, whether Sangamon (Webb, in press) or more 
generally Rancholabrean (Ligon, 1965). 

Literature Cited 

Brodkorb, Pierce. 1957. New passerine birds from the Pleistocene of Red- 
dick, Florida. Jour. Paleo., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 128-138. 

. 1959. The Pleistocene avifauna of Arredondo, Florida. Bull. Flor- 
ida State Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 269-291. 

Howard, Hildegarde. 1968. Limb measurements of the extinct vulture, 
Coragyps occidentalis, with a description of new subspecies. Papers 
Arch. Soc. New Mexico, vol. 1, pp. 115-128. 

Ligon, J. David. 1965. A Pleistocene avifauna from Haile, Florida. Bull. 
Florida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 127-158. 

Webb, S. David. In press. Chronology of Pleistocene land mammals of 
Florida. In S. David Webb, editor, Pleistocene mammals of Florida. 
University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 

Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor- 
ida 32601. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Avifauna of Little Tobago Island 

James J. Dinsmore 

In recent years the study of island populations has received 
considerable attention, especially the dynamic aspects of species 
composition (e.g. Diamond, 1969). As some of these studies have 
depended on limited lists of insular faunas, the following intensive 
study of the avifauna of one island should be of value. From 23 
September 1965 to 4 July 1966 I lived on Little Tobago Island in 
the southern West Indies and compiled a list of the birds found 
there along with population counts and other notes on the bird's 
habits. Roldan George of Speyside, Tobago, assisted throughout 
my stay and continued observations from 4 July to 30 September 
1966. Unless otherwise noted, all records refer to the period 1 
October 1965 to 30 September 1966. 

Little Tobago, a 280-acre island located at 11°18'N, 60°30'W, 
is about 1 mile off the northeast coast of Tobago. The island is 
very hilly with virtually no level ground and a maximum elevation of 
464 feet. It has no permanent ponds or streams but one small 
spring flows throughout the year. 

Little Tobago has no permanent human inhabitants although a 
caretaker spends occasional nights on the island and people have 
lived there at various times in the past. Since 1928 it has been a 
game sanctuary and all forms of wildlife are protected. Local 
people have released goats on the island but in mid-1966 all of 
them had been removed. Although a tree rat (Rhipidomys) has 
been described from the island (Goodwin, 1961), I found no evi- 
dence of it in 1965-66 and believe that perhaps its type locality is 
Tobago proper. 

Temperatures normally reach the low 80's during the day and 
drop to about 70F at night. Rainfall in 1966 exceded 85 inches. 
The dry season lasted from mid-February to 19 April when 3.42 
inches of rain fell. June and November were the wettest months. 
Hurricanes are rare on Little Tobago but one in 1963 did extensive 
damage to the vegetation. 

The vegetation is mainly a deciduous seasonal forest (Beard, 
1944), within which several distinct vegetation types occur. The 
deciduous forest has an almost closed canopy and a scattered under- 
story, and it is found over much of the wind-protected parts of the 



56 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

island. The upper canopy ranges up to 50 feet in height but most 
of the trees are from 35-45 feet tall. The fan palm (Coccothrinax 
australis) and Gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba) are by far the 
most common trees in the upper canopy. Young Coccothrinax are 
the most common trees in the understory but Eugenia sp. and Maye- 
pea caribaea are also common. The aroid Anthurium hooked is 
abundant at ground level. The degree of deciduousness varies with 
the length of the dry season, Bursera being one of the first to drop 
its leaves. In wet years leaffall is incomplete. Most of the under- 
story species are evergreen. 

Several parts of the island that were probably originally decidu- 
ous forest were extensively damaged by the hurricane in 1963. 
These parts now have few tall trees and are covered with thick 
masses of almost impenetrable low brush. The rapid growing tree 
Cordia collococca and the shrub Aphelandra incerta are common in 
these areas. 

Thick tangles of cactus ( Cereus hexagonus, Hylocereus lemairei, 
and Cactus broadwayi) and Plumbago scandens cover the steep 
slopes and cliffs on the lower levels of the island, particularly on the 
windward ( east ) side. Near sea level the vegetation is windswept 
and planed off with a low mat of vines covering the ground. 

Several almost pure stands of Coccothrinax australis are concen- 
trated on the windward side of the island above the cliff vegetation. 
These stands have few trees in the understory and again Anthurium 
hookeri is abundant at ground level. 

Eleven small garden plots cover about 8 acres, mainly in bananas 
( Musa sp. ) . The gardens also have guava ( Psidium guajava ) , sapo- 
dilla (Achras zapota), and mango (Mangifera indica) with lesser 
numbers of several other species. Papaya (Carica papaya) was cul- 
tivated on the island for the birds but now grows wild, mainly in 
openings such as those produced by the hurricane. Several aban- 
doned gardens and a few acres around the two cabins are over- 
grown with tall grass. 

Although many ornithologists and naturalists have visited Little 
Tobago to see the introduced birds of paradise, few have made 
more than casual reference to other birds they saw. I have reviewed 
the history of birds of paradise on Little Tobago elsewhere (Dins- 
more, 1970) and will not consider it in detail here. Despite all this 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 57 

work, no one has previously published a complete listing of the 
avifauna of this island. 

The most recent listing of the birds of Tobago (Bond, 1970) 
mentions several species that occur on Little Tobago, all of which 
were either seen by me in 1965-66 or have been published previ- 
ously. 

In an attempt to estimate the population of all nesting land birds, 
I divided Little Tobago into 36 sections, using paths and natural 
features for division lines. These sections varied considerably in 
size. I traversed each of these alone or with another experienced 
observer and stopped often to note birds heard or seen. Except for 
thrushes which were more active in the evening, all counts were 
made prior to 10:00 am from March through June. Each bird seen 
or heard was recorded on a field map and later these records were 
transferred to maps of the whole island, one map per species. Ex- 
cept for the extremely rough southeast corner of the island, all sec- 
tions were covered at least once and some counts were refined when 
it was obvious that I had erred in my original count. The totals of 
the counts for each species are given in the left column of Table 1. 
While many times we saw what probably were both members of a 
pair, other times we saw or heard only one individual but undoubt- 
edly a second was present, perhaps on a nest. The right column of 
Table 1 gives totals per species when these "unseen but probably 
present" individuals are added to the totals. This gives a probable 
maximum number per species for the island. 

I am aware of the pitfalls of my methods but with the limited 
time available it was the only means possible. The counts were 
made over a long period of time and certainly some birds moved 
from one section to another, died, or young birds were added to the 
island although I excluded the latter whenever their age was ob- 
vious. The counts are certainly better than a guess and give at least 
some idea of the abundance of birds on Little Tobago. 

I counted other nesting species by a variety of methods. Some 
were counted as they entered roosts (anis, cowbirds), as they flew 
at peak hours of activity (swifts, martins, hawks), at nesting col- 
onies ( oropendolas ) , or from a boat or promentory where I could 
see a lengthy stretch of shoreline (seabirds). Population estimates 



58 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

TABLE 1 
Population estimates of some Little Tobago birds 



Species 


Number seen 


Probable maximum 




in counts 


number present 


Wild Fowl 


141 


150 


Pale-vented Pigeon 


92 


120 


White-tipped Dove 


297 


400 


Rufous-breasted Hermit 


57 


75 


Black-throated Mango 


17 


30 


Ruby-topaz Hummingbird 


90 


175 


Copper-rumped Hummingbird 


57 


80 


Blue-crowned Motmot 


245 


350 


Tropical Kingbird 


101 


130 


Brown-crested Flycatcher 


304 


375 


Yellow-bellied Elaenia 


173 


235 


House Wren 


359 


600 


Tropical Mockingbird 


704 


725 


Bare-eyed Thrush 


179 


310 


Red-eyed Vireo 


129 


210 


Bananaquit 


583 


840 


Blue-gray Tanager 


250 


310 


Blue-black Grassquit 


13 


25 


Black-faced Grassquit 


134 


175 


Lined Seedeater 


14 


25 


Yellow-bellied Seedeater 


12 


25 



for these species are given in parenthesis after the species account 
In all I saw 59 species of birds on Little Tobago. The vernacular 
and scientific names follow those of Meyer de Schauensee (1966). 

Annotated List of Species 

Puffinus Iherminieri. Audubon's Shearwaters nest in the thick 
masses of cactus and vines on the sea cliffs and in open stands of fan 
palm where they burrow among the root masses of Anthurium. I 
first found adults in nest burrows in early December and first saw 
eggs on 24 January. Egg-laying continued until at least mid-Febru- 
ary but most occurred during the last week of January and the first 
of February. Two eggs had incubation periods of 51 and 52 or 53 
days. The young remained in the nest burrows until late May or 
early June. Eleven young birds stayed in the burrows an average 
of about 75 days before leaving. 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 59 

I found 27 dead shearwaters with the sternum and neck stripped 
of flesh. As I never saw shearwaters flying near the island in day- 
light, they were probably killed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba). Seven 
that I found on 9 June had been killed in the previous two days and 
were probably young birds just out of the nest burrow. 

I did not hear adults calling over the island in June when the 
young were leaving the nests but by mid-August adults again were 
near the island. Brown (1947) found numerous eggs and some 
downy chicks on 31 March 1940 and Collins (1969) found partially 
grown downy young on 29 April 1967, indicating that the breeding 
cycle apparently is annual. (1,000) 

Phaethon aethereus. I first saw Red-billed Tropicbirds on 27 
September 1965 when two circled near the island. Their numbers 
gradually increased, reaching a peak from December through Feb- 
ruary and then decreasing until the last ones left in August. They 
nest in crevices or under masses of cactus on the cliffs. I saw a 
downy chick as early as 4 January but other nests contained an egg 
as late as 21 March. Young birds started leaving the nests in April 
but some were still present in late June. 

Brown ( 1947 ) saw some eggs and downy to nearly fledged chicks 
on 31 March 1940. Bond (1958) saw this species here on 29 Jan- 
uary 1958 and considers the records of P. lepturus from Tobago 
(Belcher and Smooker, 1934) doubtful (Bond, 1962), a stand I 
agree with. ( 500 ) 

Pelecanus occidentalis. Except for three seen on 25 March, 
Brown Pelicans were absent from 15 February to 4 July, but during 
the rest of the year I saw some at least several times each month. 
In the period of absence, which coincides with their nesting season 
at their nearest colony on Saut D'Eau Island, Trinidad (Brown, 
1947), pelicans were still common on the western end of Tobago. 
I saw no sign of pelicans nesting on Little Tobago. 

Sula sula. Red-footed Boobies nest on St. Giles Island and out- 
lying rocks 3.5 miles north of Little Tobago ( Dinsmore and ffrench, 
1969 ) and commonly fly near or over Little Tobago. 

Sula leucogaster. A common resident, Brown Boobies usually 
nest on steep slopes near the sea. Of 220 nests I located, I was 
able to estimate the date of laying of 103 eggs to the nearest third 
of a month, using the dates young reached various plumages and 
back dating. I used plumage information compiled by Dorward 



60 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 




MONTH AND YEAR 

Fig. 1. Estimated time of egg-laying, in one-third month intervals, for 103 
nesting attempts by Sula leucogaster on Little Tobago, West Indies. 



( 1962) as a guide to ages. I found two definite peaks of egg-laying 
( Fig. 1 ) , one in July and early August and the second in December. 
Limited data from a small part of the island indicates another peak 
of laying in the summer of 1966, roughly a year after the one in 
1965. All the young in the other nests I located seemed to fit into 
one or the other of the two main peaks but I could not accurately 
determined the date of egg-laying. Schreiber and Ashmole (1970) 
note that Brown Boobies often have two peaks of breeding per year. 
(600) 

Fregata magnificens. A few Magnificent Frigatebirds nearly 
always are flying over Little Tobago but I never saw one land on 
the island. Several thousand frigatebirds frequent nearby St. Giles 
Islands where they nest ( Dinsmore and ffrench, 1969 ) . 

Florida caerulea. Both adult and immature Little Blue Herons 
were common along the rocky shoreline from September 1965 to 
December, February, and again from June through September 1966. 
I saw no nesting activity. 

Nyctanassa violacea. I saw Yellow-crowned Night Herons every 
month except November and December. They often roosted in the 
dense shrubs above the cliffs and fed along the rocky shore- 
line. On 26 April I saw two adults manipulating sticks at what 
appeared to be the start of a nest, but they soon abandoned it. ( 4 ) 

Coragyps atratus. I saw single Black Vultures over Little To- 
bago on six occasions between 25 September and 27 May. Only 
recently added to the avifauna of Tobago (Herklots, 1961), it also 
has been seen at nearby St. Giles (Dinsmore and ffrench, 1969). 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 61 

Buteo platypterus. I saw Broad-winged Hawks almost daily but 
I saw no sign of their nesting. The nest mentioned by Baker ( 1923) 
presumably was of this species. 

On 2 May I counted 41 Broad-wings circling high over the is- 
land while two others stayed low and away from them. The large 
group gradually circled back toward Tobago where I lost sight of 
them. These may have been migrants although on 31 March I saw 
13 Broad-wings over the island. A specimen of the North American 
race of the Broad- wing has been taken on Trinidad ( Bond, 1968 ) . 
(3) 

Pandion haliaetus. I occasionally saw a single Osprey from 16 
October through 17 March and again from 29 August through 10 
September. 

Falco peregrinus. I saw Peregrine Falcons often from 21 Oc- 
tober to 17 December and again from 28 January to 27 April. At 
least two individuals were present. A regular winter visitor to Little 
Tobago (Herklots, 1961), both Bond (1958) and Gilliard (1969, 
p. 413) have seen it there in recent years. 

Gallus gallus. Wild fowl may have been introduced to Little 
Tobago around 1875 (Ingram, 1913) and certainly were present in 
1909 (Ingram, 1911). They are shy and stay low in the brush, 
being most abundant near the gardens. Wild fowl nested in De- 
cember, May, and June. 

Arenaria interpres. I saw groups of two to four Ruddy Turn- 
stones along the rocky shoreline on three occasions (24 October, 
22 April, 19 May). 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpipers are rather common along 
the shoreline, extreme dates being 10 September 1966 and 19 
May. 

Larus atricilla. Laughing Gulls arrived on 9 March and rapidly 
built up to peak numbers. I first found a nest with eggs on 27 
April. Egg-laying reached a peak by mid-May and many eggs had 
hatched by 10 June. Most nests contained one or two eggs al- 
though a few had three. All the gulls had left the island by late 
August. Gulls may have nested on Little Tobago in April 1930 
(Belcher and Smooker, 1935). (750) 

Sterna dougallii. A few Sterna terns were present until early 
October in both 1965 and 1966. On 7 April I saw Sterna terns near 
Little Tobago and on 22 April 30-40 Roseate Terns were on the 



62 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

south side of the island. Late in May I saw terns ( almost certainly 
Roseates) foraging near Little Tobago and on 28 May I located 
their nesting colony on the northeast tip of Tobago ( Dinsmore and 
ffrench, 1969). They continued to feed near Little Tobago in June 
and July and several times I saw adults with flying young. 

Sterna anaethetus. I found Bridled Tern eggs close to the 
shoreline all around Little Tobago, sometimes under rock and 
rubble just out of reach of high waves. As this species resembles 
the Sooty Tern, I may have overlooked it before I first noted one on 
2 April. Eggs apparently were laid from mid-April through May 
and I saw several chicks in June. By late August this species had 
left the island. Although Herklots (1961) lists only Smith Island 
as a breeding locality for this species on Tobago, it probably nests 
regularly on Little Tobago. (150) 

Sterna fuscata. I first saw Sooty Terns near the island on 8 
March and on 9 March they were landing. I first noted eggs on 
23 March and egg-laying continued into April. I first saw chicks 
in early May but some probably hatched earlier. Sooty Terns nest 
on the steep sea cliffs, especially under masses of cactus and in 
clumps of Plumbago. By 8 August most had left the island. An 
earlier record for Little Tobago indicates egg-laying occurred in 
April 1959 (in Ashmole, 1963). (2,100) 

Anous stolidus. A few Brown Noddies were present around 
Little Tobago as late as 22 October 1965 but then were absent until 
9 March when they arrived with the Sooties and Laughing Gulls 
and rapidly built up in numbers. I first saw eggs on 12 April and 
by mid-May chicks were present. They nest in low trees, among 
the thick masses of cactus, and on rocky ledges all around the is- 
land. Most had left the island by mid-August but a few remained 
into September and perhaps later. 

Belcher and Smooker (1935) suggest that the Brown Noddy 
and Sooty Tern nest in Tobago both in April and July but I saw no 
evidence of this in 1966. (1,200) 

Columba cayennensis. Pale-vented Pigeons are common in the 
deciduous forests. I found one nest in November and two each in 
May and June. Of the latter four, three each had a single white 
egg and the fourth had a young bird. Nests were generally low in 
trees, often in the thick dry cliff vegetation. 

Columbina talpacoti. Although the Ruddy Ground-dove is 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 63 

common in dry shrubby areas on nearby Tobago, on Little Tobago 
I saw single birds only four times in late October. All were in the 
dry shrubby areas around the cabins. 

Leptotila verreauxi. The White-tipped Dove is most abundant 
in the deciduous forest and fan palm stands. I found ten active 
nests, most of them a shallow platform of twigs and sticks low in a 
tree or bush. Egg-laying in nine of them apparently started in 
March (3), May (2), June (3), and July (1). 

Coccyzus americanus. I saw a single Yellow-billed Cuckoo in 
one of the gardens on 12 October. 

Crotophaga ani. Smooth-billed Anis are a common resident in 
the open brush and gardens. On 1 January I found an abandoned 
nest in some tall grass between the two cabins. ( 70 ) 

Tyto alba. I occasionally saw two Barn Owls from 23 March 
to July but they probably had been present prior to that time. Sea- 
birds, especially the nocturnal Audubon's Shearwater, apparently 
form a major part of their diet. (2) 

Nyctibius griseus. I regularly heard a Common Potoo on calm 
evenings throughout the year. Although I searched for it, I never 
saw one. The visitor's book on Little Tobago contains a record of 
one being seen on 4 March 1963. (2) 

Caprimulgus cayennensis. The resident White-tailed Nightjar 
is conspicuous over open areas in early morning and late evening. 
I found two nests on bare ground, one with one egg on 14 Feb- 
ruary and subsequently deserted and the second with a fresh egg 
on 3 May. A second egg was present by 7 May and both hatched 
on 23 May. Adults gave no distraction display when disturbed 
from brooding. By 4 June the young could fly and on 8 June the 
nest site was deserted. (10) 

Chaetura brachyura. The Short-tailed Swift is a common resi- 
dent. On 30 May I could hear young birds calling from inside 
two hollow trees but I could not reach the nests themselves. (200) 

Glaucis hirsuta. The Rufous-breasted Hermit is a resident in 
deep forested ravines, especially near Heliconia. I found only two 
nests containing eggs, one each in December and March. 

Anthracothorax nigricollis. I usually saw Black-throated Man- 
gos perched high in trees at the edge of openings in the forest. I 
found one nest 20 feet up in a Cecropia tree on 3 May but could 
not reach it to see if it had eggs or young. 



64 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Chrysolampis mosquitus. I first saw a Ruby-topaz Humming- 
bird on 3 December and soon they were common throughout the 
island. They seemed to prefer the forest edge but stayed lower 
than Anthracothorax. I found nests with eggs on 20 January and 
17 June but both were soon abandoned. I saw other nests being 
built but found no broods. 

Some birds were still present in early August but then appar- 
ently left. Their calls and flashy colors make them hard to miss 
and I am sure that they were absent until early December 1965. 
On Tobago they have been noted as being absent from August to 
February (Jardine, 1833). 

Amazilia tobaci. The Copper-rumped Hummingbird is a com- 
mon resident low in the deciduous forest. I found nests with two 
eggs in November, January, and June and several others that were 
abandoned before eggs were laid. 

Ceryle alcyon. I saw a Belted Kingfisher on 26 and 29 Novem- 
ber and 10 June and another one at nearby Speyside on 4 Novem- 
ber. 

Momotus momota. The Blue-crowned Motmot is an abundant 
resident, seldom leaving the protective canopy of the deciduous 
forest and fan palm stands. I located many nest burrows on steep 
hillsides and banks on the island. In two I could examine the 
eggs hatched around 30 May and 5 June at which time nesting 
seemed to be active throughout the island. Both nests fledged 
two young although a third egg in one failed to hatch and a third 
young bird in the other grew slowly and was evicted from the nest 
when about 15 days old. One nest was at the end of a straight 4- 
foot burrow in a bank while the other was in an Anthurium root 
mass and just a few inches from the entrance. I saw adults bring 
millipedes, scorpions, large insects, and small lizards to the young. 

Tyrannus melancholicus. Tropical Kingbirds are a common and 
conspicuous resident of openings in the deciduous forests and hur- 
ricane-disturbed areas, usually staying high in the vegetation. 

Tyrannus dominicensis. I saw single Gray Kingbirds in hur- 
ricane-disturbed habitat on Little Tobago on 13 October, 26 April, 
and 2 May. 

Myiarchus tyrannulus. The Brown-crested Flycatcher is abun- 
dant in deciduous forests and fan palm stands, generally staying 
lower in the canopy than does Elaenia. I found several nests in 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 65 

hollow trees but none were accessible to me. Egg-laying appar- 
ently took place from early January into February. I saw adults 
taking food to one nest early in February. 

Cnemotriccus fuscatus. I saw single Fuscous Flycatchers only 
four times (5 and 17 October, 21 April, 3 July) but it may have 
been resident. Each was in dry brush at the edge of a garden or 
in a clump of bamboo. 

Elaenia flavogaster. Yellow-bellied Elaenias are common high 
in the canopy throughout the heavily forested parts of the island. 
Although I found no nests, it probably nested in February and 
March. 

Progne dominicensis. Caribbean Martins were common on Lit- 
tle Tobago in late September 1965, still present on 17 and 29 Oc- 
tober, and then absent until 10 February. After 15 February I saw 
them almost daily. I saw birds going into cracks and crevices in 
cliffs along the coast in May and June and they probably nested 
there. (50) 

Paradisaea apoda. In September 1909 Sir William Ingram re- 
leased 48 Greater Birds of Paradise on Little Tobago (Ingram, 
1911). These birds, of unknown sex, had been secured on the Aru 
Islands off the coast of New Guinea. By 1958 certainly 15 and 
perhaps 35 birds were present (Gilliard, 1969, p. 414). 

In 1965-66 I located with certainty only 7 apoda; 4 adult males, 
1 sub-adult male, and 2 female-plumaged birds. Males displayed 
in every month with a peak in late February and March (Dins- 
more, 1969). I saw birds copulate but found no nests or signs of 
nesting activity. They mainly utilized undisturbed areas of de- 
ciduous forest but occasionally visited hurricane-disturbed areas 
and fan palm stands. (7) 

Troglodytes aedon. The House Wren is an abundant resident 
on Little Tobago, almost every brushy area and ravine having a 
pair. 

Mimus gilvus. Next to the Bananaquit, the Tropical Mocking- 
bird is the most abundant land bird on Little Tobago. It is com- 
mon in all habitats, especially the brushy hurricane-disturbed areas. 
I found nests with young on 3 April and 18 June. On 24 June I 
found a nest with a mockingbird egg and chick and one Molothrus 
bonariensis egg. 

Turdus nudigenis. Bare-eyed Thrushes are abundant in hur- 



66 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Scdsnces 

ricane-disturbed areas and thick stands of deciduous forest but are 
retiring and heard more often than seen. I found nests with 2 and 
3 chicks in late June and early July. 

Vireo olivaceus. Red-eyed Vireos are common in deciduous 
forests and hurricane-disturbed areas but were less evident from 
October to mid-February and some may have left the island in 
that period. One nest started on 8 March was soon abandoned, 
apparently after eggs had been laid. Another nest contained three 
young on 22 June, two of which fledged. 

Molothrus bonariensis. The Shiny Cowbird is common in the 
open areas around the cabins and gardens. I found one cowbird 
egg in a mockingbird nest on 24 June. (50) 

Psarocolius decumanus. Crested Oropendolas are common in 
the deciduous forests and fan palm stands although they range 
over the whole island. I located six nesting colonies containing 
about 120 nests. Five were in tall Royal Palms (Roystonea oler- 
acea) and the sixth was in a tall Spondias monbin. They probably 
nested in January as young birds appeared out of the nests in late 
February. (200) 

Protonotaria citrea. I caught, photographed, and released a 
male Prothonotary Warbler on 24 October. 

Dendroica striata. I saw single Blackpoll Warblers foraging in 
low brush in hurricane-disturbed areas on 15 October and 2 No- 
vember. 

Seiurus aurocapillus. I saw an Ovenbird on 21 November and 
again on 11 March, apparently the first sight records for this species 
in Trinidad and Tobago. In both cases I clearly saw the striped 
breast, reddish crown, and lack of an eye stripe. Ovenbirds previ- 
ously have been reported wintering in northern South America and 
also as far down the Lesser Antilles as St. Vincent, 170 miles to the 
north (Bond, 1956). 

Seiurus noveboracensis. I saw single Northern Waterthrushes 
10 times between 2 October and 5 January and again on 4 and 7 
April. 

Coereba flaveola. Bananaquits are the most abundant and 
widely distributed land bird on the island. I saw them most often 
in deciduous forests and hurricane-disturbed areas but they occur 
throughout. I found nests with eggs in November and December 
and nests with young in March. 



Dixsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 67 

Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus). This species 
occurs sporadically in the gardens and deciduous forest, birds being 
seen in October and fairly regularly from March to June. Roldan 
George saw a pair copulating on 5 April but we found no nests. 

Thraupis episcopus. Blue-gray Tanagers are abundant in the 
deciduous forests and fan palm stands. I did not find any nests 
but I saw recently fledged young on 10 January and 18 March. 

Volatinia jacarina. Blue-black Grassquits live in the dry 
shrubby cover around the gardens. They were absent from late 
October until mid-March except for one seen on 15 February. 

Tiaris bicolor. The Black-faced Grassquit is the commonest 
finch on Little Tobago, and apparently the only one that is resident. 
It is common in brushy areas around the gardens and hurricane- 
disturbed areas. Roldan George found a nest containing three 
eggs on 10 September. 

Sporopliila lineola. Lined Seedeaters are absent from the island 
from late October until late May. They occur in open areas 
around the cabins and gardens and probably breed on the island. 

Sporophila nigricollis. Yellow-bellied Seedeaters are fairly com- 
mon in open areas around the gardens and cabins. Except for 
single birds on 17 December and 9 and 10 April, I saw none on 
Little Tobago from late October to May. I saw recently fledged 
young early in October 1965. 

Besides the species I saw in 1965-66, several others have been 
reported from Little Tobago. These include the American Oyster- 
catcher (Haematopus palliatus) (Herklots, 1961), Zenaida auricu- 
lata (Bond, 1959), another hawk, possibly Buteo nitidus (Gilliard, 
1969, p. 413), and the Black Noddy (Anous tenuirostris) (Klein- 
wort, 1967). 

Discussion 

A puzzling feature of the avifauna is the lack of suboscines 
other than the flycatchers. Ten species in five families occur on 
Tobago (Herklots, 1961), some of them being abundant. At least 
three are montane forest forms and thus would not find suitable 
habitat on Little Tobago but others such as Thamnophilus doliatus 
and Formicivora grisea live in low shrubby woodland on Tobago, 
only 2 miles from similar habitat on Little Tobago. 

Thus Little Tobago has less than half the number of species of 



68 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

birds found on nearby Tobago ( ca 170 ) although the lack of mon- 
tane rain forest and freshwater habitats certainly account for much 
of the difference. Tobago has a land area of 114 square miles, 
some 200 times the size of Little Tobago and this too helps account 
for the difference in number of species. 

Of the 59 species reported here, I saw an egg, a nest, or re- 
cently fledged young or know of breeding records for 30 species. 
An additional seven species (Tyrannus melancholicus, Elaenia fla- 
vogaster, Progne dominicensis, Troglodytes aedon, Cyanerpes cy- 
aneus, Volatinia jacarina, and Sporophila lineola) almost certainly 
breed on the island. The potoo, Barn Owl, Yellow-crowned Night 
Heron, and Fuscous Flycatcher also may breed there occasionally. 

Most species for which I have nest records nest in May through 
July at the start of the wet season. The limited evidence I have for 
finches indicates they breed late in summer. On nearby Trinidad 
the Snows (1964) found a seasonal nesting pattern similar to that 
I found on Little Tobago. 

Several land birds seem to leave Little Tobago for part of the 
year. All four finches probably nest on the island but apparently 
only Tiaris is resident. I did not see the other three for most of the 
winter and I doubt that I could have overlooked them. This move- 
ment may be very local as the Eastmans (1958) saw all four on 
Tobago between 16 January and 20 February. 

I have already commented on the absence of Chrysolampis 
mosquitus in the fall and Progne dominicensis in winter. Vireo 
olivaceus seemed to be much less abundant in winter but may have 
just called less then and was not noticed. 

On the basis of observations in 1965-66 and records from the lit- 
erature, with the possible exception of the Brown Booby, all the 
seabirds on Little Tobago breed annually although not all at the 
same time. The terns and the Laughing Gull are absent from late 
summer to March or April and begin laying eggs soon after they 
return. Tropicbirds have a more extended laying period, extend- 
ing at least from November to February. All leave Little Tobago 
for at least a month in late summer and individual birds are absent 
for longer periods. Audubon's Shearwaters apparently are present 
for much of the year. Their egg-laying is more synchronized and 
is mainly in late January and early February. The Brown Boobies 
have two peaks of laying, late summer and again in winter, but 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 69 

individual birds have not been marked to determine whether these 
are separate groups of adults or if some are renesting attempts. 

All of the above seabirds probably nest on nearby St. Giles Is- 
lands. The nesting information available indicates that the indi- 
vidual species have similar nesting periods on St. Giles and Little 
Tobago (Dinsmore and ffrench, 1969). Both the Brown Noddy 
and Sooty Tern lay in April on Soldado Rock off the southwest 
coast of Trinidad ( Belcher and Smooker, 1935; Ashmole, 1963 ) . 

Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Islas Las Aves, Isla La Orchila, Islas 
Los Roques, Islas Los Hermanos, and Los Testigos, all at about the 
same latitude as Little Tobago and to the west, have a variety of 
seabirds breeding on them. These include all the terns found on 
Little Tobago, the Laughing Gull, and, on some, boobies, Red-billed 
Tropicbirds, and Audubon's Shearwaters. In general the terns and 
Laughing Gulls breed from May to July although the two noddies 
on Los Roques and the Sooties on La Orchila start breeding in 
February and March (Van der Werf et al., 1958; Phelps and 
Phelps, 1959a, b; and Voous, 1963). 

Shearwaters and tropicbirds breed in February and February 
to April respectively, while Brown Boobies have a more extended 
nesting period, perhaps from February to September. On Los 
Testigos and Los Hermanos the boobies and tropicbirds had eggs 
or young birds in January ( Lowe, 1909 ) . More information on the 
shearwaters, boobies, and tropicbirds especially is needed. In gen r 
eral however, the breeding seasons of seabirds on these islands 
roughly coincide with those on Little Tobago. 

The factors determining the timing of these seasons remain un- 
known. The two peaks of breeding by Brown Boobies are par- 
ticularly puzzling but for the spring nesting species I can suggest 
two possibilities. On Little Tobago, much as on Curacao (Ansingh 
et al., 1960), local fishing activity intensifies in March and April 
when numbers of large predatory, commercially valuable species 
arrive. Presumably this also means the arrival of smaller fish which 
may be food for both fish and seabirds. Another possibility on 
Little Tobago is that the Orinoco River in Venezuela floods from 
March to mid-summer. Changes in the water are evident at Little 
Tobago and perhaps this has some effect on seabird food supplies 
but again more information is needed. 



70 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Acknowledgments 
Initiated and financed in part by the Forestry Division, Ministry 
for Tobago Affairs, this study was made possible by the efforts of 
R. G. Miller of that Department and Hollis Murray, then Conserva- 
tor of Forests, Trinidad and Tobago. Roldan and Jeremiah George 
of Speyside, Tobago, helped in innumerable ways in the field work 
with the former providing three months of records to make this a 
full year study. John T. Emlen, my faculty advisor, encouraged 
me throughout this study. Graduate fellowships from the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, Madison helped finance the work. David W. 
Johnston and Alexander Cruz read drafts of this paper and offered 
helpful comments. 

Literature Cited 

Ansingh, F. H., H. J. Koelers, P. A. Van der Werf, and K. H. Voous. 

1960. The breeding of the Cayenne or Yellow-billed Sandwich Tern 

in Curacao in 1958. Ardea, vol. 48, pp. 51-65. 
Ashmole, N. P. 1963. The biology of the Wideawake or Sooty Tern Sterna 

fuscata on Ascension Island. Ibis, vol. 103b, pp. 297-364. 
Baker, H. D. 1923. Birds-of-paradise at Little Tobago Island. Bird-Lore, 

vol. 25, pp. 295-302. 
Beard, J. S. 1944. The natural vegetation of the island of Tobago, British 

West Indies. Ecol. Monographs, vol. 14, pp. 135-163. 
Belcher, C, and G. D. Smooker. 1934. Birds of the colony of Trinidad 

and Tobago. Ibis, vol. 76, pp. 572-595. 
. 1935. Birds of the colony of Trinidad and Tobago. Ibis, vol. 77, 

pp. 279-297. 
Bond, J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West Indies. Fourth Ed. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 214 pp. 
. 1958. Third supplement to the check-list of birds of the West Indies 

(1956). Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11 pp. 
. 1959. Fourth supplement to the check-list of birds of the West Indies 

(1956). Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12 pp. 
. 1962. The hypothetical element of the avifauna of Tobago. Carib- 
bean J. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 113-118. 
. 1968. Thirteenth supplement to the check-list of birds of the West 

Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12 pp. 
. 1970. Native and winter resident birds of Tobago. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia, 30 pp. 
Brown, L. 1947. Birds and I. Michael Joseph, London. 200 pp. 
Collins, C. 1969. A review of the shearwater records for Trinidad and 

Tobago, West Indies. Ibis, vol. Ill, pp. 251-253. 
Diamond, J. M. 1969. Avifauna equilibria and species turnover rates on the 

Channel Islands of California. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., vol. 64, pp. 57-63. 



Dinsmore: Birds of Little Tobago 71 

Dinsmore, J. J. 1970. Courtship behavior of the Greater Bird of Paradise. 

Auk, vol. 87, pp. 305-321. 
. 1970. History and natural history of Paradisaea apoda on Little 

Tobago Island, West Indies. Caribbean J. Sci., vol. 10, pp. 93-100. 
Dinsmore, J. J., and R. P. ffRENCH. 1969. Birds of St. Giles Island, Tobago. 

Wilson Bull., vol. 81, pp. 460-463. 
Dorward, D. F. 1962. Comparative biology of the White Booby and the 

Brown Booby, Sula spp. at Ascension. Ibis, vol. 103b, pp. 124-220. 
Eastman, W., and K. Eastman. 1959. Bird observations on Tobago. Fla. 

Nat., vol. 32, pp. 9-16, 52. 
Gilliard, E. T. 1969. Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds. New York, Nat. 

Hist. Press. 485 pp. 
Goodwin, G. G. 1961. The murine opossums (Genus Marmosa) of the West 

Indies, and the description of a new subspecies of Rhipidomys from 

Little Tobago. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2070, pp. 1-20. 
Herklots, G. A. C. 1961. The birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Collins, 

London. 287 pp. 
Ingram, C. 1913. Birds of paradise in the West Indies. Avicult, Mag., vol. 

20, pp. 35-41. 
Ingram, W. 1911. The acclimatization of the Greater Bird-of-Paradise 

(Paradisea apoda) in the West Indies. Avicult. Mag., vol. 18, pp. 341- 

351. 
Jardine, W. 1833. The naturalist's library, vol. 2. Humming-birds. Edin- 
burgh, 166 pp. 
Kleinwort, J. 1967. Birds of Tobago. Gosse Bird Club, Broadsheet no. 9, 

pp. 8-9. 
Lowe, P. R. 1909. Notes on some birds collected during a cruise in the 

Caribbean Sea. Ibis, vol. 51, pp. 304-346. 
Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1966. The species of birds of South America and 

their distribution. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 577 pp. 
Phelps, W. H., and W. H. Phelps, Jr., 1959a. Las aves de la Isla La Orchila. 

Bol. Soc. Ven. Cien. Nat., no. 93, pp. 252-266. 
. 1959b. La nidificacion de las aves marinas en el archipielago de Los 

Roques. Bol. Soc. Ven. Cien. Nat., no. 94, pp. 325-336. 
Schreeber, R. W., and N. P. Ashmole. 1970. Seabird breeding seasons on 

Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean. Ibis, vol. 112, pp. 363-394. 
Snow D., and B. K. Snow. 1964. Breeding seasons and annual cycles of 

Trinidad land birds. Zoologica, vol. 49, pp. 1-35. 
Van der Werf, P. A., J. S. Zaneveld, and K. H. Voous. 1958. Field ob- 
servations on the birds of the Islas Las Aves in the southern Caribbean 

Sea. Ardea, vol. 46, pp. 37-58. 
Voous, K. H. 1963. Tern colonies in Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire, South 

Caribbean Sea. Proc. XIII Inter. Ornith. Congr., pp. 1214-1216. 

Department of Natural Sciences, University of Tampa, Tampa, 
Florida 33606. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



Birds of the Lluidas Vale (Worthy Park) Region, Jamaica 

Alexander Cruz 

During the past three years, the author has conducted investi- 
gations on the avifauna of Jamaica. Five trips were made to the 
island (June 14-August 17, 1969, December 20-26, 1969, April 14- 
May 24, 1970, June 15-July 15, 1970, and June 4-June 24, 1971). 
The main purpose of these visits was to study the ecology, be- 
havior, and distribution of the Jamaican Woodpecker (Centurus 
radiolatus), but observations were also made on the total avifauna 
of the island. Many of the birds found on Jamaica are poorly 
known from the standpoint of distribution, ecology, and behavior. 
Therefore, the following information on the avifauna of the Lluidas 
Vale (Worthy Park) region, St. Catherine, Jamaica, should be in- 
structive for future analyses. 

Description 

Lluidas Vale ( 1250 ft. ) is located in an interior valley or polje. 
Both cockpit and tower karst are present in the area. Cockpit 
karst consists essentially of a succession of cone-like hills with al- 
ternating enclosed conical depressions or "cockpits." Tower karst 
is made up of steep-sided, forest-covered hills or mogotes (Sweet- 
ing, 1958). Each hill or group of hills is separated by a more or less 
flat alluvial plain that is often seasonally inundated. More or less 
permanent ponds and sinkholes are present at the base of the mo- 
gotes. Much of the original vegetation has been cleared from the 
valley, primarily for growing sugar cane, planting citrus, and rais- 
ing cattle, but it is still present in the limestone mountains (Long 
Mountain which is an extension of the Mount Diablo Plateau) and 
cockpit hills surrounding the valley. Elevations vary from 1500 to 
3250 ft. The vegetation of this area is classified as Wet Limestone 
forest (Asprey and Robbins, 1953). This type of forest is found 
in areas of limestone rocks where annual precipitation exceeds 75 
inches and may range up to 150 inches. Many of the trees in this 
region have epiphytes, lianes, and bromeliads growing in profusion. 
Some of the characteristic trees of this community are broadleaf 
(Terminalia latifolia), Jamaican cedar (Cedrela odorata), sweet- 
woods (Nectandra spp.), bulletwoods (Dipholis spp. ), various figs 



Cruz: Jamaican Birds 73 

(Ficus spp.), and many others. In the upland pastures, where 
much of the original vegetation has been removed, characteristic 
trees include guango (Samanea saman), large figs, prickly yellow 
(Zanthoxylum martinicensis) , pimento (Pimenta pimento), and 
trumpet tree ( Cecropia peltata ) . 

Species Accounts 

During the period of observation 87 species were recorded. In- 
cluded in this count are 21 of the 24 species of land birds endemic 
to Jamaica and 38 of the 47 species that breed in Jamaica (Bond, 
1961) but also occur elsewhere. 

The following terminology is used. 

Common: Found on all visits to the proper habitat, often in 
large numbers. 

Fairly Common: Seen on a majority of visits to the proper 
habitat. 

Uncommon: Present each year in proper habitat and season(s), 
but in small numbers. 

Rare: Irregular occurrence in small numbers, not predictable, 
and overlooked or absent on many visits to the proper habi- 
tat. 

Podiceps dominicus. Least Grebe; "Diving Dapper, Dabchick." 
Common permanent resident on freshwater ponds. 

Podilymbus podiceps. Pied-billed Grebe; "Diving Dapper, Hell 
Diver." Fairly common permanent resident on freshwater ponds. 

Butorides virescens. Green Heron; "Little Gaulin, Crabcatcher." 
Common permanent resident around freshwater ponds and marshy 
areas. 

Hydranassa tricolor. Louisiana Heron; "Gaulin." Uncommon 
permanent resident on freshwater ponds and marshy areas. 

Florida caerulea. Little Blue Heron; "Blue Gaulin, Gaulin." 
Uncommon permanent resident on freshwater ponds and marshy 
areas. 

Ardeola ibis. Cattle Egret; "Cattle Gaulin." Common perma- 
nent resident, usually found in flocks among cattle. 

Egretta thula. Snowy Egret; "White Gaulin, Gaulin." Uncom- 
mon permanent resident on freshwater ponds and marshy areas. 

Nyctanassa violacea. Yellow-crowned Night Heron; "Night 



74 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Gaulin, Crabcatcher." Uncommon to fairly common permanent 
resident on freshwater ponds and marshy areas. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture; "John Crow." Common per- 
manent resident throughout the area, but more common in open 
areas. 

Buteo jamaicensis. Red-tailed Hawk; "Chicken Hawk." Un- 
common to fairly common permanent resident in the hills and up- 
land pastures surrounding the valley. 

Falco sparverius. Kestrel; "Killy Hawk, Bird Hawk." Fairly 
common permanent resident in cultivated areas and upland pas- 
tures. 

Porzana Carolina. Sora. Winter resident. An adult was ob- 
served walking over the water lilies and along the marshy edge of 
a small pond on April 23-25, 1970. 

Porphyrula martinica. Purple Gallinule; "Coot." Common dur- 
ing the spring, but rare during the summer. Usually one or two in- 
dividuals were observed on freshwater ponds with marshy border. 
Those observed during the spring were probably transients or win- 
ter residents. 

Gallinula chloropus. Common Gallinule; "Coot." Common 
permanent resident on freshwater ponds. 

Fulica americana. Coot. Fairly common during the spring of 
1970 in freshwater ponds. 

Jacana spinosa. Jacana; "Spanish Coot, Coot." Common per- 
manent resident on freshwater ponds. 

Charadrius vociferus. Killdeer. Fairly common transient dur- 
ing the spring of 1970, but also observed as late as the 21st of June 
1971. Observations were on recently plowed fields and pond 
edges. 

Columba leucocephala. White-crowned Pigeon; "Baldpate." 
Common permanent resident in woodlands and hills surrounding 
valley. 

Zenaida aurita. Zenaida Dove; "Pea Dove." Common perma- 
nent resident in open to semi-open areas, especially in the roads 
going through the sugar cane fields and citrus areas. 

Zenaida asiatica. White-winged Dove; "White-wing, Lapwing." 
Uncommon during the winter and spring, but very common dur- 
ing the summer in upland pastures. Flocks up to thirty individuals 
were observed. 



Cruz: Jamaican Birds 75 

Columbigallina passerina. Ground Dove. Common permanent 
resident in open and semi-open areas. 

Levtotila iamaicensis. White-bellied Dove; "White-belly." Un- 
common to fairly common permanent resident in undergrowth of 
forested areas, occasionally occurring in more open areas. 

Geotrygon montana. Ruddy Quail Dove; "Partridge." Uncom- 
mon to fairly common resident of the undergrowth of forested 
areas and forest edges. 

Geotrygon versicolor. Crested Quail Dove; "Mountain Witch." 
Rare to uncommon resident of undergrowth in forested areas, usu- 
ally allowing close approach before flying and then flying only a 
short distance. 

Amazona collaria. Yellow-billed Parrot. Uncommon permanent 
resident in the hills and mountains (Long Mountain) surrounding 
the valley, but may be more common since many flocks of uni- 
dentifiable parrots were observed flying. 

Amazona agilis. Rlack-billed Parrot. Uncommon to fairly com- 
mon resident of the Long Mountain area. Usually observed flying 
or perched in small flocks of 2 to 6 individuals. 

Aratinga nana. Olive-throated Parakeet. Common permanent 
resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. Roosting flocks num- 
bering thousands of birds were observed. 

Forpus passerinus. Guiana Parrotlet. Common permanent resi- 
dent in upland pastures and wooded hills. 

Hyetornis pluvialis. Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo; "Old Man Bird." 
Fairly common in upland pastures and forested areas. 

Saurothera vetula. Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo; "Rain Bird." Un- 
common permanent resident. More partial to wooded areas than 
the preceding species, and more often heard than seen. 

Crotophaga ani. Smooth-billed Ani; "Tick Bird, Black Bird." 
Common permanent resident in open areas, especially pastures. 

Tyto alba. Barn Owl; "White Owl, Screech Owl, Potoo." Un- 
common permanent resident. Often observed flying over the pas- 
tures and cane fields at dusk. One individual roosted during the 
day in River Sink Cave at Worthy Park. Owl pellets obtained 
from this cave showed that rats (Rattus) form a principal item in 
its diet. 

Pseudoscops grammicus. Jamaican Owl; "Brown Owl, Potoo." 
Rare to uncommon permanent resident, but may be more common 



76 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

since its nocturnal habits make it difficult to find. One individual 
roosted during the day in Swansea Cave at Worthy Park. 

Nyctibius griseus. Common Potoo. Apparently rare, but may 
be more common since its nocturnal habits make it difficult to ob- 
serve. Seen on two different occasions (7 May and 1 July 1970), 
when it was sitting upright on fence post in cattle pasture area. 

Chordeiles minor. Common Nighthawk; "Mosquito Hawk." 
Uncommon summer resident. Usually observed flying towards sun- 
set and on cloudy days. 

Streptoprocne zonaris. Collared Swift; "Rain Bird." Fairly 
common permanent resident, often observed flying at dusk and on 
cloudy days. 

Cypseloides niger. Black Swift; Black Swallow, Swallow, Rain 
Bird." Uncommon permanent resident, observed under the same 
conditions as the Collared Swift. 

Tachomis phoenicobia. Antillean Palm Swift; "Swallow." Com- 
mon permanent resident in open to semiopened areas. Often ob- 
served flying during the day. 

Anthracothorax mango. Jamaican Mango; "Doctor Bird, Hum- 
mingbird." Fairly common resident in open and semiopened situa- 
tions. 

Trochilus polytmus. Streamertail; "Doctor Bird, Humming- 
bird." Common permanent resident throughout the region. 

Mellisuga minima. Vervain Hummingbird; "Bee Humming- 
bird." Fairly common permanent resident throughout the region. 

Todus todus. Jamaican Tody; "Robin Redbreast." Common 
permanent resident in wooded pastures and limestone hills sur- 
rounding the valley. 

Centurus radiolatus. Jamaican Woodpecker. Common perma- 
nent resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Sphyrapicus varius. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Uncommon win- 
ter resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Platypsaris niger. Jamaican Becard; "Tom Fool.' Uncommon 
permanent resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Tyrannus dominicensis. Gray Kingbird; "Petchary." Common 
summer resident in open and semiopened areas, often near human 
habitations. 

Tyrannus caudifasciatus. Loggerhead Kingbird; "Petchary." 
Common permanent resident in upland pastures and wooded areas. 



Cruz: Jamaican Birds 77 

Myiarchus stolidus. Stolid Flycatcher; "Tom Fool." Uncommon 
permanent resident, the rarest of the Myiarchus flycatchers in the 
Lluidas Vale region. Observed in upland pasture areas. 

Myiarchus harhirostris. Dusky-capped Flycatcher; "Little Tom 
Fool." Fairly common permanent resident in upland pastures and 
wooded areas. 

Myiarchus validus. Rufous-tailed Flycatcher; "Big Tom Fool." 
Fairly common permanent resident in upland pastures and wooded 
areas. 

Contopus carihaeus. Greater Antillean Pewee; "Little Tom 
Fool." Common permanent resident in upland pastures and wooded 
areas. 

Hirundo rustica. Barn Swallow. Common spring transient. 
Flocks numbering hundreds of individuals observed flying over re- 
cently plowed fields. 

Petrochelidon fulva. Cave Swallow. Common permanent resi- 
dent. Occurring throughout the area, but more common in open 
and semi-open areas. Breeding in caves and depressions in the 
limestone hills. 

Corvus jamaicensis. Jamaican Crow; "Jabbering Crow." Com- 
mon in upland pastures and limestone hills. Small flocks of 3-4 in- 
dividuals were usually seen. 

Mimus polyglottos. Northern Mockingbird; "Nightingale." Com- 
mon permanent resident in open and semi-open areas, often near 
human habitations. 

Dumetella carolinensis. Catbird. Uncommon winter resident. 
Observed in dense undergrowth in upland pasture area. 

Turdus jamaicensis. White-eyed Thrush; "Glass Eye." Fairly 
common permanent resident in wooded pastures and hills. 

Turdus aurantius. White-chinned Thrush; "Hopping Dick." 
Common permanent resident, more partial to open areas than pre- 
ceding species. 

Myadestes genibarbis. Rufous-throated Solitaire; "Fiddler." Un- 
common during the winter and spring. No individuals were re- 
corded during the summers of 1969, 1970, and 1971. Possibly this 
species undergoes a vertical migration as has been observed by 
Kidd (1964). 

Sturnus vulgaris. Starling. Fairly common in upland pastures, 
where flocks of up to 30 individuals were observed. 



78 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 

Vireo modestus. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo; "Sewi-sewi." Un- 
common to fairly common permanent resident in wooded and 
semiwooded areas. 

Vireo altiloquus. Black-whiskered Vireo; "John Chewitt." Com- 
mon summer resident in semiwooded and wooded areas. 

Vireo osburni. Blue Mountain Vireo. Uncommon permanent 
resident in wooded areas. 

Mniotilta varia. Black-and-white Warbler; "Ant Bird." Com- 
mon winter resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Helmitheros vermivorus. Worm-eating Warbler. Uncommon 
winter resident of undergrowth in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Parula americana. Parula Warbler. Common winter resident 
in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica magnolia. Magnolia Warbler. Uncommon winter 
resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica tigrina. Cape May Warbler. Fairly common winter 
resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica caerulescens. Black-throated Blue Warbler. Com- 
mon winter resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica virens. Black-throated Green Warbler. Uncommon 
to fairly common winter resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica striata. Black-poll Warbler. Uncommon spring 
transient in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Dendroica pharetra. Arrow-headed Warbler; "Ant Bird." Un- 
common to fairly common permanent resident of forested areas and 
forest edges. 

Seiurus aurocapillus. Ovenbird. Uncommon winter resident in 
undergrowth of wooded areas. 

Setophaga ruticilla. American Redstart. Common winter resi- 
dent in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Coereba flaveola. Bananaquit; "Beanie Bird." Common per- 
manent resident. Found throughout the region, but more common 
in semi-open areas and near human habitations. 

Euneornis campestris. Orangequit; "Swee." Common perma- 
nent resident in wooded and semiwooded areas and especially 
common in citrus groves. 

Pyrrhuphonia Jamaica. Jamaican Euphonia; "Blue Quit." Com- 
mon permanent resident in wooded and semiwooded areas, but 
often found near human habitations. 



Cruz: Jamaican Birds 79 

Spindalis zena. Stripe-headed Tanager; "Goldy, Goldfinch." 
Fairly common permanent resident in forested areas and forest 
edges, including citrus groves. 

Piranga olivacea. Scarlet Tanager. Uncommon spring tran- 
sient in wooded and semiwooded areas. 

Quiscalus niger. Greater Antillean Grackle; "Cling-cling." Un- 
common to fairly common, occurring around human habitations 
and pastures. 

Icterus leucopteryx. Jamaican Oriole; "Auntie Katie." Common 
resident in wooded and semiwooded areas. Occasionally observed 
near human habitations. 

Icterus galbula. Baltimore Oriole. Rare spring transient, one 
male observed on 10 and 11 May 1970 in upland pasture area. 

Sicalis flaveola. Saffron Finch; "Canary." Fairly common per- 
manent resident, occurring in semiwooded areas, upland pastures, 
and gardens. 

Loxigilla violacea. Greater Antillean Bullfinch; "Black Spar- 
row." Fairly common permanent resident in wooded and semi- 
wooded areas. 

Tiaris olivacea. Yellow-faced Grassquit; "Grassquit." Common 
permanent resident in open and semi-open areas. 

Tiaris bicolor. Black-faced Grassquit; "Grassquit." Permanent 
resident, not as common as the Yellow-faced Grassquit, but occur- 
ring in the same areas. 

Loxipasser anoxanthus. Yellow-shouldered Grassquit; "Yellow- 
back." Uncommon permanent resident in wooded and semiwooded 
areas. 

Ammodramus savannarum. Grasshopper Sparrow. Fairly 
common permanent resident of pasture areas. 

Acknowledgments 

Support during this investigation came from a National Institute 
of Health Grant awarded to Dr. T. H. Patton and from a Frank 
M. Chapman Grant awarded to the author. A number of persons 
assisted in field work and participated in helpful discussion of this 
project, particularly Philip Clarke, Dr. David W. Johnston, Dr. 
Thomas H. Patton, and Michael Winegar. C. Bernard Lewis, Di- 
rector of the Institute of Jamaica, was very helpful and made the 



80 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

facilities of the Institute available to me. The Clarke family of 
Worthy Park Estate not only provided strategic lodging, but their 
friendly hospitality made the visits more pleasant. 

Literature Cited 

Asprey, G. F., and R. G. Rorrins. 1953. The vegetation of Jamaica. Ecol. 

Mon., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 359-412. 
Bond, James. 1961. (Field guide to) Birds of the West Indies. Houghton 

Mifflin Co., Boston, 256 pp. 8 pi., 186 figs. 
Kidd, E. R. G. 1964. Hillbirds at low altitudes at Mona Reservoir. Goose 

Bird Club, Broadsheet No. 2, p. 9. 
Sweeting, M. M. 1958. The karstlands of Jamaica. Geographical Jour., vol. 

124, part 2, pp. 184-201. 

Department of Zoology and Florida State Museum, University of 
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(1) 1972 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Institutional Members for 1972 

American Medical Research Institute 

Archbold Expeditions 

Barry College 

Florida Atlantic University 

Florida Institute of Technology 

Florida Presbyterian College 

Florida Southern College 

Florida State University 

Florida Technological University 

Jacksonville University 

Manatee Junior College 

Marymount College 

Miami-Dade Junior College 

Mound Park Hospital Foundation 

Ormond Beach Hospital 

Rollins College 

St. Leo College 

Stetson University 

University of Florida 

University of Florida 

Communications Sciences Laboratory 

University of Miami 

University of South Florida 

University of Tampa 

University of West Florida 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Founded 1936 



OFFICERS FOR 1972 

President: Dr. Richard E. Garrett 

Department of Physics, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 

President Elect: Dr. James G. Potter 

Department of Physics, Florida Institute of Technology 

Melbourne, Florida 32901 

Secretary: Dr. Robert W. Long 

Department of Botany, University of South Florida 

Tampa, Florida 33620 

Treasurer: Dr. Richard A. Edwards 

Department of Geology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 

Editor: Dr. PrERCE Brodkorb 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 



Membership applications, subscriptions, renewals, changes 

of address, and orders for back numbers should 

be addressed to the Treasurer 



Correspondence regarding exchanges 
should be addressed to 

Gift and Exchange Section, University of Florida Libraries 
Gainesville, Florida 32601 



# 



w 

To Fc 



qvJ Quarterly Journal 



o 

j.i' 



¥? of the 

Florida Academy of Sciences 

Vol. 3 5 April 1972 Supplement to No. 1 

PROGRAM 

of the 
THIRTY SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING 

of the Academy in conjunction with the 

FLORIDA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

FLORIDA SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FAIR 

FLORIDA STATE SCIENCE TALENT SEARCH 

and Florida Section meetings of 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS 

THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida April 6, 7, 8, 1972 

. General Information 1 

Ladies Program 1 

Chronological Program of Events 2 

Section Programs 4 

Biological Sciences 4,29 

Physical Sciences 16, 35 

Medical Sciences 28, 35 

Conservation 21, 29 

Social Sciences 23, 28 

Science Teaching 25 

General Interest Sessions 28 

Public Symposia 28 

Addiction - Drugs and Alcohol 28 

Biological Effects of Electrical Power Generation. . 29 
Clean Air Technology for Surgery, Science and 

Industry 3 5 

Special Lectures 36 

The Space Frontier 36 

Pocket Fourier Spectroscopy 37 

Global Earth Control Satellite Net 21 

Sessions of Associated Florida Sections of: 

American Association of Physics Teachers 37 

Optical Society of America 37 

Florida State Science Talent Search 37 

Junior Academy of Science Program 39 

Map - Back Cover 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 
Editor: Pierce Brodkorb 



The Quarterly Journal welcomes original articles containing sig- 
nificant new knowledge, or new interpretation of knowledge, in any 
field of Science. Articles must not duplicate in any substantial way 
material that is published elsewhere. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

Rapid, efficient, and economical transmission of knowledge by means of 
the printed word requires full cooperation between author and editor. Revise 
copy before submission to insure logical order, conciseness, and clarity. 

Manuscripts should be typed double-space throughout, on one side of 
numbered sheets of 8V2 by 11 inch, smooth, bond paper. 

A Carbon Copy will facilitate review by referees. 

Margins should be 1% inches all around. 

Titles must not exceed 55 characters, including spaces. 

Footnotes should be avoided. Give Acknowledgments in the text and 
Address in paragraph form following Literature Cited. 

Literature Cited follows the text. Double-space and follow the form 
in the current volume. For articles give title, journal, volume, and inclusive 
pages. For books give title, publisher, place, and total pages. 

Tables are charged to authors at $20.00 per page or fraction. Titles 
must be short, but explanatory matter may be given in footnotes. Type each 
table on a separate sheet, double-space, unruled, to fit normal width of page, 
and place after Literature Cited. 

Legends for illustrations should be grouped on a sheet, double-spaced, in 
the form used in the current volume, and placed after Tables. Titles must be 
short but may be followed by explanatory matter. 

Illustrations are charged to authors ($17.00 per page or fraction). 
Drawings should be in India ink, on good board or drafting paper, and 
lettered by lettering guide or equivalent. Plan linework and lettering for re- 
duction, so that final width is 4% inches, and final length does not exceed 6% 
inches. Do not submit illustrations needing reduction by more than one-half. 
Photographs should be of good contrast, on glossy paper. Do not write 
heavily on the backs of photographs. 

Proof must be returned promptly. Leave a forwarding address in case 
of extended absence. 

Reprints may be ordered when the author returns corrected proof. 



Published by the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Printed by the Storter Printing Company 

Gainesville, Florida 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



All registrants for the Junior or Senior Academy meetings are welcomed to all 
technical sessions of both the junior and senior academies, to the Science Talent 
Search, the Science and Engineering Fair, the Academy Friday luncheon and the 
Junior Academy Banquet. Guests of registrants are also welcomed to the luncheon, 
but to the banquet on only a limited basis. The medalist's address and business 
meeting following the luncheon may be attended without attending the luncheon. 
The sessions of the Florida sections of the American Association of Physics Teachers 
and the Optical Society of America are open to all interested, and their members 
are welcome at the sessions of the Academy. Non-registrants are invited to the 
public symposia and panels on Thursday night and Saturday. 

Registration 

Registration for the Senior Academy will be in the foyer of the south entrance 
to the Bush Science Center during the following hours: 

Thursday 2:00 pm - 5:30 pm 

Friday 8 :00 am - 5 :00 pm 

Saturday 8:00 am -10:00 am 
Registration for the Junior Academy will be in the foyer of the north entrance to 
the Bush Science Center. 

Academy Luncheon 

A buffet luncheon will be served commencing at 11:45 am Friday in the Rose 
Skillman Dining Hall followed shortly after 12 : 30 In the same room by the Annual 
Business Meeting and the address of The 1972 Academy Medalist. The price of the 
luncheon is $3.00. It is possible to serve individuals only if they reserve places 
by March 27- A reservation form is enclosed for your convenience. 

Junior Academy Banquet 

A buffet banquet will be served commencing at 5:^5 pm in the Rose Skillman 
Dining Hall. 

Lodging 

Lodging needs to be reserved as far in advance as possible and will be 
extremely difficult to obtain in April. Suggestions on motels were sent with the 
call for papers . The Local Arrangements Chairman can give some help with group 
accommodations for students . 

Parking — According to map on rear cover. 

Commercial Exhibits — Rooms 119 and 123 Bush Science Center. 

Ladies Program , 

A tour of Disney World is scheduled for Friday, April 7th. Chartered buses 
will leave the A. G. Bush Science Center at 9:00 am. This tour will be approxi- 
mately eight hours. Seven Disney attractions will be included in the price of 
$6.50. Lunch will be up to the individual at the Disney World complex. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



Saturday, April 8th will be a special ladies day program of the Winter Park 

area. It will consist of: 

9:30 am Guided tour of the A. G. Bush Science Center 

10:30 am Guided tour of the Beal Shell Museum 

11:30 am Guided tour of the Morse Gallery 

1:00 pm Lunch break 

2:00 pm A boat tour of the Winter Park chain of lakes, ($1.00) 



CHRONOLOGICAL PROGRAM OF EVENTS 



10 am 
to 9 pm 

9:30 am 
10 am 

to 6 pm 
2:00 pm 

2:30 pm 
6:30 pm 
6 - 10 pm 
8:00 pm 



!:30 am 
to 5 pm 



9:00 am 



9:00 am 



9:00 am 
to 5 pm 



WEDNESDAY APRIL 5, 1972 
Registration and set up of Exhibits for 
Science Fair 

THURSDAY APRIL 6, 1972 



Science Fair Judges Meeting 
Science Fair Judging 

(Fair Closed to the Public) 
Illustrated Lecture: 

The Space Frontier 
Executive Council Meeting 
Executive Council Dinner 
Florida Science and Engineering Fair 
PUBLIC SYMPOSIUM: Addiction - 

Drugs and Alcohol 

Medical and Social Sciences Sections 

FRIDAY APRIL 7, 1972 



Florida State Science Talent Search 
Biological Sciences 
Physical Sciences 

(28 papers: detailed program avail- 
able at FAS registration desk) 

Regular Meeting FFFS - Board of 
Directors Regional and Local 
Directors , Regular and Committee 
Members , Science Teachers and 
Coordinators invited. Public 
Welcome 

Florida Junior Academy of Science 
Junior High Research Papers 

Senior High Literary Research 
Papers 

Florida Science and Engineering Fair 



Enyart Field 
House 



Crummer Auditorium 



108 Bush 
Pg. 36 
134 Bush 

Enyart Field House 
Bush Auditorium 
Pg. 28 



207 Bush 
210 Bush 



222 Crummer 

108 Bush 

Pg. 39 

Bush Auditorium 

Pg. 39 

Enyart Field House 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 



8:30 am 
8:30 am 
9:00 am 
9:00 am 
9:00 am 
9:00 am 
11:00 am 
11:45 am 



12:30 pm 
12:40 pm 
1:10 pm 
1:00 pm 



1:15 pm 
2:00 pm 



6:00 pm 



7:00 pm 
8:00 pm 



7:30 - 

12 am 
8:15 



8:30 am 
9:00 am 
11:00 am 



1:30 pm 



2;00pm 



2:00 pm 



TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

Biological Sciences Section.A 

Biological Sciences Section, B 

Physical Sciences Section 

Conservation Section 

Social Sciences Section 

Science Teaching Section 
Junior Academy Sponsor's Meeting 
Academy Annual Luncheon 

(Reservations required) 

Welcome to Rollins College 

1972 Medalist's Address 

Academy Business Meeting 
Florida Junior Academy General 

Session 
Highschool Experimental Research 

Papers 
TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

Biological Sciences Section,A 

Biological Sciences Section, B 

Physical Sciences Section 

American Association of Physics 
Teachers 

Social Sciences Section 

Science Teaching Section 
Junior Academy Banquet 

(Senior Academy welcomed) 

(Reservations required) 
Social period (Senior Academy) 
Awards Assembly: Fair, Talent Search, 
Junior Academy 

SATURDAY APRIL 8, 1972 



Removal of Science Fair Exhibits 

PUBLIC TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM 
Biological Effects of Electrical 
Power Generation I , Biological 
Sciences and Conservation Sects . 

Physical Sciences Section 

Optical Society of America 

Special Lecture: Pocket Fourier 
Spectroscopy; Optical Society of 
America, American Association of 
Physics Teachers , and Physical 
Sciences Section 

PUBLIC SYMPOSIUM 

Clean Air Technology for Surgery , 
Science and Industry , Medical and 
Physical Sciences Sections 

PUBLIC TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM 
Biological Effects of Electrical 
Power Generation II, Biological 
Sciences and Conservation Sections . 

Optical Society of America 



326 Bush Pg. 4 

328 Bush Pg. 7 

114 Bush Pg. 16 

325 Bush Pg. 21 

308 Bush Pg. 23 

301 Bush Pg. 25 
134 Bush 
Skillman Dining 
Hall 



Bush Auditorium 
Pg.40 

Bush Auditorium 

Pg.40 

326 Bush Pg. 10 
328 Bush Pg. 13 
114 Bush Pg. 18 
107 Bush Pg. 36 

308 Bush Pg. 23 
301 Bush Pg. 25 
Skillman Dining 
Hall 

Langford Hotel 
Knowles Memorial 
Chapel 



108 Bush Pg. 29 



326 Bush Pg. 20 
328 Bush Pg. 37 

Bush Auditorium 
Pg. 37 



Bush Auditorium 
Pg. 35 



108 Bush Pg. 32 



328 Bush Pg. 37 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Friday 8:30 A.M. , Session A 

R. W. Long (University of South Florida) presiding 

BS-1 Or dinal records for Florida fungi . B.R. POHLAD, DON R. REYNOLDS, 

Florida Technological University . 

8:45 

BS-2 Microbial Ecology of Vascular Aquatic Plants .* BETTY OAKS, 
W.S. SILVER, R.L. MANSELL, University of South Florida . — As a prelim- 
inary to finding microbes which might be useful in controlling noxious 
aquatic weeds, a study is being made of the autochthonous flora of 
Eichhornia and Hydrilla. The effect of selection site, season and other 
environmental conditions on the microflora will be discussed. 

*Research supported by NSF GY-9180, SWFWMD and Florida Department of 
Natural Resources. 



9:00 

BS-3 Effects of Irradiation on Fecal Coliform, M-Pyogenis, and M- 
Smegmatis Bacteria . DAVID D. WOODBRIDGE, WILLIAM R. GARRETT, ROBERT F. 
RICHMOND, PRISCILLA C. COOPER, Florida Institute of Technology . — Destruc- 
tion of bacteria without chemical contamination of water is of prime 
importance in man's fight against pollution. Under a contract with the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.C.P.R. has found that the degree of kill of 
bacteria is a function of the dissolved oxygen in the carrier solution as 
well as the radiation dosages. Results are present of the effectiveness of 
irradiation on three different bacteria at various levels of dissolved 
oxygen. 



9:15 

BS-4 Vegetational Changes in the National Key Deer Refuge - III. 
TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER, JOHN D. DICKSON III, University of Miami .— This study 
of a pineland area measures the effect of mechanical cutting and removal of 
vegetation with a bulldozer as a substitute for fire to maintain deer browse 
plants. Field work was done 28 months after bulldozing. Data from 50 
quadrats show good recovery of woody pineland species and an increase in 
herbaceous species used by deer. Deer use of the cleared area is heavy. 



9:30 

BS-5 Ethnobotany of Chokoloskee Island, Florida. DANIEL F. AUSTIN, 
DAVID MACJUNKIN, Florida Atlantic University . — Floristic and historical 
studies were made to determine man's prehistoric and historic effects on 
the vegetation of Chokoloskee Island. Particular emphasis has been placed 
on ethnic plant residuals, stands modified aboriginally and colonially, 
and recently naturalized exotics. The current destructive impact of 
residents and tourists on the ecology of the island will be described and 
illustrated. Our study indicates that most, if not all, vegetation on the 
island is experiencing secondary succession. The island flora contains 
40% ethnic plants, 40% strand plants, and 20% classified as other (i.e. 
native, etc.). 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



9:45 

BS-6 Nutrient Relationships in Mature and Fire Damaged Stands of 
Sawgrass . K.K. STEWARD, W.H. ORNES, R.E. ELLISTON, PSRD, ARS , USDA , 
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida . — Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 
in the tissue of plants from mature unburned stands of sawgrass remained 
constant from month to month. This indicated that levels in the tissue did 
not change with increased age of the tissue. The levels of these nutrients 
were initially higher in young tissue of plants regrowing after fires than 
in plants from unburned mature stands. The highest levels in young tissue 
occurred immediately after the fires and decreased over a three month 
period to levels similar to those in plants from mature stands. The con- 
centrations of the nutrients in mature sawgrass stands were at the extreme 
low end of the range of previously reported values for Everglades vegetation. 
These values expressed as percent of oven dry plant weight were 0.5 to 0.7% 
nitrogen, 0.03 to 0.04% phosphorus and 0.5 to 0.7% potassium. Soil con- 
tents of these nutrients were also low. Low nutrient levels in both soil 
and plants indicated that sampling sites were infertile. 

10:00 

BS-7 Leaf Morphology in the Systematics of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) 
of South Florida .* C.P. SREEMADHAVAN, University of South Florida . --This 
paper will explore the possibility of using the following characters of 
the leaf for recognition of specific and infraspecific taxa of Chamaesyce 
S.F. Gray: (1) Size, shape, nature of the margin, apex, and base; (2) 
Major and minor venation patterns; (3) Types of stomata; (4) Size, shape, 
and arrangement of epidermal cells in relation to epidermal appendages; 
and (5) Epidermal appendages. Reexamination leading to probable reassign- 
ment of the following taxa is recommended : Chamaesyce ammanioides , C_. 
cumulicola , the three varieties of C_. porteriana and the infraspecific taxa 
of C. deltoidea . 

Research supported by NSF. 

10:15 

BS-8a An Investigation of the Stomatal Apparatus of Certain Bahamian 
Flora .* BRUCE D. JACKSON, Miami-Dade Junior College, North .— Abaxial and 
adaxial surfaces of Bahamian plantsl were investigated as to (1) frequency 
and size of guard cells; (2) subsidiary cell patterns; (3) presence of 
outstanding epidermal appendages. Preliminary data reveal that plant 
families have particular subsidiary cell patterns which would indicate 
that these patterns may be used as a diagnostic tool. 

*This paper was part of a directed individual research study under 
Professor Harold Yaffa, Miami-Dade Junior College, North. 

-•■The plants used in this research were generously provided by Fairchild 
Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida. 



10:30 

BS-8b The Phosphorus Nutrition of Hydrilla . K.K. STEWARD, PSRD, ARS , 
USDA, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida .— (Hydrilla verticillata Casp.) was cultured 
from vegetative propagules in nutrient solutions containing a range of 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science, 1 



phosphorus (P) concentrations to study the P requirements of this aquatic 
plant. The dry weight, total P accumulation and bicarbonate utilization of 
plants increased with increased concentration of P in solutions and with 
time. Bicarbonate utilization was directly related to increase in plant 
dry weight. The levels of P in tissue were proportional to concentration of 
P in solutions but decreased with time regardless of solution concentration. 
The total P content of plants grown without added P remained constant 
through seven weeks of growth. The P reserves in the propagules of these 
plants were sufficient to produce a dry matter yield of 1127 mg after 50 
days. The addition of 1.7 mg P produced a 57% increase in yield over the 
same time period. The results of these experiments suggest that hydrilla 
has a low requirement for P. 

10:45 

BS-9 Preliminary Biochemical Studies of the Effect of Diquat on Hydrilla 
verticillata .* R.E. WOODWARD, R.L. MANSELL, W.S. SILVER, University of 
South Florida . — Hydrilla populations in three Hillsborough County lakes were 
sprayed with diquat by the bivert system. Observations were made on the 
subsequent physical changes which occurred in each site. Samples were 
collected and analyzed for changes in flavanoid and phenolic acid compo- 
sition. 
*Research supported by SWFWMD and Florida Department of Natural Resources. 

11:00 

BS-10 Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Eichornia crassipes .* 

D.E. KING, R.L. MANSELL, University of South Florida . — Qualitative analysis 

was done on leaves and flowers of naturally occurring populations of IS. 

crassipes . The flavonoid constituents, phenolic acids and their derivatives 

were analyzed. A total of three falvonoid compounds were found to exist in 

abundance and both free and esterified cinnamic and benzoic acid components 

were identified. 

*Research supported in part by an NSF Grant GY-9180. 

11:15 

BS-11 Analysis of Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase activity and anthocyanin 
biosynthesis in developing flower petals of Impatiens balsamina L_. 
SUZANNE MRAS, R.R. HARRELL, JR., R.L. MANSELL, University of South Florida .-- 
The activity of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase and the concentration of 
anthocyanin pigment was determined in seven different stages of development 
in flower tissue. The results show that the major synthesis of pigment 
begins during the middle stages of development and ceases before maturation 
of the tissue. Enzyme activity closely parallels the appearance of pigment. 
The significance of this enzyme and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis will 
be discussed. 

11:30 

BS-12 Para-Coumaric Acid Hydroxylase Activity in Flower Petals of 
Impatiens balsamina . DESTINY TOLEDO, R.L. MANSELL, University of South 
Florida . — Acetone powders of I_. balsamina flower tissue yielded active 
preparations of p_-coumaric acid hydroxylase. The activity of this enzyme 
has been determined in four different stages of flower development. The 
possible role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in this 
tissue will be discussed. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



11:45 

BS-13 The fine structure of Nocardia polychromogenes as revealed by 
scanning and transmission electron microscopy . * C . S . HUANG , Chipola Jr . 
College , G.E. MICHAELS, University of Georgia .— This paper will describe 
the morphological characteristics of Nocardia . The cell growth of N. 
polychromogenes on both Carbon Utilization Agar (CUA) and Nutrient Broth 
plus 2% Yeast Extract (NBTE) were studied by scanning and transmission 
electron microscopy (SEM & TEM) . A 2% osmium tetraoxide was used to fix 
the isolated colonies for SEM studies. Haystacked colonies with three 
bands around the cylindrical arthrospores were found in N. polychromogenes . 
The relationship between hyphael segmentation, fragmentation, and colonial 
structure were revealed by SEM micrographs of N_. asteroides . For TEM 
studies, the cells were fixed by a modification of the procedure outlined 
by Kellenberger. The cells were dehydrated in ethyl alcohol, cleared in 
propylene oxide, and embedded in maraglass. Thin sections of the bacteria 
were grown on NBYE for 36 hr and revealed the complex relationship between 
vesicular mesosomes and transverse septum formation. Multiple and irregular 
septation were found in 48 cultures. 



*Research supported by NSF Grant GY-8550. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Friday, 8:30 A.M. Session B, Room 328 

F. E. Friedl (University of South Florida) presiding 

8:30 

BS-14 Mesenterial Filaments from Manic ina areolata (Linn.) . RAYMOND 

K. DUROS, University of Miami . — A brief study of the elongate filaments 

abundantly extruded by the Common Rose Coral, M. areolata , and the nema- 

tocyst capsules contained in them. Somewhat detailed descriptions of the 

filaments and of the contained capsules are given. The latter constitute 

two rather distinct types of specialized nematocysts, namely holotrichs 

and microbasic p-mastigophores. Their discharge, probable functions, and 

importance in coelenterate taxonomy are briefly reviewed. 



8:45 

BS-15 Preliminary notes on the sexual maturity and fecundity of 
Idotea metallica , BOSC (Crustacea, Isopoda) . F.E. PITTS, S.B. COLLARD, 
University of West Florida . — Idotea metallica is a pelagic species of 
marine Isopod, about which very little specific ecology has been reported. 
Approximately 1000 specimens were captured by Dr. S.B. Collard in May, 
1969, from the Mediterranean Sea while aboard the R/V Atlantis II owned 
by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The specimens were taken with 
neuston tows on transects from the Island of Rhodes to Naples. The labora- 
tory study of the samples consisted of noting the relationships between 
size of the female and fecundity, and between specimen size and apparent 
sexual maturity. It was found that the numbers of eggs per gravid female 
were not necessarily dependent on the numbers and types of factors involved. 
It was also found that the sexes could be distinguished in younger specimens 
than previously reported. Further, some specimens of both male and female 
were found to be somewhat larger than sizes previously reported. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



9:00 

BS-16 Some Aspects of the Development of Clypeaster rosaceus . CHARLES 
N. D'ASARO. — In an effort to determine the developmental origin of the 
irregular characters of Clypeaster rosaceus , this species was cultured for 
two months. The larvae were short-term planktotrophs and completed meta- 
morphosis in one week. Post-larvae were reared until they were recogniz- 
able as clypeasteroids. The complete ontogeny was outlined up to that point; 
and it was shown that the irregular characters arose days after metamorphosis. 
Certain unexpected facts relating to the juvenile's habits were discovered. 



9:15 

BS-17 Reproductive periodicity and gametogenesis in a sand dollar , 
Mellita quinquiesperf orata , population near Tampa Bay, Florida . JACQUELENE 
MOSS, University of South Florida . — The spawning time of a population of 
the sand dollar, Mellita quinquiesperf orata , was determined using four 
different approaches: gonadal index, histological examination of gonads, 
appearance of larvae in the plankton, and appearance of young in the bottom. 
From gonad index, spawning appeared to begin in spring and end in early 
summer. From appearance of larvae in the plankton and appearance of young, 
a major spawning period appears to take place during spring, proceeding to 
a lesser degree throughout summer and early fall. Histological sections of 
gonads showed that Mellita became reproductively mature at one year of age 
and young animals spawn earlier than older ones. Yearly comparisons indi- 
cate water temperature as well as age composition of the adult population 
influence beginning of spawning as well as duration. The population is not 
synchronous . 



9:30 

BS-18 Histological Analysis of Neurosecretory Granules in Spinulosida 
and Platyasterida (Echinodermata:Asteroidea) . D.G. ATWOOD, University of 
South Florida . — Neurosecretory granules were demonstrated in nervous tissues 
of 3 asteroids ( Echinaster echinophorus , Luidia clathrata and Patiria miniata ) 
using five common neurosecretory staining procedures. Fuchsinophilic granules 
existed within the sensory and motor nervous elements of the radial nerve 
and tube feet, as well as in sensory regions of the body epidermis and 
cardiac stomach. No granules were found in the extensive nervous plexus of 
the oral and aboral walls and Tiedemann's diverticulum of the pyloric caeca. 
Fuchsinophilic substances within sensory elements ranged in diameter size 
from diffuse particles to 2.0 microns, whereas granules within motor tissues 
ranged from diffuse particles to 1.0 microns. 



9:45 

BS-19 Dissodactylus : A Commensal (?) Crab . DANA BETH TYLER, University 
of West Florida . — The biological relationships between the pinnotherid 
crab genus Dissodactylus and its various echinoderm hosts was investigated. 
The ingestion of host tissue by the crab, possibly as an energy or nutrient 
source, was tentatively demonstrated. It is hoped to more conclusively 
show this by using histochemical techniques and dietary experiments. Larval 
relationships to the host were also investigated. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



10:15 

BS-20 Anoxic Capacity of Glottidia pyramidata (Stim.) Pall, (Brachiopoda: 
Inarticulata) . J.H. SCHMIDT, University of South Florida . — Groups of from 
10 to 20 organisms were subjected to zero oxygen tensions in filtered sea- 
water in complete darkness for varying time periods up to 12 days. Juveniles 
were able to withstand anoxia for up to 8 days with no mortality. Adults 
could only withstand 48 hours of anoxia without considerable mortality. 

Juveniles adapted to an anaerobic environment for 4 days and 
aerobicly adapted juveniles were placed in Warburg flasks. Their oxygen 
consumption rates were determined under identical conditions. Anerobicly 
adapted animals consumed oxygen at an average rate of 103.2ul/g (dry wt.) 
per hour. Aerobicly adapted animals consumed oxygen at an average rate of 
48.8ul/g (dry wt.) per hour. 

Deposition of a black pigment was noted during anaerobiosis in 
the tissues of both juvenile and adult organisms. It was seen to disappear 
from juveniles on return to an aerobic environment. 



10:30 

BS-21 Indications of anaerobiosis in Anthopleura krebsii Duchassaing and 
Michelotti, and inter tidal sea anemone . H.S. BOLTON, University of South 
Florida . — Anthopleura krebsii has been observed to exist unsubmerged for 
extended periods of time. Since the animal appears to be inactive at these 
times, one might ask if its oxygen uptake decreases and if in fact the 
animal maintains its metabolic functions at greatly reduced rates. 

In studies on its respiratory rate, it was noted that, in the dark 
with oxygen displaced from its seawater environment by nitrogen, A. krebsii 
can exist for at least 14 days. Oxygen in this closed system was undetec- 
table using the Winkler method. 

Since oxygen is used when available, alternate respiratory pathways 
are suggested. Schemes similar to those already described for the nematode, 
Ascaris , and other invertebrates could be operable in this anemone. 



10:45 

BS-22 The Sertoli cell-spermatozoan relationship in the teleost Poecilia 
latipinna .* H. GRIER, University of South Florida . — An ultrastructural 
investigation of the testis of Poecilia latipinna indicates that Sertoli 
cells serve a supportive function for mature sperm as has been described 
in higher vertebrates. The Sertoli cells of this teleost also ingest the 
cytoplasmic remnant cast off by the spermatozoa during spermiogenesis. 
Ingestion of the cytoplasmic remnants of sperm is characterized by increased 
lysosomal activity on the part of the Sertoli cell. 

*Research supported by a Grant-in-Aid of Research by the Society of the 
Sigma Xi. 



11:00 

BS-23 Pituitary eta cell function in embryos and juveniles of the teleost 
Poecilia latipinna . H. GRIER, University of South Florida . 



10 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



11:15 

BS-24 Genetic factors affecting pupation site in laboratory stocks of 
Drosophila melanogas ter . JAMES P. MATTESON, JOHN R. BAYLIS, JR., University 
of West Florida . — Differences between laboratory stocks of Drosophila 
melanogaster in the location of pupae was observed. In some stocks all pupae 
were located relatively close (<^5 cm) to the food. In other stocks many of 
the pupae were located a greater distance (-^8 cm) from the food. Crosses 
were made between "high" and "low" stocks and carried through several 
generations. The results of these crosses indicate that pupation site 
differences are under the control of polygenes. 

11:30 

BS-25 Courtship behavior and evidence for a sex attractant in the Caribbean 
fruit fly . JAMES L. NATION, University of Florida . — Males of Anastrepha 
suspensa (Loew.) court and attract females. Courting males distend the 
pleural region of the abdomen to form a small bubble or puff on each side and 
may also evert a pouch of cuticle surrounding the anal area. The wings may 
be vibrated rapidly at intervals during the puffing behavior. Males can 
attract females in a laboratory bioassay over a distance of 10 inches. 
Percent attraction data for different ages of males and females will be 
shown. Up to 50% of the virgin females in a laboratory test can be attracted 
at 11 days of age. Attraction is less for flies that are younger or older 
than this age. Mated females are still attracted to males, though in 
smaller numbers than virgin females. Glands suspected of producing a phero- 
mone have been found in males. 

11:45 

BS-25a The Destruction of Red Mangrove Prop Roots by the Wood Boring Isopod 

Shaeroma destructor (Richardson) Along the West Coast of Florida A. H. REHM 
University of Florida Research supported in part by - The Society ot the Sigma XI 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Friday, 2:00 pm, Session A , Room 326 

Joseph L. Simon (University of South Florida) presiding 

2:00 

BS-26 Polychaete Fauna Associated with Gulf of Mexico Sponges . DANIEL 
M. DAUER, University of South Florida . Thirty-four species of polychaetous 
annelids were found associated with eight species of sponges from the Gulf 
of Mexico. All sponges were collected by scuba diving and placed individually 
in plastic bags. The contents were sieved with a 0.5 mm sieve to obtain the 
polychaetes associated with the sponge cortex. The sponges were dissected 
to find the polychaetes living within the body of the sponge. 

The polychaete fauna is dominated in total numbers and in relative 
abundance by Syllis spongicola Grube. A few polychaetes ( Branchiosyllis 
oculata Ehlers, Branchiosyllis sp., and Polydora colonia Moore) were found 
with high relative abundances and rare occurrences in different sponges. 
Approximately 80% of the polychaetes found associated with sponges occur in 
relatively low abundances and rarely in a large number of sponge species. 
The majority cf polychaetes occur randomly with sponges. Their appearance 
is determined primarily by the external morphology of the sponge rather 
than by the species. 



uarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



2:15 

BS-27 Chaetognaths as Bioindicators in the Gulf of Mexico . ROBERT H. 
MATTLIN, JR., University of West Florida .— Chaetognaths have historically 
been shown to be useful bioindicators of certain watermasses. The present 
study investigates the usefullness of chaetognaths as bioindicators of 
watermasses in the Gulf of Mexico, with emphasis placed on the identification 
of the Loop Current and its meanders. Chaetognaths from plankton samples 
collected under the auspices of the State University System Florida Institute 
of Oceanography during EGMEX I-V cruises are being utilized. Specimens were 
collected using meter nets, neuston nets, and one-half meter opening-closing 
nets. The systematics and numbers of specimens are compared from each 
sampling location. Corresponding physico-chemical data are compared with 
biological information. From these comparisons, the relationship between 
species and abundance of chaetognaths and watermass characteristics are 
being established. 



2:30 

BS-28 A preliminary Survey of Marine Tardigrades of Florida . D.J. 
MCKIRDY, University of South Florida . — A survey was carried out from July, 
1971 through January, 1972. Collections on both Florida coasts yielded 
representatives of all four known marine tardigrade families comprising 
five genera and eight species. Four are previously described species: 
Batillipes mirus , Batillipes bullacaudatus , Batillipes pennaki , and 
Echiniscoides sigismundi ; while the remaining four are new or as yet un- 
identified species of Batillipes , Stygarctus , Styraconyx , and Halechiniscus , 
The latter three genera in addition to Echiniscoides , B_. bullacaudatus , 
and B_. pennaki are reported for the first time from Florida. Taxonomic 
characters used to distinguish species as well as relative abundances 
and distributions are discussed. 



2:45 

BS-29 Comparison of Quantitative Methods for the Estimation of Plankton 
Populations . SANDRA F. MILLER, University of West Florida . — Efficiencies 
of various quantitative methods for the estimation of plankton populations 
are being determined. The advantages and disadvantages of the most common 
methods propose the need for such a comparison. Data from membrane filtra- 
tion techniques, settling or sedimentation techniques, and live counts 
for the estimation of organisms per unit volume, are being statistically 
analized to determine precision within methods, compared with methods 
incorporating biomass estimations. Accuracy, time involved, efficiency, 
and expense of the methods will allow recommendations to be made, which 
will help future investigators in choosing a method best suited to their 
needs. 



3:00 COFFEE BREAK 



12 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



3:15 

BS-30 The Lethal Pathogen, Labyrinthomyxa marina, and other Causes of 
the Escambia Bay, Florida Oyster Mortality of September, 1971 . J. A. QUICK, 
JR. , National Marine Fisheries Service of NOAA* — An oyster kill (Crassostrea 
virginica Gmelin) was reported on the commercial reefs in Escambia Bay, 
Florida, on September 7, 1971, and an immediate investigation was launched 
by the Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Laboratory. 
Mortalities had been rapid, extensive, and severe with 100% oyster loss in 
most areas and most deaths occurring in three days. The direct cause was 
an epizootic of the pathogenic fungus, Labyrinthomyxa marina (Mackin, Owen, 
and Collier) Mackin and Ray, but several other factors indirectly contri- 
buted to the kill, particularly the poor water quality of this industrially 
polluted bay system. Shell aging showed the commercial harvest to consist 
almost entirely of the second and third year classes indicating at least 
three years would be required for natural recovery. Extensive oyster 
relaying operations are underway to shorten this recovery period. 

*Financed by the National Marine Fisheries Service of NOAA, through the 
Commercial Fisheries Research and Development Act , (Public Law 88-309) . 



3:30 

BS-31 A Preliminary Survey of Mangrove Communities in Florida .* J.M. 
CARLTON, University of South Florida . — This paper will report on investiga- 
tions being carried out on the plants associated with the mangrove vegeta- 
tion of the Florida shoreline. Some preliminary work from selected sampling 
stations along both coasts will be noted with reference to species composi- 
tion and ecological factors affecting these communities. 

A preliminary study of Rhizophora mangle L. on Virginia Key, 
Biscayne Bay, will be reported on, having made use of aerial photographs 
for determinations of growth rates over a five year period. 

*Research supported by National Science Foundation and Tropical Botany 
Seminar, University of Miami. 



3:45 

BS-32 A Quantitative Evaluation of Red-Tide Induced Mass Mortalities of 
Benthic Invertebrates in Tampa Bay, Florida .* JOSEPH L. SIMON, DANIEL M. 
DAUER, University of South Florida . — Mid- July to mid-August, 1971, a massive 
outbreak of the Red Tide organism ( Gymnodinium breve ) occurred along the 
west-central coast of Florida. Massive fish kills were reported especially 
heavy in Tampa Bay. Sampling and analysis of data immediately after the 
red-tide have shown that benthic intertidal invertebrates in parts of the 
bay were almost completely eliminated. Quantitative data before and after 
the outbreak showed that of the 22 commonest invertebrate species present 
prior to the red-tide, only 4 species were present after - and those in 
markedly reduced numbers. Among the species killed off were polychaetes, 
amphipods, crabs, bivalves, gastropods, phoronids, and amphioxus. A study 
is underway to follow repopulation. 

*Supported by NSF Grant GA-31769 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 13 



4:00 

BS-32a Problems of aquatic weeds. Hydrilla verticillata - a 
case study. RAYMOND D. MARTYN, JR., DONALD S. MCCORQUODALE , JR. 
6 THOMAS T. STURROCK, Florida Atlantic University. 



4:15 

BS-32b Laboratory cultivation of Hydrilla verticillata. 
DONALD S. MCCORQUODALE, JR., RAYMOND D. MARTYN, JR. & THOMAS 
T. STURROCK, Florida Atlantic University. 



4:30 

BS-33 Organism-Substrate Relationships in the Fiddler Crab Uca minax . 
NICHOLAS H. WHITING, University of West Florida . — Organism-substrate re- 
lationships in the fiddler crab, Uca minax were investigated over a two- 
year period. Sites studied involved locations on a thermally-augmented 
tributary, as well as thermally-natural sites on the Escambia River, Pensacola, 
Escambia County, Florida. Particular interest was directed toward the role 
of temperature, oxygen and organic content of the substrate, as these para- 
meters affect the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. 



4:45 BUSINESS MEETING - BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION, Room 326 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Friday, 2:00 pm, Session B, Room 328 

Glen E . Woolfenden (University of South Florida) presiding 



2:00 

BS-34 Metabolic Characteristics of the Golden Mouse, Ochrotomys nuttalli . 
P.G. DOLAN, Florida Technological University , J.N. LAYNE, Archbold Biological 
Station . — The conductance, basal metabolic rate (BMR) , and thermoneutral 
zone (TNZ) and its limits were examined in the golden mouse, Ochrotomys 
AuttaJJLi, by means of oxygen consumption, in order to determine whether a 
relationship existed between these physiological characteristics and the 
ecology and distribution of the species. Comparisons were made with various 
species and subspecies of Peromyscus . 

Ochrotomys exhibited a lower BMR (1.20cc 02~g~ -hr -1 ) and a narrower 
TNZ (3.0°C) than any Peromyscus of similar size. With the possible exception 
of conductance, the study offers little evidence of a correlation between 
metabolic rates and environmental conditions. The ecology and distribution 
of Ochrotomys does not appear strongly influenced by its metabolic make-up. 



14 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



2:15 

BS-35 Nest-building Behavior in Three Subspecies of Peromyscus polionotus . 
L.M. EKRHART, Florida Technological University . — Two measures of nest-build- 
ing propensity were used to compare this behavior among populations of old- 
field mice ( Peromyscus polionotus ) from central Alabama; Santa Rosa Island, 
Florida; and Marion Co., Florida. Comparisons were also made between males 
and females and between field-captured and laboratory-raised subjects. The 
results suggest relationships between the strength of the nest-building re- 
sponse and environmental factors. Motor patterns involved in nest building 
are also discussed. 

z:30 

BS-36 Notes on a Trematode (Monogenea: Mazocraeidae) and its Host 
Stromateus stellatus (Stromateoidei) . ARTHUR BUTT, University of West 
Florida . — Trematodes were collected from the butterfish Stromateus stellatus . 
Collections were made off the coast of Correll, Chile in 1967 and preserved 
in 70% alcohol. Trematodes were provisionally placed in the family 
Mazocraeidae (four pair of U-shaped clamps, two pair of unequal and dissimilar 
anchors, armed genital atrium, and two well developed prohaptors) . Their 
opisthaptors and related structures were asymmetrical. Nineteen of the 
twenty-six trematodes observed had greater clamp development on the right 
side. Trematodes were rather large (3.5-6.0 mm in length) in comparison to 
the size of the gill filaments (7.5-10.5 mm in length). The host-parasite 
association may be considered an example of hyperparasitism (sensu Mansueti, 
1963). The butterfishes are associated with scyphomedusae and siphonophorans 
which they seasonally feed upon voraciously. 

2:45 

BS-37 Notes on a Monogenetic Trematode and its Fish Host, Siganus 
rivulatus . CARROLL BERNIER, SNEED COLLARD, University of West Florida .— 
Fishes of the family Siganidae collected by gill net near acre (or Akko) 
in Israel and preserved in 10% formalin-seawater , were necropsied for 
metazoan symbiotes. Only monogenetic trematodes were recovered from 
S.. rivulatus (a known Red Sea-to-Mediterranean Sea migrator) . The depauperate 
symbiotic fauna observed may be an indication that heterogenetic helminths 
and Crustacea have not been as successful as their fish hosts in successfully 
making the Suez Canal migration. A preliminary description of the trematode 
and the host-parasite relationship is presented. 

3:00 COFFEE BREAK 

3:15 

BS-38 Notes on Epigean Populations of Fishes in Subterranean Waters of 
Florida . KENNETH RELYEA, BRUCE SUTTON, Jacksonville University . --No 
troglobitic fishes are known from Florida subterranean waters, but several 
species of epigean fishes are. These include: Anguilla rostrata , the 
American Eel; Hybopsis harperi , the creek chub; and Ictalurus natalis , the 
yellow bullhead. Subterranean populations of Hybopsis and Ictalurus from 
caves west of Gainesville, in Alachua County, are discussed. Populations of 
these fishes are apparently small and are found near sink-shafts which 
afford a "funnel-effect" for energy input. Analysis of stomach contents of 
the subterranean bullhead indicates some predation on troglobitic cray- 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 15 



fishes, but the major food item appears to be springtails. Genetic and/or 
developmental abnormalities suggest that the bullheads are isolated from 
epigean populations. 



3:30 

BS-39 The Abundance and Size of Gulf Menhaden, Brevoortia patronus , 
Caught by Seine Haul in Mulatto Bayou, near Pensacola, Florida, from June , 
1969 to June, 1971 . MICHAEL D. SCHMITT, University of West Florida .-- 
Mulatto Bayou is a semi-enclosed estuary, 214 acres in area, on the eastern 
side of Escambia Bay, approximately 16 nautical miles from the Gulf of 
Mexico. Three sites were seined twice monthly. Menhaden were counted and 
the length of individuals in a representative subsample were measured. 
Brevoortia patronus was present during all months except December, 1969 and 
January, 1970. Juveniles, 20-30 mm standard length (SL), were present from 
February to April in 1970 and 1971, and most abundant during the latter 
month. From May to November, a second, larger size class of individuals 
(60-100 mm SL) composed an increasingly larger part of the menhaden captured. 



3:45 

BS-40 Observations on the Behavior and Feeding Habits of the Atlantic 
Needlefish, Strongylura marina (Walbaum) and the Halfbeak, Hyporhamphus 
unifasciatus (Ranzani) — Suborder Exocoetoidei .* R.G. GILMORE, JR., 
University of West Florida . — Strongylura marina was found to inhabit a 
Northwest Florida estuary (Pensacola Bay and vicinity) throughout the year 
regardless of dramatic temperature and salinity change, while Hyporhamphus 
unifasciatus was found only during warmer months of the year (April-September) 
but in the Gulf of Mexico year around. The feeding habits of S^. marina were 
found to be opportunistic reflecting the abundance of various food types 
during the year and the ecotope in which it was found. The halfbeak was 
also opportunistic and omnivorous in its diet. 

Section from Master's Thesis, University of West Florida, Pensacola. 

4:00 

BS-41 Current Research on the Biology of Bonefish, Albula vulpes, in 
Florida Waters . GERARD E. BRUGER, Florida Department of Natural Resources . — 
Aspects of the biology of the bonefish, Albula vulpes (Linnaeus), are under 
investigation using juvenile and adult specimens collected in south Florida 
waters. Significant differences are evident in growth rates of males and 
females, the males weighing more than females until approximately 400 mm 
SL. Bonefish may attain an age of over ten years. Confirmation of age 
estimates is awaiting examination of museum specimens in the 85-200 mm SL 
range. 

Reports from investigators in south Florida and elsewhere indicate 
that juveniles less than 200 mm SL may be found over mud bottoms in 
mangrove areas. This aspect of juvenile ecology parallels that of the 
closely related elopomorphs, Megalops atlanticus and Elops saurus . Bone- 
fish are carnivores, feeding primarily on bivalve mollusks, crustaceans, 
and to a lesser extent, fishes. 



16 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



Detailed histological studies of gonadal maturation are underway. 
Specimens 200-300 mm SL collected at depths of 5.5-12.2 m between October 
and December were ripe or ripening. Larger specimens collected at the 
same time of year from shallow waters were not ripe. Since morphometric 
and meristic studies indicate conspecif icity, this aspect of their life 
history is unexplained. 



4:15 

BS-42 Maintenance of Toxicity in Sphoeroides testudineus, the checkered 
puffer . EDWARD LARSON, MURRAY GIRARD, WARREN ZEILLER, Miami Seaquarium .— 
A group of Sphoeroides testudineus , the checkered puffer, was maintained 
under laboratory conditions. Assays for toxicity of various tissues by 
the mouse injection technique were made on certain number of these fish 
at the start of the experimental period and at intervals of 3, 6 and 9 
months. Preliminary results show equal levels of toxicity. A group of 
Lutjanus griesus , gray snapper, treated in the same manner, served as a 
control. 

4:30 

BS-43 Limnological Festures of Lake Izabal, Guatemala . F.G. NORDLIE, 
University of Florida . — Lake Izabal is a large, relatively shallow lake 
forming the upper end of an estuarine system draining into the Gulf of 
Honduras. While the water is fresh, many of the organisms present - 
especially fishes - are of marine origin. An investigation of some basic 
limnological features of the lake was carried out during two visits - one 
in the late summer of 1969 and the second in the spring of 1970. The fea- 
tures studied included oxygen and temperature profiles, plankton, primary 
production, and bottom fauna. The most unexpected result of the investi- 
gation was the discovery of large numbers of Tanaidacea in the soft muds 
of the benthic regions. 

4:45 BUSINESS MEETING - BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES SECTION, Room 326 



PHYSICAL SCIENCES SECTION 



Friday 9:00 am 

P. L. Edwards, (University of West Florida) presiding 

PS - 1 Carbonate Geochemistry , or Everything You always Wanted to Know About the 
Shell Game but Were Afraid to Ask WILLIAM H. TAFT and DEAN F. MARTIN Univer - 
sity of South Florida 

The results of field and laboratory studies of carbonate paradoxes will be sum- 
marized. What makes a theoretically unstable form of calcium carbonate persist 
in the marine environment? Why is the ocean supersaturated with respect to cal- 
cium carbonate? Why isn't more calcium carbonate being formed in the ocean? 
And, what are those metal ions doing in there, anyway? 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



17 



9:30 

PS - 2 The Making and Use of Random Dot Stereograms . MICHAEL T. HYSON, Univer- 
sity of Miami. Random dot stereograms represent an interesting class of visual 
stimuli in which the information content may be precisely controlled through the 
use of a digital computer. 

They are of great use in the study of visual processing by the brain and 
pattern recognition studies. The technique has, as well, many possible applica- 
tion in the field of mapping, flight simulation, and remote sensing. 

The use of the Calcomp and Milgo plotters as a more universal technique 
will be discussed. 

Various examples of stereograms will be presented by poloroid projection 
and hand held viewer. Stereograms yielding planes and tilted planes will be 
shown. 

The relationship of this work to the single cell neurophysiology will be 
discussed. 

For those interested, a way to make such stereograms by hand will be 
offered. 



10:00 BUSINESS MEETING 
10:30 COFFEE BREAK 

10:45 

PS - 3 Absorption Coefficient Spectroscopy in the Millimeter-Wave Region. 

WILLIAM C. OELFKE, Florida Technological University. — Some new techniques 
and spectrometer designs for the quantitative measurement of millimeter-wave 
absorption coefficients in gases are discussed. A comparison is made between 
the results of either phase locking a resonant absorption cavity to a modulated 
microwave source , or phase locking the microwave source to a frequency modulated 
absorption cavity. The results show that, the cavity modulated Fabry-Perot 
spectrometer is the most desirable system for the measurement of gaseous 
absorption spectra at pressures below 1 Torr as well as gaseous absorption 
coefficients at elevated pressures. 

11:00 
PS - 4 

Structural Changes of Discontinuous Metal Films after Deposition . 
W.B. PHILLIPS, The University of West Florida, and D.N. BRASKI , Oak 
Ridge National Laboratory. — Electron micrographs of discontinuous 
thin films of copper or gold, deposited at room temperature and 
observed in situ in an electron microscope at high vacuum, reveal 
pronounced changes in film structure when the film is heated above 
500 K. These observed structural changes may be used to interpret 
the double reversal in sign of the temperature coefficient of 
electrical conductivity of similar films. 

11:15 

PS - 5 Propagation of Electromagnetic Pulses in a Collisional Magneto- 
plasma.* C. E. SEYLF.R, JR., R. W. FLYNN, AND S. C. BL0CH, University of 
South Florida.-- We describe computer solutions to the problem of the propa- 
gation of electromagnetic pulses in a magnetoplasma, for propagation parallel 
to the magnetic field. Our method is, we believe, a novel application of 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The distortion of the pulse envelope 
is calculated for various values of co /w , w /w , Wgj , and propaga- 
tion distance in the plasma. p b 

Results are compared with earlier works on propagation in dispersive 
media. 

* Research supported in part by the Atmospheric Science Section, National 
Science Foundation, Grant GA-10425. 



PHYSICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Friday, 2:00 P.M. 

S. C. Bloch (University of South Florida) presiding 

PS - 11 The Remarkable Eclipses of e Aurigae— Can a Black Hole be Seen? ROBERT 
E. WILSON University of South Florida It is shown that the mysterious eclipses of 
the primary component of the binary system e Aurigae can only be due to a structure 
resembling the rings of Saturn — but with no visible object in the center of the rin~ 
system. It appears that the central mass must be a star which has collapsed to its 
gravitational radius , commonly known as a black hole . 

2:30 

PS - 12 The Importance of Research in Star Positions HEINRICH K. EICHORN von 
WURMB University of South Florida The accurate determination of star positions is 
ultimately necessary to calibrate distances in the universe and to describe our own 
galaxy. Celestial data are of practical use in geophysics. For the verification of the 
general theory of relativity star positions must be determined with extreme accuracy. 

3:00 

PS - 13 Florida as an Astronomical Site* ALEX G. SMITH and R.J. LEACOCK, Rose- 



mary Hill Observatory , University of Florida In 1968 the new Rosemary Hill 
Astronomical Observatory went into operation near Bronson, Florida, with a 30-inch 
research telescope. Three years of continuous observations now make it possible to 
evaluate the site in terms of meteroological conditions , atmospheric transparency , and 
image stability. 

*Supported by an NSF University Science Development Grant 

3:15 

PS -14 4C05-34: The Most Distant Object in the Universe ?* RICHARD HACKNEY, 
KAREN HACKNEY, G. H. FOLSOM**, R. J. LEACOCK, R. L. SCOTT, and A.G. 
SMITH , University of Florida, Rosemary Hill Observatory. The quasar 4C0 5 • 34 has 
the largest red shift yet measured. If this effect is cosmological, the distance of 
4C05 - 34 is enormous relative to the furthest known galaxies. Photographic efforts to 
detect light variations in the quasar will be reported. 

*Supported by an NSF University Science Development Grant. 

**Presently with the Department of Physics and Astronom y, Agnes Scott College, 

Decatur, Georgia. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



3:30 

PS - 15 A Search for Short-Term Optical Variations of BL Lacertae and 3C 120.* 
KAREN HACKNEY, A.G. SMITH, R. L. HACKNEY, R. J. LEACOCK, R. L. SCOTT, 
University of Florida, Rosemary Hill Observatory . A cooperative effort was made by 
several observatories to observe the peculiar object BL Lacertae and the Seyfert galaxy 
3C 120 in the optical, infrared, and millimeter wavelength regions of their spectra 
simultaneously and continuously during five nights in November, 1971. Photographic 
observations with a time resolution on the order of 15 minutes obtained with the 30-inch 
reflector at Rosemary Hill are reported and discussed. 

* Supported by an NSF University Science Development Grant. 
3:45 COFFEE BREAK 



4:00 

PS- 16 Microstructure of One of Jupiter's Radio Sources .* R.J. LEACOCK and 
ALEX G. SMITH, University of Florida , Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Past 
University of Florida studies showed that Jupiter's "B" source of radio waves often 
appeared double as the planet rotated. A recent investigation shows a similar doubling 
as the satellite Io circles the planet. Implications for the theory of the radiation will 
be discussed. 

*Supported by the National Science Foundation. 

4:15 

PS - 17 Structure of Circumstellar Envelopes About Be Stars . THOMAS H. MORGAN, 
KWAN-YU CHEN, Univ. of Fla . -- The structure and nature of the circumstellar 
material surrounding Be stars is studied by means of a simple hydrodynamical 
approach. 



4:30 

PS - 18 The Effect of Reflection on the Calculation of Radial Velocities of Close Spec- 
troscopic Binary Stars . * W. J. RHEIN, Florida Tech. Univ. K-Y CHEN, University 
of Florida The radial velocities of many binary stars are calculated from the doppler 
shifts of observed spectral lines . It has been often assumed or stated in the literature 
that if reflection between close stars were taken into account, the results of the calcu- 
lations would be different. The model of a real system of close stars , RZ Comae 
Berenices, was analyzed on a computer to investigate this effect. Results of the analysis 
indicate that the effect of reflection is not significant in the calculation of radial velo- 
cities for this system. 

*Sponsored by NSF and NASA . 

4:45 

PS - 19 photoelectric Observations of UZ Puppis . RAYMOND H. BLOOMER, JR., Rose- 
mary Hill Observatory, Univ. of Fla. -- Three color photoelectric observations 
of the eclipsing variable UZ Puppis were obtained during the winter of 1971 
using the photometer attached to the 30 -inch telescope at the Rosemary Hill 
Observatory. The light curves and their solutions are discussed. 



20 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



PHYSICAL SCIENCES SECTION 

Saturday, 8:30 am 

C. R. Burnett (Florida Atlantic University) presiding 

PS - 21 

Determination of the Asymmetry Parameter of the Electric Field Gradient of 
35C1 in Powder Samples. H. R. Brooker, W. W. Startup, Univ. of South 
Florida. The method of Morino and Toyama for finding the asymmetry para- 
meter of the quadrupole coupling constant of spin 3/2 nuclei has not been wide- 
ly applied because of very stringent requirements on spectrometer sensitivity. 
We have largely overcome this difficulty by applying time averaging. Compar- 
ative results for para-dichlorobenzene and several other chlorine compounds 
will be presented. 

1 Y. Morino and M. Toyama, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1289 (1961). 

8:45 

PS - 22 Use of the 13~Moment Approximation To Describe the Propagation of E-M 
Waves in the Ionosphere . R.N. RIGBY, The University of West Florida. The com- 
plex index of refraction for an Electro-Magnetic wave propagating in an ionized 
gas has been calculated by using the 13 - moment approximation to obtain solutions 
to the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The approximations employ a cross-section 
similar to Nitrogen's. The results are compared to the more accurate (but less 
tractible) Chapman-Enskog approximation. 

9:00 - PS 23 

Ambipolar Diffusion Measurements in a Discharge Plasma. '" J. T. Pytlin- 
ski, W. D. Jones, and N. L. Oleson, Univ. of South Florida. -- Using an ion- 
acoustic -wave techniquel to measure plasma drift velocity and a Langmuir 
probe to measure the electron-density profile, we have determined the plasma 
diffusion "constant" as a function of radius for a steady-state argon discharge 
plasma. The significance of the calculated diffusion constant with respect to 
the ion mobility and ionization frequency will also be discussed. 

^Research supported in part by USAEC Subcontract No. 3483. 

b. Aksornkitti, H.C. Hsuan, andK.E. Lonngren, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2674 
(1969). — 

9:15 - PS 24 

Direct Energy Conversion in a Discharge Plasma. Dale D. Spur gin, W. D. 
Jones, N. L. Oleson, Univ. of South Florida, and I. Alexeff, Univ. of Tenn. -- 
By immersing one probe of a probe pair in a weak localized magnetic field, 
thereby greatly altering the electron mobility in the vicinity of the probe but 
not the ion mobility, we have been able to convert the random thermal energy 
of a simple discharge plasma directly into electrical energy. Preliminary 
studies indicate that the maximum power extracted is a function of several 
variables, including plasma density, magnetic field strength, and external 
"load" of the probe circuit. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 21 



9:30 - PS 25 

Effect of Impurities on Excitations of a Solid . *E. RHODES and P. ERDOS, 
Florida State University. — A simple Green function technique is described which 
may be used to find the excitations of a periodic lattice containing a substi- 
tuted impurity, when the impurity-host interaction is of short range. The 
technique has been applied to lattice vibrations, electron bands, and spin wave 
bands. A recent application to the linear chain ferromagnet is discussed. 

*Research sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of 
Aerospace Research, USAF, under AFOSR Grant No. AFOSR-7 0-1940. 

:45 

i PS - 26 Nonlinear Oscillations of a "Waterbag" Plasma. * D.J. 
STEENHOEK and R.W. FLYNN , University of South Florida . — In the 
"Waterbag" model the electron distribution function is constant 
within a certain region of phase space and is zero elsewhere. With 
some restrictions this model is equivalent to a hydrodynamic 
description with an adiabatic equation of state, but more general 
behavior is also possible when "trapped" electrons and other 
multiple waterbag configurations are considered. The linear and 
nonlinear behavior of such plasmas will be discussed. 

*Research supported by Atmospheric Science Section, National 
Science Foundation, and the Air Force Cambridge Research 
Laboratory. 

10:00 - 11:00 PS - 27 

ROSAE, The Global Earth Control Satellite Net W. H. GRISHAM, Florida Institute of 
Technology. ROSAE is a patented satellite net, which minimizes the physical 

constraints o n multiple function satellite networks . This concept was developed 
for a broad spectrum of economic and socially beneficial satellite services . This 
paper will address aerospace technologies appropos to merging: observation, communi- 
cations , navigation , and data control functions in a global net capable of managing the 
the world biosphere and man's socio-economic activities. Salient physical properties, 
geometry , kinematics , dynamics , orbital stability and major communication link 
parameters are enumerated; the constraints on the various functions are optimally 
integrated by this uniquely simple concept. 



CONSERVATION SECTION 

Friday 9A.M. 

John L. Taylor (National Marine Fisheries Service) presiding 

C-l Drought and Drainage as they Affect the Southern Florida Water System and 

Ecology J.E. POPPLETON Florida Technological University 

9:15 

C-2 Brown Pelican Studies - A Progress Report MICHAEL J. FOGARTY, 

STEPHEN A. NESBITT, and LOVETT E. WILLIAMS, JR. Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission , Gainesville, Florida 



22 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



9:30 

C-3 Captive Breeding and Pen-Rearing of Marine Turtles ROSSWITHAM, Florida 

Department of Natural Resources, Marine Research Laboratory , Jensen Beach , 

Florida. 

9:45 

C-4 Five-Year Creel Survey of Two Florida Lakes- .*- F.J.Ware, W.V. Fish, 
and L. Prevatt; Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission - - Sport fisheries 
of two Florida natural lakes, Griffin and Harris with surface acreages of 9,100 
and 16,500 respectively, were surveyed from 1966 to 1971. The design employed 
was a stratified creel survey with non-uniform probability sampling. The survey 
provided for seasonal and annual estimates of fishing pressure, catch composition, 
and fishing success by species. Characteristics of the creel design are dis- 
cussed. - - Annual fishing pressure for each lake varied from 175,944 man-hours 
to a high of 327,066 man-hours. Annual catches ranged from 125,994 fishes to 
330,574 fishes. Principal components of the catch were largemouth bass, 
Micropterus salmoides . black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus . bluegill, Lepomis 
macrochirus , and redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus . 

*This study was financed, in part, by Florida Federal Aid in Fish Restoration 
Project F-12. 

10:00 

C-5 Nutrients and Bacteria in Small Lake Conservation WILLIAM R. GARRETT 

and DAVID D. WOODBRIDGE University Center for Pollution Research, Florida 
Inst, of Technology . The problem of pollution in small man-made lakes is becoming 
increasingly more evident by the number of no swimming, boating or fishing signs 
posted around them. Conservation of these lakes is dependent upon a detailed know- 
ledge of the time relationship of nutrients and the bacteria that accrue . Variations 
in concentration of nutrients and bacteria depend upon location and meteorological 
conditions. Relationship of nutrients, rainfall, and bacteria are presented for two 
lakes in Brevard County using the St. Johns River as a control. 

10:15 

C-6 Comparison of Carbon Fixation Rates in Two Estuarine Bayous JOHN K. 

ADAMS, University of West Florida . Comparisons of carbon fixation rates in Mulatto 
Bayou, a highly nutrified and disturbed system; and Catfish Basin, a relatively pristine 
estuary, both in Santa Rosa County, Florida, have been in progress since July, 1971 
and will continue through June, 1972. Weekly collection of samples from surface, 0.5 
meter, and 1.0 meter depths , and their in situ incubation, involves the application of 
the 14-carbon method employed against a weekly monitoring of physical-chemical data , 
including assays for phosphate, nitrate, and ammonia. Results to date suggest that 
Mulatto Bayou is a highly productive system with correspondingly erratic and fluctuating 
carbon fixation rates. In comparison, Catfish Basin shows substantially lower primary 
productivity and correspondingly stable and steady carbon fixation profiles . These 
results correlate with the high nutrient levels of Mulatto Bayou and comparatively 
low nutrient concentrations of Catfish Basin. 



10:30 Business Session 
10:45 Coffee 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 23 



11:00 

C-7 The Effects of Physical Alteration on Water Quality in Mulatto Bayou , 

Escambia Bay THOMAS S. HOPKINS University of West Florida Mulatto Bayou, 
located on the east side of Escambia Bay has undergone major physical changes as 
a result of the construction of Interstate 10 and subsequent real estate development. 
The most recent physical alterations (1970) involved maintenance dredging in response 
to local citizen's protests over loss of access to the bay. Beginning with the most 
recent alteration and for 12 months following, water quality and flushing was studied. 
In the dredged channel , dissolved oxygen values measured at 3 meters depth dropped to 
below 4.0 mg/L almost immediately. Continuing observations indicate that during 
summer months stratification develops , and dye studies confirm that excessive engin- 
eering has resulted in poor flushing. 

11:15 

C-8 A Preliminary Investigation of some Benthic Parameters Influencing the 

Distribution of Foraminif era . RICHARD D. SANFILIPPO, University of West Florida . 
A survey of three estuaries near Pensacola, Florida was conducted to determine the 
possibility of using foraminifera as biological indicators of water conditions . Sediments 
and the water immediately above them were analyzed for several environmental factors 
that affect the foraminiferal distribution patterns . Sediment composition and sedimen- 
tation rate as well as poor water quality are important factors that appear to be corre- 
lated with the diminishing numbers and diversity of foraminiferal populations . The 
reliability of several procedures of sampling foraminifera and of measuring water 
conditions in the estuary were compared. 

11:30 C-9 

Ecological and Hematological Studies on Clarius batrachus albina . J. W. Ward, 
University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; H. C. Davis, Aquarium 
Supply Company, Tampa. This unwelcome, freshwater, edible, albino siluroid 
was introduced into Florida by tropical fish importers and released into streams 
by home aquarists when it became too agressive and too large for the home 
aquarium. This species possesses an auxiliary respiratory apparatus in the 
branchial cavity which enables it to live in an aquatic environment with a low 
oxygen content and to make short excursions on land from one water source to 
another. It is omnivorous and has a voracious appetite. Differential blood 
counts were tabulated on peripheral blood by counting 500 leucocytes and 500 
red cells. The following tabulation is recorded on a percentage basis: 
Erythrocytes, 97; 19 micra in diameter, nucleus 5 micra. Erythroblasts , 3; 
21 micra in diameter, nucleus 7 micra. Lymphocytes, (small) 40%. Lymphocytes 
(large) 12%, 19 u. Neutrophil-like cells (ghost cells ?), %, 18 micra. 
Monocytes, 20 micra, 5%. Thrombocytes, 34%, 6 micra. The spleen and mesonephri 
are the principle hemopoetic organs, with isolated areas in the branchial tissue 
and the mesenteries. Further studies are in progress. 

SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTION 

Friday 9A.M. 

Ernest F. Dibble (University of West Florida, Dept. of History) presiding 



"Symposium on Social Science Teaching" 

SS - I The Uses of Visual Supplements in Social Science 
Teaching , Milton McPherson, Troy State , Alabama. 






24 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



SS - 2 Mai ntenance of Readi ng Improvement for Dysl exi c 

Chi Idren , Anita N. Griffiths, Educational Counselor , Lakeland. 

Coffee Break 

SS - 3 The New Middle School Curriculum , Jane Dysart, Uni versi ty 
of West Florida. 



2:00 p.m. SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTION - - Ernest F. Dibble, Chairman 



SS - k FHA - HUD Housing and Care Programs to Meet the Needs of 

the Elderly and Adapted to Florida , a Mecca for the Elderl y , 
Mary Cathryne Park, Brevard Community College . Pioneering 
adaptations of federal programs to meet the needs of the elderly 
in Florida in a pattern that can be applied throughout the nation: 
(1) Condominiums for the elderly under FHA (2) Rental Units, with 
supplement, for low and middle income elderly (3) Section 23 
supplement for rental living for elderly in rehabilitated structures 
(4) Intermediate Care Facilities (5) Extended Care Facilities 
(6) A proposal for group medical practice, with private, health 
insurance for the elderly at minimum cost. 



SS - 5 A Social History of the Chi lean Social Securi ty 
System , John F. Speight, Uni versi ty of West Florida . This paper 
will outline the development of the Chilean social security system 
in particular and will attempt a sociological explanation of the 
role of social security as well as other forms of social welfare 
in the development of Latin America. The major perspective taken 
will be socio-historical and will focus on the Hispanic view of 
man and the social contract, ideological conflicts surrounding 
the demise of liberalism and individualism in the last decades 
of the nineteenth century and the first few decades of the present 
century, major organizational models employed in the establishment 
of social security programs in Chile, prevailing welfare ideologies, 
and how all these converge/diverge to affect the orgai nzat ional 
functioning of three Chilean social security funds since their 
inception (1925-1930). 

Coffee Break - Business Meeting, Social Science Section 
SS - 6 Transportation - Need for Greater Intermodal 
Coordination , Albin N. Benson, formerly Federal Aviation 
Agency . This paper will give examples which illustrate the lack 
of intermodal coorda inat ion in our transportation systems. It 
will also point out areas where progress is being made. Benefits 
derived from increased cooperation between the various travel 
modes will be discussed as they apply to the situation in Florida. 

Format: Discussants and session speakers will conduct a 
short roundtable after papers are read. 
Discussants: Norman Gilbert, Rol I i ns Col lege 

Gilbert Lycan, Stetson Uni versi ty 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 25 



SCIENCE TEACHING SECTION 

Friday 9 am 

L. B. Sanders (University of Florida) presiding 

ST - 1 Computer Physics For Undergraduates . JAY S. BOLEMON, Florida 
Technological University . Special physics courses are being initiated at Florida 
Technological University to instruct our majors in developing computer solutions 
to physics problems . The problems selected are appropriate for both junior and 
senior students studying mechanics .electricity and magnetism, and modern physics. 
The instructor presents an initial method and program, and the class is required 
to improve the method and rewrite the program as their assignments. The students 
gain competence in FORTRAN as they progress . When working problems to which 
they know the answer, they must develop computer techniques to derive the solution 
to the desired level of accuracy. Results of experiences over one quarter will be 
presented. 

9:15 - ST - 2 

Implementation of Science Research Courses in Secondary School 

Curriculum, by Robert F. Richmond and David D. Woodbridge , 

Science Education Department, 

Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida 

Science Research courses have been instigated in the Brevard 
County School system as a result of support by the Cooperative 
College-School Science Program of the National Science Foundation. 
The program consisted of actual research projects carried out by 
the high school student under the direction of their research 
instructor. Florida Institute of Technology staff members worked 
in close relationship with the high school teachers on campus and 
in their own classrooms. F.I.T.'s direction and coordination 
assured that each research task developed in a meaningful manner. 

9:30 ST - 3 

A Simplified and Reliable Free-fall Apparatus for Laboratory Use B. J. JAIN, 
Florida A & M University Traditional laboratory experiments on free fall use 

indirect means for recording time and as a result, the inherent simplicity of the free 
fall motion is lost. By synchronizing the motion of the body with the time measuring 
device , a system for the automatic recording of the time has been developed which 
greatly simplifies the apparatus and gives better values of 'g' . 

9:45 Business Session 
10:00 Coffee Break 



10:30- ST - 4 

fAastery Concepts in Individual ized Earth Science . CHARLES J. WOTT, Department 
of Natural Sciences, Clearwater Campus, St. Petersburg Junior College 

Auto-paced Earth Science using Mastery Techniques as taught at the Tarpon 
Springs Center of St. Petersburg Junior College is outlined. A brief discussion 
of the history of curriculum individualization via audio-tutorial techniques, 
and the mastery techniques employed in this experiment are presented. 

Comparisons are advanced and conclusions made concerning the implementation 
of techniques of mastery learning. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences I 



10:45 

ST - 5 Innovations In Space Science WILLIAM MELVIN TRANTHAM Florida 

Keys Community College . In order to familiarize students enrolled in Biology at 
Florida Keys Community College with short-term weightlessness , a single-engine 
Cessna 210 aircraft was chartered by the instructor. Keplerian trajectories were 
executed in the aircraft at an altitude of two thousand feet over the Gulf of Mexico , 
generating periods of weightlessness lasting from three to five seconds . By the end of 
five sequential trajectories most students were able to acclimate completely with all 
phases of the trajectory. Utilization of this technique generated a more than average 
amount of enthusiasm among the students and allowed them to experience firsthand 
a sensation usually reserved only for astronauts . 



11:00 

ST - 6 Students as Teachers ROBERT A. BERGIN and THOMAS G. PERTRAK 

Palm Beach Garden High School and Howell Watkins Junior High School 

Field trips are desirable in many science classes , but are often difficult to arrange 

especially in junior high school. Students in senior high schools are able to leave 

school for a field experience more readily, but are not as motivated as junior high 

students. The authors teach marine biology to junior and senior high students in the 

adjoining schools. Volunteers from the senior high class led a field trip for junior 

high students , giving a "student-teacher" ratio of about four to one. Specific benefits 

and drawbacks of the plan are discussed. 



11:15 

ST - 7 The Emerging Role of the Science Supervisor: Behavior Modification . 
Jack D. Strickland, Alachua County & John J. Koran, Jr., Univ. of Florida. — 
There is an increasing emphasis in science teacher education upon influencing 
teacher behaviors to ^correspond with desirable student outcomes in the contem- 
porary curricula. 1 A review of research suggests that we can specify behaviors 
in science 2 and subsequently modify them. 3 This paper will be an attempt to 
describe the emerging role of the science supervisor as a behavior modification 
resource person in the public schools. 



i Paul DeHart Hurd, New Curriculum Perspective for Jr. High School Science, (1970), 
2 John Smith, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 8^, (3), P. 231. 
3 J. J. Koran, Jr., "The Use of Modeling, Feedback and Practice Variables to 
Influence Science Teacher Behavior," Science Education in press, (1972). 

SCIENCE TEACHING SECTION 

Friday 2 pm 

Harold Sims (St. Petersburg Junior College) presiding 

ST - 8 

WHAT IS ECOLOGY ? HAROLD W. SIMS, JR. ST. PETERSBURG JR. COLLEGE, CLEARWATER 
FLORIDA. A BRAND NEW FILM STRIP PRESENTATION EXPLAINING THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY 
OF THE SCIENCE OF ECOLOGY AND SHOWING THE WIDE FIELD IT COVERS. THE ACTUAL 
CASE HISTORY OF THE BUILDING OF THE CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL, ILLUSTRATES A 
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THIS KNOWLEDGE AND HOW THE LACK OF IT LEADS TO DISASTER. 
THIS FILM STRIP IS BEING MARKETED NATIONWIDE BY WARREN SCHLOAT PRODUCTIONS, INC. 
PLEASANTVILLE, NEW YORK. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 27 



2:30 

ST - 9 Environmental Education: Training Under Simulated Conditions . 
Donna R. Thompson, Alachua County and John J. Koran, Jr., Univ. of Florida. 
The state of Florida has adopted guidelines for the education of teachers and 
students in environmental education. 1 Behavioral outcomes can be classified 
both in cognitive and' affective domains. A critical problem is arranging 
conditions under which students can have a wide range of experiences requiring 
decision making and also be confronted with making these decisions under 
simulated conditions. This paper will describe some behavior modification 
approaches which may be of significance to this problem. 2 

Environmental Education, Florida Master Plan, Department of Education, (1971). 
2 John J. Koran, Jr., Two Paradigms for the Training of Science Teachers Using 

Videotape Technology and Simulated Conditions, Journal of Research in Science 

Teaching, 6, (1), (1969). 

2:50 

ST - 10 Science As the Disposition Toward Knowledge Operating Within an Inter- 
disciplinary Environmental Education Program . RICHARD C. TILLIS, Florida Master 
Plan for Environmental Education. This paper will outline the basic philosophy and 
structure of the Florida Master Plan for Environmental Education and define the 
basic role of science education within the program. 

3 :05 

ST - 11 Environmental Education, A Sensitivity Approach HAL SCOTT Florida 

Audubon Society , Maitland , Florida Methods of teaching environmental education 

through field experience in the natural environment. Learning by doing, not by being 

told. 

3:20 COFFEE BREAK 

3:40 

ST - 12 Strategies For Implementing Environmental Education Programs . 

W. F. HAMMOND, Lee County Environmental Education Program .-- This 
paper will identify proven strategies for implementing Environmental 
Education programs into local school systems through teacher training, 
community and student involvement. 

3:55 ST - 13 

"Entomology In Action" - A Career-Oriented Presentation for 
High School Students by The Florida Entomological Society. 
By- **. B. Gresham Jr., President, Florida Entomological Society. 
As one part of its Public Relations Program, The Florida 
Entomological Society has made up a presentation for use by its 
members consisting of £7 color 2X2 slides and a prepared script. 
This presentation is available on loan to any member when he has 
an opportunity to talk to junior or senior high school students 
to interest them in a career in one of the disciplines in the 
field of entomology. 



28 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



4:15 

ST - 14 Modern Biology — An Approach to the Teaching of Biology to Science Majors : 
Reflections after one Year. * C.S. HUANG Chipola Jr. College The teaching methods 
of Modern Biology currently undergoing experimentation at the college . Emphasis 
on the chemical aspects of life, the steady state systems, and environmental biology. 
The laboratory manual stresses molecular-analytical procedures of biological investi- 
gations . Students with strong backgrounds in science and mathematics have success- 
fully completed their laboratory projects. Projects attracting students the most 
include: (1) Blood chemistry (the determination of hemoglobin and cholesterol, (2) 
Chemical analysis of urine (inorganic ions and organic compounds determination) , (3) 
paper chromatography (separation of leaf pigment) and gas chromatographic techniques 
(4) Coliforms test, BOD test, chemical analysis of water studies (samples from local 
ponds and sewage plants , (5) Genetics (microorganisms isolated from nature are 
used for mutation studies and DNA isolation) . 

*Research supported by Chipola Staff and Program Development Plan 1971-72. 

4:30 ST - 15 

THE DIRECTIONS OF FLORIDA CONSERVATION ACTION, WILLIAM M. PARTINGTON, 

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION CENTER, WINTER PARK, FLORIDA. 

RANDON THOUGHTS ON WHAT DIRECTIONS FLORIDA CONSERVATION SEEMS TO BE TAKING, AND 
HOW THIS IS INVOLVING NEW TYPES OF ACTIONS AND THUS COMMUN ICATIONS. WHEREAS 
WE FORMERLY WERE ENGAGED IN CONFRONTATIONS, WE NOW ARE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND 
EACHOTHER AND COOPERATE. 

4:45 ST - 16 Pat Purcell 



ADDICTION: DRUGS AND A LCOHOL 

Public Symposium, Medical and Social Sciences Sections 

Thursday, 8:00 pm 

Welcome: James G. Potter, President-elect FAS 

Opening Remarks 

Dr. Robert G. Sherrill, Jr. , Medical Director of Hillsborough County Hospital 

Tampa; Chairman, Medical Sciences Section 
Dr. Ernest F. Dibble, University of West Florida, Faculty of History, Chairman, 
Social Sciences Section 
Symposium Moderator: Judge D. Arthur Yergey, Former Juvenile Court Judge, 

Orlando, Florida 
Panelists 

Dr. Walter E. Afield (Psychiatry) - Clinical Director of St. Joseph Hospital Men- 
tal Health Center, Tampa, Fla. ; Professor and Chairman of the Department 
of Psychiatry, University of South Florida, Tampa. 
Dr. Harold D. Brewer (Family Practice) - Plant City Florida 
Dr. Sam A. Banks (Ministry) - Assistant Professor in Medicine and Religion, 

Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, University of Florida 
Gainesville, Florida. 
Dr. Kenneth S. Finger (Pharmacology) - Dean of College of Pharmacy, University 

of Florida , Gainesville , Florida 
Dr. Charles V. Unkovic (Sociology) - Professor & Chairman of Dept. of 
Sociology - Florida Technological University, Orlando, Florida 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION 

Public Symposium, Biological Science and Conservation Sections. 
Saturday 8:15 am 

John L. Taylor (National Marine Fisheries Service), presiding. 
Opening Remarks - John L. Taylor 

8:30 

BS & C - 1 Environmental Research and Electric Power Generation KENNETH W. 
PREST, JR. Florida Power Corporation , Environmental Affairs Biologist . Scientific 
interest in the response of natural ecosystems to the stresses of industrial growth is 
certainly not new. However, direct industrial participation in the support of such research 
is becoming increasingly significant since the promulgation of the National Environmental 
Policy Act of 1969. In response to the intent of this policy, reflected in the subsequent 
requirements of such Federal Agencies as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the 
Atomic Energy Commission, power companies are challenged to present a responsible 
perspective of environmental awareness which reflects a comprehensive understanding 
of the socio-economic and ecological implications of their proposed actions . An integral 
aspect in the development of this perspective is the function of environmental-ecological 
research. The coordination of research programs demands a realistic and systematic 
approach if the company is to make a responsible contribution to improving the quality 
of the environment and realize the benefits of its environmental investments . 

During June 1970, the Florida Power Corporation established a Generation Environmental 
and regulatory Affairs Department within which the Environmental Affairs Section has the 
responsibility for developing the resources of environmental research. The functional 
effectiveness of the Section depends on the conjoint accomplishment of three interrelated 
objectives: 

I. Develop and expeditiously execute environmental research programs upon which 
successful licensing, engineering, construction and operation of power plants may be 
based. 

II. Utilize the knowledge gained through Company-sponsored and related environ- 
mental research toward the development of Environmental Reports and thus the reality 
of environmentally compatible electric power generation. 

HI. Responsibly relate the Company's environmental activities to the public, con- 
servation groups , scientific community and governmental agencies in order to promote 
understanding of industrial-environmental interrelationships . 
8:50 

BS & C - 2 The Complexities of Thermal Effects Evaluations EDWIN A. JOYCE, Jr. 
Florida Department of Natural Resources , Biological Laboratory. The Marine Research 
Laboratory of the Florida Department of Natural Resources has been studying the effects 
of thermal effluents in the vicinity of the Crystal River Plant (Florida Power Corporation, 
Crystal River, Florida). The two main objectives were to obtain baseline ecological 
data prior to the opening of a nuclear generator which will double the present amount of 
effluent, and to evaluate the effects of the presently functioning fossil fueled units. 
Correlative studies were also conducted in Tampa Bay and in temperature controlled 
rooms at the main Laboratory facilities in St. Petersburg. 

The Crystal River ecological evaluation showed little evidence of temperature induced 
damage or change. In fact, channel dredging appeared to have had the greatest deleter- 
ious effects. In addition, water temperatures taken on a shallow oyster bar in upper 
Tampa Bay were found to vary as much as 12°C within 24 hours and the highest reading 
was 37°C. Living oysters on a natural bar withstood temperatures of 49. 5°C when 
exposed to the sun at low tide. Such findings indicate the complexity of making thermal 
effects evaluations. Consequently, all factors must be considered and each case must 
be judged on the basis of its own particular set of characteristics. 



30 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



9:10 

BS & C - 3 The Making of a Power Plant, I: Environment and Design* T.E. PYLE, 
R.C. BAIRD, K. L. CARDER, T.L. HOPKINS, D.W. WALLACE, University of South 
Florida . In late 1970 the Marine Science Institute began a long-range study of the 
Acnlote River and Anchorage near Tarpon Springs prior to construction of a power plant 
at the river mouth. Within a few months university scientists made initial recommenda- 
tions for changing design of the plant. Supporting statements from conservation groups 
and an economic analysis by industry led to the adoption in mid-1971 of the major recom- 
mendation that an overland pipeline be substituted for the dredging of a channel for oil 
barges . The critical problem now facing researchers , conservation groups and industry 
concerns the proposed degree of cooling and method of discharge of heated water. 
Although some significant design changes have been made as a result of environmental 
information, it should be emphasized that others have not and that ecologists had no input 
to the initial and probably more fundamentally important design stage, site selection. 
*Research supported by Florida Power Corporation. 

9:30 

BS & C - 4 Title to be Announced ROGER STEWART Hillsborough County Pollution 

Control Commission 

9:50 BS & C - 5 

CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOCATING POWER PLANTS IN TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL REGIONS . 

By R.G. Bader, M.A. Roessler, G. L. Voss - University of Miami, School of Marine 

& Atmospheric Science. 

The continual growth and movement of populations and the technological develop- 
ment of nations with accompanying industrial demands will require the construc- 
tion of huge power plants in coastal areas. These plants must be favorably 
located and their heated effluent adequately disposed of in order not to cause 
ecological damage. 

This paper discusses some considerations for power plant siting and gives some 
alternatives for development without severe damage to the environment. 

10:10 BS & C - 6 

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION , by D. O'Connor, Univ. of Miami, School of 

Law. 

Examination of the problem of legal regulation of thermal pollution, 
including the jurisdiction of local, state and federal authorities. Appraisal 
of existing decision-making authority as applied to site selection, construction 
and operation of power plants, and a review of alternative basis for regulation 
for balancing development needs and environmental considerations. 

10:30 BS&C-7 

ON THE ECONOMICS OF THERMAL POLLUTION by Lee Anderson _ Univ. of Miami, 

Department of. Economics. 

An economic model is presented that allows for the definition of the optimum 
amount of thermal pollution. That point is, of course, dependant uppn the costs 
of pollution abatement and of pollution damage. 

The remainder of the paper describes the procedure for applying this model 
Co the real world. The discussion centers on the difficulties of the procedure 
and the information that will be necessary from natural scientists to complete 
it. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 31 



10:50 BS&C- 



EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN SHALLOW ESTUARIES by T.N. Lee and C. Rooth. Univ. of Miami, 
School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. 

A modular approach to the analysis of mixing and flow characteristics in 
shallow tidal estuaries is presented using South Florida's Biscayne Bay estuary 
as an example. The method depends on isolating relatively simple characteristic 
flow regimes in different parts of an estuary. These can be considered as build- 
ing blocks, which when recombined in different configurations are capable of 
yielding a qualitative model for any specific estuary. Such models are of 
immediate value in preliminary assessments of estuarine water quality and inter- 
action problems. This method can serve as an effective base for further studies 
where more precise information is needed. 



11:10 BS&C-9 

Predicting Thermal Effluent Movement in the Anclote Anchorage * 
R. H. KLAUSEWITZ, Univ. of South Florida. — This paper describes the study of 
the hydraulic movement in St. Joseph Sound/Anclote Anchorage prior to installa- 
tion of a power plant there. Research includes synoptic current measurements, 
salinity distribution, nutrient distribution, particulate distribution and the 
positioning of recording current and depth meters . A hydraulic model developed 
by the staff has been employed to study the flow by computer. The model is being 
calibrated by field current measurements, range ratio measurements, phase lag, 
and overflight dye drops. This hydraulic model has capability to accomodate wind 
stress additions, mud flat run-on and run-off, and blockages in the path of water 
flow such as oyster bars or spoil banks. The output of the hydraulic model will 
be used in a dispersion model to predict areas which will be affected by the 
thermal effluent. 



11:30 BS&C-10 

Role of Historical Bathymetric Data in Resolution of an Ecological Problem * 
J.C. MCCARTHY, T.E. PYLE , Univ. of South Florida.— In 1970 it was proposed that 
a shoal south of Anclote Key near Tarpon Springs, Fla. be used as a spoil island 
in connection with the dredging of a channel for fuel barge deliveries to 
Florida Power Corp's. Anclote generating plant. As part of a study of this area, 
soundings made by the U.S.C.&G.S. in 1884, 1926, and 1953 were used to prepare 
bathymetric charts and, by means of overlays, to derive a net sedimentation/ 
erosion map. Results indicated that the proposed site was not accreting or 
"becoming an island anyway" but that it had been in long-term dynamic equilibrium. 
This finding and negative biological comments eventually led to adoption of an 
alternative method of fuel delivery. The use of such reliable and widely 
available data from a Federal agency should be encouraged in all studies of 
effects of power plant construction. 
* Research supported by Florida Power Corporation 



32 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



11:45 BS&C-ll 

Reconnaissance Mapping of Turbidity in Estuaries * T . E . PYLE , 
J.C. MCCARTHY, Univ. of South Florida, G.M. GRIFFIN, Univ. of 
Florida.-- Knowledge of the distribution of turbidity and suspended 
sediments in estuaries is important to a multitude of biological, 
geological, and technological studies and projects. Transmissome- 
ters measure the % transmittance of light over a lm or 10cm path 
and can be towed at speeds up to 5 knots from a small boat to 
provide a synoptic picture of turbidity over a large area. At the 
same time water samples can be taken to determine total suspended 
load, the ratio organic/inorganic particles and other parameters. 
For more detailed studies the light source or photocell can be 
changed to compensate for water color effects and the instrument 
calibrated with formazin to give readings in JTU or FTU. 
+ Research_.auppor_ted by Florida Power Corporation, 

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION 

Public Symposium, Biological Science and Conservation Sections. 
Saturday 2:00 pm 

Joseph L. Simon (University of South Florida), presiding. 
2:00 BS&C-12 

Problems of Quantitative Sampling in Relation to Near Shore and Estuarine 
Fishes K. ROLFES, W. CAUSEY, D. MILLIKAN , W. FABLE, AND R. BAIRD, Univ. of 
South Florida. — Unlike many marine organisms fishes present a variety of 
difficulties in quantitative sampling due to their size and mobility. The 
problem is particularly critical in relation to site surveys where adequate 
quantitative sampling is essential for providing base-line data for evaluation 
of environmental impact. To date most surveys have had serious quantitative 
drawbacks and have often been inadequate for environmental evaluation. A 
sampling strategy employing a variety of methods is being developed for the 
Anclote Environmental Study* by the Department of Oceanography of the 
University of South Florida. The results to date, sampling bias, and the 
multi-gear approach to site surveys are discussed. 

* Research supported by Florida Power Corporation. 

2:15 BS&C-13 

Aerial Mapping of Seaqrass Beds * J. FEIGL, T.E. PYLE, 
R. CLINGAN, R. ZIMMERMAN, Univ. of South Florida. — The extent of 
seagrass beds in estuaries and shallow coastal waters can be 
effectively and economically determined by using hand-held 35mm 
cameras in light aircraft. Beds of Thalassia , Diplanthera and 
Syringodium in Anclote Anchorage and St. Joseph Sound have been 
mapped by this method prior to construction of a power plant at the 
mouth of the Anclote River. Infra-red Ektachrome film has been 
used to record the distribution of tidal channels, borrow areas, 
sand flats and seagrass beds. This photography will provide the 
basis for determining seasonal fluctuations in the boundaries of 
these units and additional changes, if any, resulting from power 
plant construction and operation. 

* Research -s-upported by-Florida Power Corporation. 



luarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 33 



2:30 BS&C-14 

THE EFFECT OF HEATED EFFLUENTS ON A POPULATION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM IN 
BISCAYNE BAY , by A Thorhaug, R. Stearns and S. Pepper - Univ. of Miami, School 
Of Marine & Atmospheric Science. 

The most important community in Biscayne Bay is that of the turtle grass, 
Thalassia testudinum . A two year study of the area near the point of heat 
effluence of a power plant was compared with the data from an uneffected area, 
Card Sound. 

•The results of these studies showed that in areas consistantly +5 and +4°C 
above the ambient that considerable damage to the Thalassia abundance and growth 
was evident. In the +1°C area the growth and abundance patterns resembled those 
in Card Sound except for flowering and fruiting of the plants. 



2:50 BS&C-15 

Recent Changes in Seagrass Dominants of Anclote Anchorage .* 
R. J. Zimmerman, Univ. of South Florida. Certain seagrass 
beds in Anclote Anchorage near Tarpon Springs, Florida have 
changed from a dominance of Thalassia . reported in 1959, to 
present dominance of Syrlngodiuro . The change is believed 
largely due to a general increase in turbidity of anchorage 
waters during that time. This view Is supported by present 
seagrass zonation and present and past reports on water clarity, 

*Research supported by Florida Power Corporation through 
the Univ. of South Florida at St. Petersburg. 

R. C. Phillips, Fla. Bd. Conser. Prof. Papers Ser. No. 2 
72 pp. (I960). 



3:05 BS&C-16 



Photosynthesis Response to Temperature in Marine Phytoplankton 
with Reference to Adaptation. CHARLES S. YENTSCH University of Massachusetts 
Marine Station Observations on phytoplankton grown at different temperatures in the 
open oceans contribute a little to the scant knowledge on the effect of elevated temper- 
atures on photosynthesis but are sometimes confusing because some algae adapt to 
different temperatures. Thus, the instantaneous response of photosynthesis to temper- 
ature, over a long time period, may not be indicative of how the algae are able to 
maintain their photosynthetic capacity in a given temperature regime . Whether or not 
the process of adaptation to different temperatures is specific or general to populations 
is not known; also unknown is the time necessary for a given population to adapt to the 
new temperature . However , recent evidence indicates that temperature acclimation 
in marine phytoplankton is accomplished by a shift in species . Individual species show 
little tendency to adapt. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



3:25 BS&C-17 
LABORATORY STUDIES OF TEMPERATURE TOLERANCES OF MAJOR BISCAYNE BAY ORGANISMS 

by A. Thorhaug w/technical assistance of S.A. Bach and K. Kellar, Univ. of 
Miami, School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. 

The physiology of tropical and subtropical estuarine organisms has enjoyed 
scant attention. Temperature, a fundamental factor for their survival and growth 
has been neglected. Laboratory studies were carried out on over 20,000 organisms 
of 35 species and life stages, and these results were integrated with simultane- 
ous field investigations of these species. Lethal limit studies employing some 
18,000 individuals showed that the expected Gaussian or skewed Gaussian curve 
did not materialize. Instead an abrupt death point occurred often with an 
interval of 1°C and in many cases within 0.5°C resembling a step function. 

Results will be discussed. 

3:45 BS&C-18 

Preliminary Study of the Effects of Heated Waste Waters from a Steam Power 
Plant on Escambia River, in Northwest Florida. NICHOLAS DEGEORGES, University 
of West Florida . The area under study from April to June 1971 near Pensacola, consists 
of the cooling ditch, the lower end of Governors Bayou and the river from Governors 
Bayou outfall to the Escambia Bay (coordinates Lat. 30°34'N, Long. 87°13'W). Temper- 
ature , salinity and dissolved oxygen data were collected. Faunal determinations were 
made through plankton tows and growth platforms . Three distinct temperature zones 
were found to exist: the first was ambient river temperature; the second was in the cool- 
ing ditch, which was 3-6 C above ambient. Faunal differences between the river and the 
cooling ditch were most distinct among the Copepod populations. The ditch had only 
Cyclopoid Copepods; while the River had Calanoid Copepods at the beginning of the study 
and as temperatures rose Cyclopoid Copepods began to appear and then predominate 
in the river. 

4:00 BS&C-19 

Effects of Heated Effluent on the Benthic Fauna of Tampa Bay . ROBERT 

W. VIRNSTEIN, University of South Florida. -- Benthic fauna near Tampa Electric 

Company's Big Bend Power Plant on southeast Tampa Bay was studied from February, 

1970, through August, 1971, both before and after plant operation. The plant 

uses 240,000 gallons of bay water per minute heated 6-7 C. Preliminary 

analysis of data indicate elimination of some species and a decrease in density 

and diversity due to the temperature increase. 

4:15 BS&C-20 

OPTIMAL AND EXCLUSION TEMPERATURES FOR SUBTROPICAL ESTUARINE ORGANISMS by 
M. A. Roessler and D. C. Tabb - Univ. of Miami 

A model based on the exclusion of species from the heated areas of Biscayne 
Bay is formulated to predict the impact of thermal additions on subtropical 
estuaries or coastal bays. This model was constructed from data based on the 
extent of damage with two 432,000 KWe fossil fuel units using 635 cfs cooling 
water apiece. Optimum temperature appeared to be near 26°C and 50% of the 
species were excluded at temperatures of 33°C or higher. 

Predictions of the area to be affected with the addition of two 760,000 KWe 
nuclear units using 1490 cfs cooling water apiece and with the proposed semi- 
enclosed cooling canal system are made. 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



4:35 BS&C-21 

Radionuclides in Liquid Wastes Released from a Nuclear Power Plant - Anticipated 
Doses to Marine Organisms and to Man. Bolch,W.E., C.E. Roessler, and W.E.5. Cam. 

A study of both current and anticipated concentrations of radionuclides in 
the environment is in progress at the site of construction of a Florida Power 
Corp. nuclear power plant near Crystal River, Fla. Expected annual releases of 
radionuclides are known. The specific activity approach has been used to calculate 
future doses to aarine animals and to man via seafood. Future dose levels are 
compared with the current 'doses received from radionuclides of natural origin 
and from fallout. 



4:55 BS&C-22 

Thermal Effluents and Mariculture VIOLET N. STEWART Big Bend 
Marine Laboratory, Tampa Electric Co. Observations on Stone Crabs , selected 
fishes , and oysters in the thermal effluent of a fossil-fueled power plant have 
confirmed the adaptability of certain organisms . 

Growth rates, reproduction, and behavior have been recorded at 
elevated temperatures . 

5:10 Concluding Remarks - J.L. Simon 



CLEAN AIR TECHNOLOGY FOR SURGERY, SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY 

Public Symposium, Medical and Physical Sciences Sections 
Saturday April 8 1:30 P.M. 

Moderator: Dr. Irwin S. Leinbach, Orthopaedic Surgeon, St. Petersburg, 
Florida . 

Panelists : Bertha Yanis Litsky , Consulting Bacteriologist and Specialist 
in Environmental Control in Hospitals 

Joseph Morris, M.D. , Orthopaedic Surgeon, College of 
Medicine , University of Florida 

Terry D. Stinson, Clean Air Specialist, Manager of Operations 
Support, Harris Semiconductor Division of Harris -Intertype 
Corporation. 

Alan C. Harter, M.D. , Specialist in Aerospace Medicine, 
Chief of Medical Services , Kennnedy Space Center 

Kenneth P. Fallon, HI, Operating Room Systems Division, 
Codman & Shurtleff, Inc. 

Warren Litsky, Ph.D. , Director of the Institute of Agricultural 
& Industrial Microbiology and of the Technical Guidance Center 
for Industrial Environmental Control , University of Massachusetts 

Hector J. Defelix, Specialist in Super Clean Areas , Principal 
Production Engineer, Aerospace Division, Honeywell, Inc. 



36 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



SPECIAL LECTURE 

The Space Frontier , WILLIAM M. TRANTHAM, Florida Keys 
Community College . A 50 minute lecture-slide presentation to include the design 
and testing of a jet powered skate-board by college students , Gemini Rendezvous , 
Apollo 9, 11, 12 , 15 and the Mariner 6 and 8 missions to the planet Mars. 

(The above presentation has been prepared through the kind cooperation and assist- 
ance of Mr. Bill Nixon, Educational Service Director of the National Space and 
Aeronautics Administration; Mr. Gordon Wenger of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
in Pasendena for the computer updated slides of Mariner VI and VII missions; 
and Mr. Varnon MacPherson of Lockheed-California for the slides of the hyper- 
sonic SR-71. Parts of the Presentation were given at the 1970-71 National Science 
Teachers ' Convention in Washington , and at St . Francis College in Biddef ord , 
Maine last March . ) 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICS TEACHERS - FLORIDA SECTION 

Friday 2:00 pm 

Michael T. Kambour (Miami-Dade Junior College) presiding 

PT-1 Single Concept Movie -- "Accelerated Motion ", Joseph J. Boyle, Mi ami -Dade 
Junior College, South Campus, Miami, Florida. 

A six minute, super 8mm film produced by three students at Miami -Dade 
Junior College, South Campus. Amusement park rides plus simple experiments 
are used to study circular motion. 

2:15 - PT - 2 

LET'S BRING MORE OF THE OUTSIDE WORLD INTO THE CLASSROOM. Stanley S. Ballard, 
University of Florida. These are times when we are trying to establish the 
relevance of physics to real life and are trying to reach non-scientists, to 
impart to them some feeling of the nature of physics and allied hard sciences. 
In order to reach the liberal arts students we must stay away from the jargon 
of science and use a minimum of the mathematical treatment which seems so 
elegant to us but may be frightening to them. We should select more attractive 
examples of the operation of physical laws, taking them from actual life 
situations rather than engineering applications. Our quizzes and examinations 
should try to bring out independent thought rather than being pure recall or 
mathematical exercises. All this represents a considerable challenge to our 
conventional methods of teaching physics, but it is a challenge that we must 
accept. 

2:30 Business Meeting 

2:45 SYMPOSIUM: Personalized Systems of Instruction 

Moderator: Irving G. Foster 

Florida Presbyterian College 

PT-3 A Comparison of the Conventional Physics Lecture Course 
to a Self-Paced Self -Study Competency-Based Approach 
with Contract . JOSEPH L. AUBEL, University of South Florida 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 37 



PT-4 A Course in 20th Century Physics Using an Individualized 
Method , ROBERT J. GOLL, Miami-Dade Junior College, North 
Campus . 

PT-5 Laboratory Approaches in a Keller Plan Physics Course . 
JOHN S. ROSS, Rollins College 

PT-6 "Mini Courses" for Freshman Chemistry . MICHAEL T. KAMB0UR : 
Miami-Dade Junior College, South Campus. 

PT-7 Use , of Individualized Instruction in a Course for 

Science Teachers . CARL A. BABSKI, Miami-Dade Junior 
College, North Campus. 

DISCUSSION PERIOD. 



OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA - FLORIDA SECTION 

Joseph G. Hirschberg (University of Miami) President, Presiding 

Saturday, April 8, 1972 
9:00 am Contributed Papers 
10:30 Business Meeting 

11:00 Joint Session with American Association of Physics Teachers 
and Science Teaching Section 

Pocket Fourier Spectroscopy - Bruce H. Billings, Immediate 
Past President, The Optical Society of America 
2:00 pm Contributed Papers 



FLORIDA STATE SCIENCE TALENT SEARCH 

This is open to students, grades 10-12, in all public and private schools. 
Winners from the ten State Regions and the Junior Academy will present 
papers on their investigations including some experimental work. A 
$500 college science scholarship is granted by the William G. and Marie 
Selby Foundation to the winner. Also two all-expenses-paid three-week 
participantships in the National Youth Science Camp in West Virginia are 
awarded to two senior boys through invitation of the Governor of Florida. 
In addition, Certificates of Excellence and of Merit are awarded. All 
interested are invited to attend the presentation of papers. 



38 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



FLORIDA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Thirty Third Annual Meeting 
Friday, April 7, 1972 



8:00 Registration - Bush Science Center Foyer 

9:00 PRESENTATION OF JUNIOR HIGH RESEARCH PAPERS 
Chemistry Lecture Room - 108 
Presiding - Joey Nolan 

Thymine Dimer Photoreactivation Properties of Far-Ultraviolet 
Irradiated Cells of Escherichia coli . 

Donna Self - Roosevelt Junior High School 

The Theorectical Reactivity of Carbon Suboxide in the Martian Atmosphere 
Carl Ficarrotta - Cocoa High School 

"The Mad Hatter Appears Again" - Mercury Pollution: A World-Wide 
Problem 

John Denninghoff - Edgewood Junior High School 

Thermal Effect on Plankton 

Alicia Sinclair - Nautilus Junior High School 

Microwave Amplification and Pumping of Hydroxyl Molecules 
George Ellis - Largo Junior High (Science Center) 

Transplantation, Permeability, and Active Transport of the Small 
Intestine of the Mesocricitus Auratus Auratus 

Betty Ann Adams - Kennedy Junior High School 

A Chemical Analysis of Sykes Creek 

Margaret Ann West - Kennedy Junior High School 

The Effects of Circulating Antibody as Related to the Immunologic 
Enhancement of the SV40 Tumor in the Mesocricetus Auratus Auratus 
Denise Anne Miller - Rockledge High School 

9:00 PRESENTATION OF SENIOR HIGH LITERARY RESEARCH PAPERS 

Bush Auditorium - 127 
Presiding - Mike Pace 



Quasars 



Murlene Wiggs - J. M. Tate High School 

Enzymatic Repair of Ultraviolet Induced Pyrimidine Dimerization in 
DNA 

Tim Jones - Cocoa High School 

Phytochrome and Photomorphogenesis 

Lola Brabham - Gainesville High School 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



Benzoic Acid - 3 Hydroxyacetate: Synthesis and Contrast/Comparison 
to Lesions Incurred by Acetylsalicylic Acid 

George Zima - Cocoa Beach High School 

The Relationship Between the Structure of Polyribosomes and the Time 
of Their Appearance in Sea Urchin Eggs 

Shonnie Gramly - Cocoa High School 

Flowering and Fruiting and Its Relationship to Senescence in Plants 
Barbara Frierson - Cocoa High School 

A Study of the Evolution of Cellular Biochemistry in Relation to 
Enzymatic Activity 

Brian Stenquist - Naples High School 



Culturing Methods of the Opalinids 

Dave Seibert - Cocoa High School 



11:00 SPONSORS' MEETING 

Students invited to attend: 

Senior Academy Sessions - Bush Science Center 
Science Talent Search - Bush Science Center 

12:00 LUNCH 

1:00 GENERAL SESSION 

Bush Auditorium - 127 
Presiding - Ruth Babyak 

Welcome - President, Rollins College 

1:15 PRESENTATION OF HIGH SCHOOL EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS 

A Comparative Investigation of the Relative Medullary Thickness and Urine 
Concentrating Abilities of Desert Rodents 

Mike Pace - Merritt Island High School 

Prevention of Endotoxin Shock by Antihistamines in Mice 
Teresa Rittmanic - Merritt Island High School 

The Pathological and Clinical Significance of Magnesium Depletion 
Appearing in Cardiovascular Disease 

Benjamin Max Mondschein - Miami Beach Sr. High School 

The Prefection of a Method for the Determiniation of the Critical Surface 
Tension of Powdered Polymers 

John R. Minter - Terry Parker High School 



uarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



A Study of the Effects of Colchicine and Trimethylcolchicinic Acid Methyl 
Ether D-Tartrate on the Metabolism and Mitotic Index of Malignant Neo- 
plastic Tissue 

Joseph G. Nolan - Merritt Island High School 

Mid-Brain Reticular and Caudate Nucleus Formation Influences on Sub- 
Level Kindling of Anygdaloid Focal Epilepsy 

Mark Rittmanic - Merritt Island High School 

Auxin Chemistry: Mechanisms of 2, 4-D Herbicidal Action 

J. Michael Verlander, Jr. , Melbourne Central Catholic H. S. 

"Water, Water Everywhere, Nor Any Drop to Drink" 
Corey J. Mullins - Merritt Island High School 



3:15 BUSINESS MEETING 
Presiding - Mike Pace 



6:00 AWARDS BANQUET - Rose Skillman Dining Hall 



OFFICERS OF JUNIOR ACADEMY 



PRESIDENT: 
VICE PRESIDENT: 
SECRETARY -TREASURER: 
STATE DIRECTOR: 



STATE DIRECTOR: 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 



ROLLINS COLLEGE LIAISON 

AND SCIENCE FAIR COORDINATOR 



MERRITT ISLAND HIGH SCHOOL 

EDGEWOOD JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

COCOA HIGH SCHOOL 

JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

LLOYD D. GRIFFITH 

COCOA HIGH SCHOOL 

FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

DR. FRANK DUDLEY 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA 

MRS. PATRICIA DENNINGHOFF 

MR. LARRY BECHTEL 

MR. KEN MARX 

MR. CRAIG BROSIUS 

MR. DAVID MOSRIE 

DR. ROBERT E. ROTH 



EXHIBITORS 



The following industrial firms will be exhibiting their 
products at this annual meeting. The Academy wishes 
to express its sincere appreciation for their support. 
Unfortunately the list is incomplete because of the early 
date of printing. 



Fisher Scientific Company Laboratory Supplies 

McGraw-Hill Book Company Textbooks 

Hewlett-Packard Company Electronics 

Lanier--A Division of 3-M Audio Visual 

Wards Biological Supplies 

Seymour-Lenz Scientific Equipment 



ROLLINS COLLEGE 



WINTER PARK, FLORIDA 




DR. PIERCE BRODKORB, Editor 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED 



NON PROFIT ORG. 

U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 

PERMIT 395 



o 



SX Quarterly Journal 

of the 

Florida Academy of Sciences 



Vol. 35 June-September, 1972 No. 2-3 



CONTENTS 



First occurrence of the violet goby in Georgia 

Paul L. Wolf, Sheryl F. Shanholtzer, and R. J. Reimold 81 

Vegetational changes in the National Key Deer Refuge-II 

Taylor R. Alexander and John D. Dickson III 85 

Composition of Thalassia testudinum and Ruppia maritima 

Gerald E. Walsh and Thomas E. Grow 97 

Noteworthy marine fishes from eastern Louisiana Jerry G. Walls 109 

Antarctica, isostacy, and the origin of frogs 

Coleman J. Goin and Olive B. Goin 113 

Characteristics of the western Atlantic reef -fish fauna 

Carter R. Gilbert 130 

Annotated checklist of the Boynton Beach hammock 

Daniel F. Austin and Joanne G. Weise 145 

A sediment trap for use in soft-bottomed lakes 

Frank G. Nordlie and John F. Anderson 155 

New records for fishes in South Carolina waters 

David M. Cupka and Robert K. Dias 158 



Published November 5, 1973 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 
Editor: Pierce Brodkorb 



The Quarterly Journal welcomes original articles containing sig- 
nificant new knowledge, or new interpretation of knowledge, in any 
field of Science. Articles must not duplicate in any substantial way 
material that is published elsewhere. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

Rapid, efficient, and economical transmission of knowledge by means of 
the printed word requires full cooperation between author and editor. Revise 
copy before submission to insure logical order, conciseness, and clarity. 

Manuscripts should be typed double-space throughout, on one side of 
numbered sheets of 8Y2 by 11 inch, smooth, bond paper. 

A Carbon Copy will facilitate review by referees. 

Margins should be 1 Y2 inches all around. 

Titles must not exceed 55 characters, including spaces. 

Footnotes should be avoided. Give Acknowledgments in the text and 
Address in paragraph form following Literature Cited. 

Literature Cited follows the text. Double-space and follow the form 
in the current volume. For articles give title, journal, volume, and inclusive 
pages. For books give title, publisher, place, and total pages. 

Tables are charged to authors at $25.00 per page or fraction. Titles 
must be short, but explanatory matter may be given in footnotes. Type each 
table on a separate sheet, double-space, unruled, to fit normal width of page, 
and place after Literature Cited. 

Legends for illustrations should be grouped on a sheet, double-spaced, in 
the form used in the current volume, and placed after Tables. Titles must be 
short but may be followed by explanatory matter. 

Illustrations are charged to authors ($17.00 per page or fraction). 
Drawings should be in India ink, on good board or drafting paper, and 
lettered by lettering guide or equivalent. Plan linework and lettering for re- 
duction, so that final width is 4% inches, and final length does not exceed 6% 
inches. Do not submit illustrations needing reduction by more than one-half. 
Photographs should be of good contrast, on glossy paper. Do not write 
heavily on the backs of photographs. 

Proof must be returned promptly. Leave a forwarding address in case 
of extended absence. 

Reprints may be ordered when the author returns corrected proof. 



Published by the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Printed by the Storter Printing Company 

Gainesville, Florida 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

of the 

FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Vol. 35 June-September, 1972 No. 2-3 

First Occurrence of the Violet Goby in Georgia 
Paul L. Wolf, Sheryl F. Shanholtzer, and R. J. Reimold 

During a routine weekly survey of the aquatic fauna and flora of 
an undisturbed salt marsh ecosystem, one living specimen of the 
violet goby, Gohioides broussonneti Lacepede, was collected. Pre- 
vious collections of this species are reported by Gunter and Hall 
(1963), Kritzler (1950), Miller (1966), and Tagatz (1968). 

The violet goby has been collected from the following places in 
the United States: St. Johns River, Florida; inland waterwater near 
Salerno, Florida; St. Lucie Estuary, Florida; New Orleans; and 
Freeport, Texas. Gunter and Hall (1963) report collecting G. 
broussonneti from salinities of 0.22-0.24 parts per thousand (the 
salinities being determined by chloride titrations and by a hy- 
drometer). Miller ( 1966) reported these fish to be included among 
the fresh water fishes of Central America, however no salinity ranges 
were reported. Kritzler (1950) examined a specimen after it had 
been caught in the intake screens to a power plant and then pre- 
served and kept at the Jacksonville Florida Children's Museum for 
identification. Fowler ( 1947 ) reports identifying a violet goby cap- 
tured and preserved nearly a month earlier. In both instances cited 
above the authors did not see the living fish and consequently only 
speculated as to its appearance prior to fading in the preservative. 
Tagatz (1968) collected seven G. broussonneti from the St. Johns 
River, Florida, in salinities ranging from 0.0-23.7 parts per thousand 
and a temperature range of 16.8-34.4C. 

The violet goby reported herein was captured 2 July 1969 in the 
Duplin River Estuary, Sapelo Island, Georgia. The fish was cap- 
tured in a 10 foot otter trawl, 3/4" mesh, using a two speed of 2.0 
knots. The trawl was made against the tide; the tide was within 



82 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 

one-half hour of high slack water. The water temperature in which 
the violet goby was captured was 29.5C, while the salinity of the 
water was 23.0 parts per thousand. 

All proportional measurements were made in terms of standard 
length unless otherwise noted. Measurements of the fish are listed 
in Table 1. Table 2 provides a comparison of the measurements of 
the fish captured with those reported elsewhere in the literature. 
These determinations were all taken on the freshly captured speci- 
men prior to preservation in 10 per cent hexamine buffered sea 
water formalin. General body shape and coloration closely re- 
semble specimens described by Jordan and Everman (1902). 

The specimen described above represents the first reported oc- 
currence of the violet goby north of Florida. This is the second 
time also that the fish has been collected in higher salinity waters. 
Further observations on the osmoregulatory ability of this fish are 
needed to determine whether it should be described as a fresh 



TABLE 1 

Measurements of Gobioides broussonneti from Duplin River Estuary, 

Sapelo Island, Georgia 

Total length 400 mm 

Standard length 315 mm 

Body depth 12.6 in. Standard Length ( S.L. ) 

Depth of caudal peduncle 21.0 in. S.L. 

Predorsal length 4.6 in. S.L. 

Length of dorsal 1.3 in. S.L. 

Length of anal 1.7 in. S.L. 

Height of dorsal 24.0 in. S.L. 

Head length 6.1 in. S.L., 2.5 snout to vent 

Length of caudal 3.8 in. S.L. 

Depth of head 12.6 in. S.L. 

Width of head 10.5 in. S.L. 

Snout length 5.8 in. head 

Postorbital length 9.0 in. S.L.; 1.5 in. head 

Length of eye 13.0 in. head 

Length of longest pectoral 11.6 in. S.L. 

Length of longest pelvic 11.6 in. S.L. 

Length of upper jaw 15.0 in. S.L.; 2.5 in. head 

Length cf mandible 16.5 in. S.L.; 2.7 in. head 

Vent to caudal peduncle 1.8 in. S.L. 

Vent to snout 2.3 in. S.L. 

Interorbital space 1.25 diameter of eye 



Wolf et al.: Violet Goby in Georgia 83 

TABLE 2 

Comparison of measurements of Gobioides broussonneti from Duplin River 

Estuary and G. broussonneti from Jordan and Everman ( 1902 ) and 

Kritzler (1950) 

Jordan 
Duplin & 

Measurement River Everman Kritzler 

Depth in standard length 
Head length in standard length 
Head length in snout to vent 
Head width in head length 
Length of eye in head length 
Least depth of caudal peduncle 

in head length 
Length of largest pectoral 

in head length 
Length of largest pelvic 

in head length 
Interorbital space (in eye diameter) 
Snout length in head 
Interorbital in snout 
Least depth of caudal peduncle in head 

water fish which strayed into the estuary or whether it is a truly 
euryhaline species. 



Literature Cited 

Fowler, H. W. 1947. The Barrets — Gobioides broussonnetii Lacepede — 
obtained in Florida by Captain William B. Gray. Notulae Nature, 
vol. 197, pp. 1-4. 

Gunter, G., and G. E. Hall. 1963. Additions to the list of euryhaline fishes 
of North America. Copeia, 1963, no. 3, pp. 596-597. 

Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Everman. 1902. American Food and Game Fishes. 
Doubleday, Page and Co. New York. 

Kritzler, H. 1950. Broussonets' Goby from the brackish water of lower St. 
Johns River, Florida. Copeia, 1950, no. 1, pp. 64-65. 

Miller, R. R. 1966. Geographical distribution of Central American Fresh- 
water Fishes. Copeia, 1966, no. 4, pp. 773-802. 

Tagatz, M. E. 1968. Fishes of the St. Johns River, Florida. Quart. Jour. 
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 25-50. 



12.6 


13 


11 


6.1 


5.25-7.0 


6.8 


2.5 




2.6 


1.4 




1.3 


13.0 


7-10 


12.6 


2.8 




2.9 


1.9 




1.6 


1.9 




1.4 


1.25 


1-1 1/3 




5.8 




4.75 


1.8 




1.4 


3.5 




2.9 



84 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Marine Institute, University of Georgia, Sapelo Island, Georgia 
31SZ7 (present address of senior author: Department of Biology 
Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania). Contribution No. 
229, Marine Institute, University of Georgia, Sapelo Island, Georgia. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Vegetational Changes in the National Key Deer Refuge-II 

Taylor R. Alexander and John D. Dickson III 

This report is the second one of a continuing study started in 
1968 to determine vegetational changes in the National Key Deer 
Refuge since the initial study in 1951 (Dickson, 1955). The first 
report (Alexander and Dickson, 1970) documented the changes in 
the northern part of Big Pine Key. The northern part was mostly 
a prairie in 1951 and currently supports an entirely different vege- 
tation type from the pineland that covers most of the Key. The 
pineland is the subject of this study. 

Most of the pineland occurs on four Keys: Big Pine, Little Pine, 
No Name, and Cudjoe. Of these, No Name is outside the Refuge 
and is being developed for housing. The pineland of Big and Little 
Pine Keys is of great importance for deer range. Little Pine Key 
is about 600 acres in size and of this about nineteen per cent is pine- 
land. Big Pine Key is about 6,000 acres and about thirty-eight per 
cent pineland. Since a large portion of this pineland on Big Pine 
Key lies south of the Refuge, the amount of protected pineland with- 
in the Refuge is very limited. The study reported herein was con- 
fined to the pineland of Big Pine Key. A complete description of 
the Refuge can be found in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
pamphlet, Rl-518 (1965). 

The two objectives of the current study were to document the 
changes in the pineland since 1951 and to provide information that 
might be useful in decision making for vegetational management. 
The latter relates mostly to the question of the use of fire on the 
Keys to control plant succession in the pineland. 

Data for the original study was collected during 1951-52 and 
for the current study 1969-70. These two will be referred to here- 
after as 1951 and 1969 data and the comparisons will be considered 
to cover the changes over an eighteen year period. All the sites 
used for quadrats had been fire-free during the period. 

Methods 

Twenty quadrats, 3X100 feet were studied to analyze changes 
in the tree and shrub population. Thirty quadrats, 3X3 feet were 



86 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

examined for herbaceous vegetation. The smaller quadrats were 
located within the larger. An attempt was made to randomly sam- 
ple the area and follow procedures previously reported (Dickson, 
1955 ) , so that the 1969 data could be compared directly with those 
of 1951. Plant names, numbers, heights and per cent of cover were 
determined. The last was recorded as four classes: 1 (less than 1 
per cent); 2 (1-5 per cent); 3 (6-25 per cent), and 4 (26-50 per 
cent). Frequency figures are the percentage of quadrats in which 
a species occurred. Density values are the average number of in- 
dividuals per quadrat. Counts for trees and shrubs were converted 
to plants per acre. Plants browsed by deer were noted, based on 
information determined in 1951 from stomach and pellet analyses, 
and direct observations. Plant names used are from the checklist of 
Lakela and Craighead ( 1965 ) . 



Results and Discussion 

Comparison of Tables 1 and 2 shows that 20 woody species 
were listed in 1951 and 25 in 1969. Of the 25, nine were new to the 
list and four species of the 1951 study were not found in 1969. The 
new species are in the last half of the 1969 list and represent species 
that are found in mature pinelands, usually as invasion species lead- 
ing toward a climax forest. The one exception is important. It is 
the exotic Schinus terebinthifolius, locally called Florida holly or 
Brazilian pepper. As is the case with many exotics, this one is 
spreading rapidly throughout the warmer areas of Florida. It is 
bird-spread and will form dense stands at the expense of native 
vegetation. It should be eliminated when found in the Refuge. One 
of the four 1951 species not found in 1969 is Reynosia septentri- 
onalis. It is very common on the northern end of the Key (Alex- 
ander and Dickson, 1970). In 1951 it was listed but with low fre- 
quency. It was not seen in any quadrat, nor contiguous pineland 
areas in 1969. The other three, not counted in 1969, Suriana, Rha- 
coma and Jacquinnia, were seen occasionally but did not occur in 
the quadrats. Cassia bahamensis, occurring in 1969, did not appear 
in the 1951 quadrats. 

Pines have doubled in number during the 18 years. Several size 
classes are present. However, there is a significant reduction in the 



Alexander and Dickson: Vegetation of Deer Refuge 



87 



w a 

CO <*> 
< T3 



co r-i n h cq ^f 



CO CM CM CM CM 



oooooooooooooooooooo 

OWOS^CJfflNBHOONOrtnHNHHHH 



cooHMooco2o)in«coiMeqNO)io»ow»o>no) 
siioco»«o>onHoooosHHrtHHffl 

ffinHOomntoiNNHH tj< 

CM i— I i— l >- 1 OS 



CD 00 CD 05 O 


mMHffiincBNcocn 


cm oo co co in 


CMOJCDIO^CMOOtFCM 


o cq h h 



^MWNCOnCBN 
Tf*CDO5TP^-l^l>00 
OO — I lO CN CM "tf 




,3 <» 

C e u o « >* 

fa] CC < £ «,« 



88 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



rt«nncoHeqH« 



co « as ■* com n a> 

O WCOHOJH cq 

M « H r-H 



m t> 



HU3'<tCOC»H«OOOTr WH i-H b- 

oiOMcoeqncq h cd 



OOC005COrtt>i-IC5t^CSJOO 0505 OJ 

M>Ht-OCDWCOCOOW «N <N «N 

CO <N eo <N <M >-i .-H .-( 



II 



•8- §■ 

-2 1 



2 -2 



f 



§ J 1 



s 

1 « 

11 



t3 

8 8 

to to 



I 

S 2 

e. « S c 
2 '1 2 g 

S O U OT 



8.1 2 






a • ; « « * * 

2 8 53 






•2 *- 






•2 «•§ 

„ V- V. ri 

8 1 IP 

ii in 

^ >j « fc, H 




Fig. 1. Upper 1951 photograph; lower 1970 photograph. Note the differ- 
ence in young pines. 



number of pines over twelve feet tall. Two hurricanes (1960 and 
1965) affected the area, and there were many fires prior to 1951 
that weakened the older trees. Tree falls and standing dead trunks 



90 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

are not uncommon. Figure 1 gives a fairly accurate picture of the 
increase in young pines. The photographs were taken at the same 
location. 

Palms account for a great percentage of the total plant cover. 
Coccothrinax argentea, silver palm, totals are reduced considerably 
in the 1969 data. This is strongly reflected in the seedling count. 
At the same time more large specimens were counted. For some 
reason(s), the current reproductive rate is definitely less than dur- 
ing the period preceding the 1951 study. Thrinax microcarpa, key 
thatch palm, increased about three times during the 18 years and 
appears to be reproducing at a steady rate as evidenced by the first 
three size classes being well represented in the population. Sere- 
noa repens, saw palmetto, appears to be failing significantly. This 
is considered a sampling problem. It is still locally abundant, es- 
pecially near the depressions in the limestone. These limestone 
sinks were not encountered when plots were positioned in 1969. 

Tithe colobium guadelupense, slightly increased its significance in 
the habitat. Byrsonima cuneata was very stable in density but re- 
duced in frequency. Eugenia longipes remained the same in cover 
but only half as many seedlings were found in 1969. Metopium tox- 
iferum increased in cover and frequency, but showed a drastic drop 
in seedlings in 1969. Randia aculeata and Pisonia rotundata appear 
to be failing. Small Erithalis plants were so closely cropped that 
they were hard to identify and larger plants were browsed as high 
as the deer could reach. 

The differences between the totals in Table 1 and 2 are as fol- 
lows. There were 2,371 fewer woody plants per acre at the end of 
the observation period than at the start. There were fewer tall pine 
trees. There was an increase of about 500 individuals per acre in the 
4'-12' class. This increase reflects the growth rate. The datum on the 
under-one-foot class is considered very significant in that there 
were 2,739 fewer individuals per acre in 1969. This is more than a 
50 per cent reduction from the 1951 counts. Three possible reasons 
are; lack of fire, drought occurrence and new mosquito ditches. 

According to the Refuge records none of the quadrat sites was 
burned after 1951. However, fire has been common in the pineland 
prior to that time. Seedlings of many species are frequently com- 



' 



Alexander and Dickson: Vegetation of Deer Refuge 



91 



TABLE 3 
1969-70 Understory Plant List 



Acacia peninsularis 
Anemia adiantifolia 
Borreria terminalis 
Cassytha filiformis 
Centrosema virginianum 
Chamaecrista keyensis 
Chamaesyce conferta 
Chamaesyce serpyllum 
Chiococca pinetorum 
Chrysobalanus pallidus 
Cirsium horridulum 
Caladium jamaicense 
Cnidoscolus stimulosus 
Crotalaria maritima 
Croton linearis 
Cynanchium blodgettii 
Dichromena colorata 
Ernodea angusta 
Flaveria linearis 
Galacti parvifolia 
Galium hispidulum 
Gerardia purpurea 
Heliotropium leavenworthii 



Houstonia sp. 
Hypericum sp. 
Melanthera parvifolius 
Mikania batatifolia 
Morinda roioc 
Phyllanthes pentaphyllus 
Physalis angustifolia 
Piriqueta sp. 
Pluchea foetida 
Poly gala sp. 
Polygala praetervisa 
Pterdium aquilinum 

var. caudatum 
Pterocaulon undulatum 
Rhabdadenia corallicola 
Rhacoma ilicifolia 
Rhynchosia parvifolia 
Ruellia hybrida 
Smilax havanenensis 
Stylosanthes hamata 
Tragia saxicola 
Unknown (one) 
Grasses (several) 



mon following fire and then the numbers decline. The rainfall rec- 
ord from the nearest station ( Key West ) shows that for the 10 years 
prior to the 1951 study the rainfall was close to their 36-year average 
of 37.6 inches a year. The study period years, 1951, '55, '56, and 
'61 were drought years. Owing to the rocky and almost soilless con- 
dition of the limestone surface, even moderate droughts could kill 
seedlings before establishment. In January of 1964 the Monroe 
County Mosquito Control District began a ditching program on Big 
Pine. By completion in December of 1965, a total of 4,976 acres 
(of about 6000) had been ditched (personal communication from 
Director J. V. Denis, Monroe County Mosquito Control District, 
Stock Island, Florida, 1971 ) . These ditches are about sixteen inches 
wide, vertical-sided, and are deep enough to allow tide water to 
flow in them from the nearby open sea. This increases salt intrusion 
into the substrate and also increases the rate of rainwater runoff, 
thus reducing penetration of fresh water to the root zone. Both of 



92 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



TABLE 4 
Comparison of Common Understory Species 



Species 




1951 






1969 




Deer 






F 


D 


C 


F 


D 


C 


Food 




Species Occurring in Top 15 on 


Both Sampling 


Dates 






1. 


Grass spp. 


93 


8.3 


4 


83 


9.7 


3 




2. 


Chamaecristas keyensis 


37 


0.9 


3 


72 


3.0 


2 




3. 


Ruellia hybrida 


37 


0.8 


1 


53 


1.2 


1 


a 


4. 


Dichromena colorata 


27 


0.9 


1 


47 


2.0 


2 




5. 


Galactia parvifolia 


20 


0.2 


1 


43 


0.8 


1 


» 


6. 


Cassytha filiformis 


23 


0.2 


1 


30 


0.3 


1 


* 


7. 


Morinda roioc 


13 


0.6 


1 


27 


0.5 


2 


* 


8. 


Phyllanthes pentaphyllus 


23 


0.2 


1 


27 


0.6 


2 




9. 


Smilax havanensis 


23 


0.4 


1 


23 


0.5 


1 


« 




1951 Species New 


to Top Fifteen 


in 1968 








10. 


Melanthera parvifolius 


3 


0.1 


1 


40 


0.7 


1 




11. 


Ernodea angusta 


7 


0.1 


1 


33 


1.0 


3 




12. 


Anemia adiantifolia 


7 


0.3 


1 


30 


0.9 


2 




13. 


Crotalaria maritima 


7 


0.1 


1 


30 


0.8 


1 


» 


14. 


Polygala grandifloria 


3 


0.1 


1 


30 


0.4 


1 




15. 


Cirsium horridulum 


3 


0.1 


1 


27 


0.3 


1 






Species in Top Fiftee 


n in 1951 but not in 1969 








Qerardia purpurea 


23 


0.5 


2 


13 


0.3 


1 


« 




Croton linearis 


20 


0.3 


3 


13 


0.2 


1 






Chamaesyce scoparia 


17 


0.3 


1 


— 


— 


- 


* 




Flavaria linearis 


13 


0.3 


1 


17 


0.2 


1 






Pterocaulon undulatum 


13 


0.1 


1 


20 


0.4 


1 






Physalis angustifolia 


10 


0.4 


1 


3 


0.1 


1 






( F=f requency, D=density, and C=cover. ) 



these conditions contribute to water stress on the plants. Water 
for survival is critical in this rocky and xerophytic pineland. 

The understory species are mostly herbaceous. However, some 
like Ernodea and Morinda roioc become woody. In general, all 
understory species listed were less than a half meter tall. The 1951 
list included 46 species; the 1969 included 45. Twelve species listed 
in 1951 did not appear in 1969. Eleven species listed in 1969 did 
not appear in 1951. These differences, in part, are probably due to 
seasonal differences in sampling. Table 3 is a complete alphabetical 
listing of understory plants for 1969. Table 4 summarizes the major 
changes that occurred and includes all plants that are prominent 
understory species. All of the other species listed in Table 3 occur 



Alexander and Dickson: Vegetation of Deer Refuge 93 

with a frequency of only 13 per cent or less and belong to cover 
class 1. 

The data reflect a fairly stable population in the understory for 
the 18-year period. The range and extent of changes do not appear 
unusual for this habitat. Grasses are somewhat less common in 
1969. This is probably due to shading, especially from the increas- 
ing height of the palm and shrub canopy and the lack of fire. The 
most obvious change in the understory is the increased amount of 
Ernodea. This vine-like shrub with prostrate branches grows in 
dense mats and can dominate sizeable areas. 

The pineland has not changed in overall appearance as much 
as the northern prairie did under similar conditions and time ( Alex- 
ander and Dickson, 1970). In the latter case, plant succession pro- 
ceeded from an open prairie to the thicket stages of a climax forest. 
The moisture holding marl soil of the prairie as compared to the 
rocky dry soil of the pineland was probably the main factor in the 
differences in the rate of succession seen in these contiguous areas. 
The pineland is on a mass of limestone and roots are restricted most- 
ly to the accumulated organic litter and a few shallow solution 
holes. Soil forming processes are slow in this environment and fires 
burn accumulated organic litter so that large areas of bare rock are 
repeatedly exposed. 

That there is a rich assortment of species and their propagules 
to initiate succession is well documented by this study and the plant 
lists from previous studies (Dickon, Woodbury, Alexander, 1953; 
Dickson, 1955; and Franklin, 1968). In spite of the above edaphic 
restrictions on succession the pineland of the Keys will give way to 
the climax of broad-leaved West Indian species if given enough 
time ( Alexander, 1958, 1967 ) . This has been documented by Stern 
and Brizicky (1957) on nearby No Name Key and by Dickson 
(1955) on No Name and Little Pine Keys. Prolonged protection 
from fire was the major factor on both Keys. Based on the evidence 
from this study and Jack Watson's (Refuge Manager) estimate in 
1970 of fire-free years on most of No Name Key, it took about 50 
years for broad-leaved species to completely overcome the pine for- 
est and limit its reproduction. This is about twice the time for sim- 
ilar stages to be reached on the mainland ( Alexander, 1967 ) . Deer- 
use of the open pineland on Big Pine Key indicates the desirability 



94 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

of this type of habitat in the Refuge and fire is a natural means of 
maintaining an open pineland. 

The use of fire for controlling and maintaining vegetation such 
as pinewoods is well established ( Mutch, 1970 ) . That fire improves 
the growing condition of deer browse species was observed in the 
earlier study (Alexander and Dickson, 1970). It is also known that 
a pineland with accumulated fuel of leaf litter and undergrowth is 
vulnerable to crown fire and death of the forest. Only a few refer- 
ences on the response of Pinus elliottii to fire could be found and 
these were for var. elliottii instead of the local var. densa ( Fo wells, 
1965 ) . Hayward and Barnetti ( 1936 ) stated . . . "it has been estab- 
lished as a fact that the highly desirable slash pine P. caribaea 
More, (now P. elliottii) reproduces only on areas protected from 
fire." This statement was expanded and clarified in a more recent 
report by Gruschow ( 1952 ) . The latter has data showing that suc- 
cessfully controlled burning on young stands of this pine is not 
started until the trees are about 12 feet tall. Trees smaller than this 
will suffer serious setbacks. Kaufman stated that "for natural re- 
generations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and var. den- 
sa), burning to prepare the seedbed is a common practice. After 
the seeds have fallen to the soil surface, until the young trees have 
achieved some size, fire can destroy all efforts for regeneration. 
Usually controlled burning in young stands is not started until the 
trees are two inches at d.b.h. (diameter at breast height 41/2 ft. 
above the soil surface ) and about 15 feet tall. Under very optimum 
conditions, slash pine much smaller will successfully survive very 
carefully conducted controlled burning but the risks increase very 
much. The densa (South Florida) variety of slash pine is somewhat 
more fire tolerant than the elliottii variety" (personal communica- 
tion from Professor C. M. Kaufman, School of Forestry, University 
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1970). 

It should be noted that the densa variety has not been subjec- 
ted to the same management by fire as has the elliottii variety. Also 
there is the fact that much of what is known about the latter's re- 
action to fire has been learned in row-planted pines and in the flat- 
woods of mainland Florida. Not much is known about the reaction 
of the key-type pineland to fire. Historically, the Keys have suffered 
many wildfires. Fires have undoubtedly served to maintain the pine- 
land and arrest succession throughout recent time. 



Alexander and Dickson: Vegetation of Deer Refuge 95 

Before completion of this manuscript, wildfire burned about 340 
acres of pineland on Big Pine Key, June 5, 1971. The authors ex- 
amined the burn on July 9. The purpose was to evaluate the effect 
on the local densa variety. The observations support the previ- 
ously reported results given for the elliottii variety. Most of the 
trees of the 4'- 12' class and under were dead, except where for 
some reason the heat was not excessive. It should be noted that the 
area had been fire-free for 20 years or more and the fuel load was 
excessive. Most palms were recovering and many of the woody 
plants were sprouting from their root-crowns. 

It has been reported that a pineland once existed on Key Largo 
( Alexander, 1953 ) . Only a few of the pineland related species per- 
sist on this Key. This part of Key Largo has been fire-free for many 
decades and is now covered by a dense forest of West Indian broad- 
leaved species. These observations indicate the pineland can be lost 
by total protection from fire as well as by ill-timed and severe 
burnings. 

The problem becomes especially critical in the Refuge since the 
land mass is so small. Wildfire can be replaced by controlled burn- 
ing. Proper periodicity of burns can be determined only by regu- 
larly conducted vegetation studies coupled with the need to main- 
tain adequate deer browse. 

Literature Cited 

Alexander, Taylor R. 1953. Plant succession on Key Largo, Florida, involv- 
ing Pinus caribaea and Quercus virginiana. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. 
Sci., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 133-138. 

. 1958. High hammock vegetation of the southern Florida mainland. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 293-298. 

. 1967. A tropical hammock on the Miami (Florida) Limestone — A 

twenty-five-year study. Ecology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 863-867. 

Alexander, Taylor R., and John D. Dickson III. 1970. Vegetational chang- 
es in the National Key Deer Refuge. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., 
vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 81-89. 

Dickson, John D., Ill, R. O. Woodbury, and T. R. Alexander. 1953. Check- 
list of flora of Big Pine Key, Florida and surrounding Keys. Quart. 
Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 181-197. 

Dickson, John D., III. 1955. An ecological study of the Key deer. Florida 
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tech. Bull., no. 3, 104 pp. 

Fowells, H. A. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. Agricul- 
ture Handbook, no. 271, U.S.DA. Forest Service, pp. 458-463. 



96 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Franklin, Alicelia H. 1968?). List of plants on Big Pine Key, Florida. 
Report to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife — distributed as 
PB 180221 by Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Infor- 
mation, Springfield, Va. 

Gruschow, George F. 1952. Effect of winter burning on growth of slash 
pine in the flatwoods. Jour. Forestry, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 515-517. 

Heyward, Frank and R. M. Barnette. 1936. Field characteristics and par- 
tial chemical analysis of the humus layer of longleaf pine forest soils. 
Tech. Bull. 302, University of Florida, Agric. Exp. Sta., 27 pp. 

Lakela, Olga, and F. C. Craighead. 1965. Annotated checklist of the vas- 
cular plants of Collier, Dade, and Monroe, Counties, Florida. Fairchild 
Tropical Garden and University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 
95 pp. 

Mutch, Robert W. 1970. Wildland fires and ecosystems — a hypothesis. 
Ecology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1046-1051. 

Stern, Wdlliam L., and G. K. Brizicky. 1957. The woods and flora of the 
Florida Keys — Introduction Tropical Woods, no. 107, pp. 36-65. 

Biology Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables Florida 
33124; Vining C. Dunlap Laboratories, Tela Railroad Co. (Subsid- 
iary of United Fruit Co.), La Lima, Honduras, C.A. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Composition of Thalassia testudinum and Ruppia maritima 
Gerald E. Walsh and Thomas E. Grow 

Little is known at present about the nutritive value of aquatic 
plants, especially in relation to annual variations in their chemical 
constituents. Turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) and widgeon 
grass (Ruppia maritima) are common in the inshore waters of 
Florida (Phillips, 1960). They are important constituents of estu- 
arine nursery grounds for marine animals and many forms of plant 
and animal life are associated with them (Hudson et al, 1970). 
The seagrasses are eaten by fishes, turtles, and other aquatic ani- 
mals (Randall, 1965), and birds (Olney, 1968). Detritus derived 
from seagrasses is eaten by small marine animals (Menzies and 
Rowe, 1969; Fenchel, 1970. Also, T. testudinum and its epiphytes 
are important in biogeochemical cycles in estuarine areas (Parker, 
1966). 

Both T. testudinum and R. maritima have been used successfully 
in preliminary experiments as fertilizers for tomatoes (van Breed- 
veld, 1966) and as feed supplements for Sheep (Bauersfeld et al, 
1969). 

Because of the importance of T. testudinum and R. maritima to 
estuarine ecosystems, we investigated seasonal distributions of pro- 
tein, carbohydrate, trace elements, and energy content of their 
leaves and rhizomes. Also, the potential nutritive value of the sea- 
grasses was evaluated. 

Methods 

Thalassia testudinum and R. maritima were collected between 6 
June 1969 and 27 May 1970 from a mixed bed at the western edge 
of Sabine Island in Santa Rosa Sound near Gulf Breeze, Florida. 
They were taken in the morning to avoid possible diel variation in 
the factors measured. Abundance of R. maritima was greatly re- 
duced in February 1970 and enough plant material could not be 
collected for all tests. 

After collection, plants were taken immediately to the laboratory, 
where the epiphyton was removed. The leaves were separated from 
the rhizomes and all were washed quickly in a stream of distilled 



98 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

water. Leaves and roots were dried to constant weight in an oven 
at 100 C and ground in a Wiley mill to pass the 40-mesh sieve. The 
pulverized material was stored in vacuo over anhydrous calcium 
carbonate until tested. 

Ash content was determined by combustion in a muffle furnace 
at 55 C for five hours. 

Total protein was measured by the method of Strickland and 
Parsons (1965) using acetonylacetone ( 2,5-hexanedione ) reagent 
and the procedure was standardized against the Kjeldahl-Nessler 
method. We report protein content as percentage of dry weight and 
of ash-free dry weight. 

Total carbohydrate was measured by a variation of the anthrone 
method for particulate carbohydrate (Strickland and Parsons, 1965). 
Fifty mg of each sample were suspended in 50 ml of 0.2 N H 2 S0 4 in 
a 125-ml Erlenmeyer flash. The sample was hydrolysed at 100 C for 
90 min. with mixing every 15 min. The hydrolysate was passed 
through a glass-fiber filter of 0.45a porosity and 0.2 ml of the filtrate 
was pipetted into a test tube. To this was added 10.8 ml of anthrone 
reagent (0.2 g anthrone, 8.0 ml 95 per cent alcohol, 30.0 ml distilled 
water, and 100 ml concentrated H 2 S0 4 ). The solution was heated 
at 100 C for five min. and brought quickly to room temperature in 
an ice-water bath. After 15 min. the extinction was measured 
against distilled water at 6200 A in a one-cm glass cell in a Beckman 
DU spectrophotometer. Glucose was used in preparation of stan- 
dard carbohydrate solutions. The data are expressed as percentage 
carbohydrate in dry weight and in ash-free dry weight. 

Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, man- 
ganese, and zinc in leaves and rhizomes were measured by atomic 
absorption spectroscopy, using a modification of the method of 
David (1958). Approximately 0.01 g of dried plant material was 
placed in a 30 ml Kjeldahl digestion flask with two ml of a 1:7 
sulphuric acid-perchloric acid mixture and 10 to 12 ml of nitric 
acid. Digestion was continued until organic matter was completely 
destroyed. Four glass beads were added to each flash to prevent 
bumping. 

After digestion, the flash was cooled to room temperature and 
three ml of distilled water added. After gentle shaking, the contents 
were transferred to a 25-ml volumetric flask. This washing pro- 
cedure was repeated twice with five ml of distilled water and the 






Walsh and Grow: Composition of Sea Grasses 99 

hydrolysate taken to 25 ml with distilled water. The hydrolysate 
was analyzed on a Beckman Model 1301 atomic absorption unit 
equipped with a Beckman DB-G spectrophotometer. Concentra- 
tions of the elements are reported as parts per thousand (ppt) of 
dry weight. 

Caloric contents were determined on a Parr Series 1200 adi- 
abatic calorimeter. Fuse wire and acid corrections were made for 
each determination and results are expressed as kilocalories per 
gram of ash-free dry weight. 

Results and Discussion 

Ash. Annual mean values and ranges of values for ash, protein, 
carbohydrate, and energy are given in Table 1. Annual variation in 
ash content was not found and analysis of variance indicated that 
all mean values were significantly different at the 0.05 level. The 



TABLE 1 

Annual means for ash, protein, carbohydrate, and energy contents of Thalassia 
testudinum and Ruppia maritima between June 1969 and May 1970. 

Range 



20.6-26.9 
21.4-25.4 
15.8-23.8 
18.6-24.8 

13.6-37.1 

7.7-14.7 

13.5-32.6 

14.1-26.9 

18.3-35.8 
54.5-80.3 
24.3-34.3 
52.0-73.3 

4.47-4.79 
4.76-5.16 
4.28-4.69 
4.09-4.38 



Component 


Annual 




mean 


Ash, % dry weight 




T. testudinum leaves 


24.5 


T. testudinum rhizomes 


23.8 


R. maritima leaves 


18.8 


R. maritima rhizomes 


22.4 


Protein, % ash-free dry weight 




T. testudinum leaves 


25.7 


T. testudinum rhizomes 


11.0 


R. maritima leaves 


23.2 


R. maritima rhizomes 


20.0 


Carbohydrate, % ash-free dry weight 




T. testudinum leaves 


23.6 


T. testudinum rhizomes 


72.1 


R. maritima leaves 


27.0 


R. maritima rhizomes 


63.6 


Energy, Kcal/g ash-free dry weight 




T. testudinum leaves 


4.66 


T. testudinum rhizomes 


4.88 


R. maritima leaves 


4.44 


R. maritima rhizomes 


4.25 



100 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



values obtained for ash contents were similar to those for most other 
aquatic plants (Westlake, 1965) and for leaves of T. testudinum 
(Burkholder et al., 1959). 

Protein. There was considerable annual variation in the amount 
of protein in ash-free dry weight of leaves. The highest value found 
for T. testudinum leaves was 2.7 times that of the lowest, while that 
for R. maritima leaves was 2.4 times greater. Annual variation in 



35 




40 
35 



RUPPIA LEAVES 
RUPPIA RHIZOMES 



THALASSIA LEAVES 
THALASSIA RHIZOMES 





F M A M 

1970 



J J A S N D 

1969 MONTH 

Fig. 1. Annual variation of protein in Thalassia testudinum and Ruppia 
maritima. 



Walsh and Grow: Composition of Sea Grasses 101 

protein in underground parts was less. In both T. testudinum and 
R. maritima, the highest concentration in the rhizomes was 1.9 times 
that of the lowest. 

During the annual cycle, the protein content of the leaves of T. 
testudinum was always greater than that of the rhizomes ( Figure 1 ) , 
the annual mean concentration in leaves being over two times 
larger (Table 1). Concentration of protein in the leaves of T. tes- 
tudinum increased in the late winter and spring between 9 January 
and 16 April. Concentrations decreased rapidly thereafter, and 
were lowest in summer on 2 July 1969. In the rhizomes, however, 
concentrations of protein increased only slightly between 26 Febru- 
ary and 16 April 1970, and fell less precipitously than did those of 
the leaves. 

The annual mean concentration of protein in the leaves of R. 
maritima was slightly greater than that in the rhizomes, but concen- 
tration was greater in the rhizomes in the summer months of May, 
June, and July. Concentrations in the leaves reached a peak on 8 
April 1970, and fell rapidly thereafter. Lowest concentration was 
found in the summer on 4 August 1969. Concentration of protein in 
the rhizomes of R. maritima rose slowly in the nine-month period 
between 4 August and 14 May, with lowest concentrations occuring 
in summer in June and early August. 

The above findings are related to the functional aspects of leaves 
and rhizomes. Leaves generally have a greater amount of protein 
than rhizomes because they are largely concerned with biosynthesis 
and, consequently, contain large amounts of enzymes and many 
membranes. However, rhizomes are storage organs and contain 
relatively large amounts of carbohydrate, as will be shown later. 
Leaf protein is greatest in spring when biosynthesis is rapid, where- 
as concentrations of carbohydrate in rhizomes are greatest in fall 
and winter. 

Bauersfeld et al. ( 1969 ) suggested that T. testudinum may be of 
value as a feed additive for domestic animals. They reported that 
the leaves of T. testudinum, after a single washing with distilled 
water, contained between 9.0 and 14.1 per cent protein on a dry 
weight basis, whereas the rhizomes contained 15 per cent. Burk- 
holder et al. ( 1959 ) reported that the dried leaves of T. testudinum 
contained 13.1 per cent protein. Neither study, however, reported 
the dates on which samples were taken. 



102 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

On a percentage dry weight basis, the protein contents of our 
samples were: T. testudinum leaves, 10.3-29.7; rhizomes, 5.8-12.2; 
R. maritima leaves, 10.9-28.5; rhizomes, 10.4-18.1. These values are, 
in general, higher than those for many other plants. Among the 







RUPPIA LEAVES 


80 




■ RUPPIA RHIZOMES 1 


70 






60 




* » 




..." 


'"*•«/ 


50 






t- 40 


. 




X 






o 






| 30 


V* 


^- ^ ^^\v S*^ — -^^~-v 


>- 




^ * ^S 


g 20 


. 




UJ 






Ul 






£ 10 






X 






<n o 




, , , 


< 






»* 




THALASSIA LEAVES 


uj 8 




-THALASSIA RHIZOMES 


H 






< 






IE 

£ 70 


■ 


/"""""* **-* "*"\ 


X 




/ *•"*"*» 


o 






£ 60 


■/" 


\ 


< 


/ 




o 






_i 50 


- 




< 






»- 






o 






t- 40 


■ 




30 


• 




20 






10 














A S 
1969 



N 
MONTH 



F M A 

1970 



Fig. 
Ruppia 



2. Annual variation of carbohydrate in Thalassia testudinum and 
maritima. 



Walsh and Grow: Composition of Sea Grasses 103 

aquatic plants, Myriophyllum sp. contained approximately 7.8 per 
cent protein in dry weight (Oelshlegel, 1969) and Spartina alter- 
niflora 8.9 per cent (Hall et al., 1970). Boyd (1970), in a study of 
the protein content of 11 freshwater species, reported a range of 
from 4.0 per cent (Typha latifolia) to 21.6 per cent (Nuphar ad- 
vena). Yee (1970) reported 17.5 per cent protein in Hydrilla sp. 
and 30.5 per cent in Pistia stratoides. Among foodstuffs, 114 lines 
of corn contained 9.8-16.3 per cent protein (Davis et al., 1970), 49 
varieties of grain sorghum contained 8.6-16.5 per cent (Virupaksha 
and Sastry, 1968) and wheat grain between 8.3-12.4 per cent (Chro- 
minski, 1967). 

Though high in protein, it is doubtful that these seagrasses could 
be used directly as food by humans. The unanimous consensus of 
a taste panel at the Gulf Breeze laboratory was that dried leaves 
and rhizomes are gritty, and have a strong, unpleasant odor and 
flavor. 

Carbohydrate. In contrast to protein contents, carbohydrate 
contents of rhizomes were greater than those of leaves (Table 1) 
because rhizomes are storage organs for starch. Fig. 2 shows that 
the carbohydrate contents of rhizomes, as percentage ash-free dry 
weight, began to rise in July due to production and storage in sum- 
mer, and attained peak concentrations in October and November. 
Decrease in spring was probably due to utilization of stored carbo- 
hydrate for biosynthesis and respiration. 

The carbohydrate contents of the seagrasses tested were similar 
to those of other plants. As percentage dry weight, T. testudinum 
leaves contained between 12.5 and 25.5 per cent carbohydrate, 
whereas the rhizomes contained between 41.5 and 62.9 per cent. 
Leaves of R. maritima contained between 20.0 and 27.2 per cent 
and rhizomes between 35.8 and 55.1 per cent carbohydrate. Re- 
ported values for other plants, as percentage dry weight, are: al- 
falfa, 13-25 (Raguse and Smith, 1965, 1966; Grotelueschen and 
Smith, 1967); red clover, 14-21 (Raguse and Smith, 1966), and tim- 
othy, 48 (Grotelueschen and Smith, 1967). Most of the values for 
seagrasses were within these ranges. 

Energy. The energy contents (Table 1) of all samples were 
very similar to those reported for most other plants (Cummings, 
1967) and no annual trends were observed. 

Elements. Annual variations in concentrations of sodium, potas- 



104 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 






32.5 
24.5 


K ..-—-' -v .. 


16.5 


^~> -^n/^ 


8.5 









5.00 


Fe 


3.75 




2.50 




1.25 


r~~\ y^ 





V'-'^-O^/-----'*' 




LEAVES 


0.050 


Zn RHIZOMES 


0.025 







^/..^..-^ 



JJAS0NDJFM 
MONTH 



Fig. 3. Annual variations of some elements in Thalassia testudinum. 

sium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and zinc are shown in Figures 
3 and 4. The variations appear to be associated with age and func- 
tional aspects of the materials analyzed. 

In several aquatic macrophytes, concentrations of some elements 
decline with age. For example, concentrations of nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium decline with age in Typha 
latifolia and in the bulrush Scripus americanus (Boyd, 1970). Con- 
centrations of zinc, manganese and iron are lowest in mature 
Spartina alterniflora (Williams and Murdock, 1969), and the 
authors suggested that the decrease may be due to dilution of 
actively growing tissues by structural material which contained 
little of the elements measured. 

Table 2 gives concentrations of the elements found in the leaves 



Walsh and Grow: Composition of Sea Grasses 



105 




. I0 

z 
o 

< 

Ui 

O 
u 

0.100 

0.075 
0.050 
0.0 25 



Na 





32.5 


' K 




24.5 






16.5 
8.5 













5.00 


■ Fe 


,A % 


3.7 5 




/' \ 




* 


"N.. .-■'' ', 


2.50 


x </ 


**'*" ' 


1.25 




_^y ^ 















0.050 


■ Zn 


LEAVES 






RHIZOMES 


025 


/ A 






\J 


\j i/~ "" 










JJASONDJFUAM 
MONTH 



ASONDJ FMAM 

MONTH 



Fig. 4. Annual variation of some elements in Ruppia maritima. 

and roots of selected plants. Concentrations in the seagrasses were 
always within ranges given in the table, even though annual varia- 
tion was found for each element. Concentrations of zinc, manganese, 
and iron were also similar to those reported for S. alterniflora by 
Williams and Murdock (1969). 

We cannot yet explain why the observed variations occurred be- 
cause little is known about the multiple roles of each element dur- 
ing the year. For example, magnesium is a structural component of 
chlorophyll, but it was often in higher concentrations in rhizomes 
than in leaves. This was probably related to the fact that it is also 
a specific cofactor for many enzymes involved in carbohydrate 
metabolism and its concentration depends upon age and seasonal 
variation in physiology of the plant part. 



106 Quarterly Journal of the Flortoa Academy of Sciences 

TABLE 2 
Concentrations, in parts per thousands, of some elements in the leaves and 
roots of selected plants. 



Plant 


K 


Mg 


Fe 


Mn 


Zn 


Carrot 












leaves 


13.3 


2.8 


0.36-0.77 


0.02-0.20 


0.03 


roots 


16.8-59.2 


1.2-2.4 


0.04-0.49 


0.01-0.09 


0.01 


Soybean 












leaves 


8.0 


7.9 


0.34 


0.03-0.19 


0.10 


roots 


14.4-15.6 


10.7-31.8 


- 


0.02-0.15 


- 


Sunflower 












leaves 


16.2-19.0 


11.0 


- 


0.07-1.27 


- 


roots 


13.6-38.0 


1.3-12.7 


0.03 


- 


0.02 


Sweet potato 












leaves 


16.1-23.7 


4.5-5.4 


- 


- 


- 


roots 


6.8-17.4 


0.6-2.1 


0.01-0.14 


0.01-0.03 


0.01 


Tomato 












leaves 


5.2-37.6 


6.2-15.5 


0.28-0.54 


0.05-4.93 


0.03 


roots 


8.0-34.1 


4.6 


- 


- 


- 



From Altman, P. L. and D. S. Dittmer (eds.), Biology Data Book, 1964. 

In summary, in relation to other aquatic plants and food crops, 
T. testudinum and R. maritima contain significant amounts of pro- 
tein, carbohydrate, energy, and minerals. The nutritive value of T. 
testudinum has been established (Bauersfeld et al., 1969) and that 
of R. maritima is implied from the work reported here. Annual 
variation in chemical composition, however, implies that the nutri- 
tional value of seagrasses varies throughout the year. 

Literature Cited 

Altman, P. L., and D. S. Dittmer (eds.). 1964. Biology data book. Federa- 
tion of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Washington, D. C, 
xix + 633 pp. 

Bauersfeld, P., B. B. Kifer, N. W. Durant, and J. E. Sykes. 1969. Nutrient 
content of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum). Proc. Intl. Seaweed 
Symp., vol. 6, pp. 637-645. 

Boyd, C. E. 1970. Amino acid, protein, and caloric content of vascular aquatic 
macrophytes. Ecology, vol. 51, pp. 902-906. 

Burkholder, P. R., L. M. Burkholder, and J. A. BrvERO. 1959. Some chem- 
ical constituents of the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum. Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club, vol. 86, pp. 88-93. 

Chrominski, A. 1967. Effect of ( 2-chloroethyl ) trimethylammonium chloride 
on protein content, protein yield, and some qualitative indexes of winter 
wheat grain. Jour. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 15, pp. 109-112. 



Walsh and Grow: Composition of Sea Grasses 107 

Cummings, K. W. 1967. Calorific equivalents for studies in ecological ener- 
getics. Pymanting Laboratory of Ecology, University of Pittsburgh. 2nd. 

ed., 52 pp. 
David, D. J. 1958. Determination of zinc and other elements in plants by 

atomic absorption spectroscopy. Analyst., vol. 8, pp. 655-661. 
Davis, L. W., W. P. Williams, Jr., and L. Crook. 1970. Interrelationships 

of the protein and amino acid contents of inbred lines of corn. Jour. 

Agr. Food Chem., vol. 18, pp. 357-360. 
Fenchel, T. 1970. Studies on the decomposition of organic detritus derived 

from the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum. Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 15, 

pp. 14-20. 
Grotelueschen, R. D., and D. Smith. 1967. Determination and identification 

of nonstructural carbohydrates removed from grass and legume tissue 

by various sulfuric acid concentrations, takadiastase, and water. Jour. 

Agr. Food Chem., vol. 15, pp. 1048-1051. 
Hall, K. J., W. C. Weimer, and G. F. Lee. 1970. Amino acids in an estua- 

rine environment. Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 15, pp. 162-164. 
Hudson, J. H, D. M. Allen, and T. J. Costello. 1970. The flora and 

fauna of a basin in Central Florida Bay. U. S. Fish Wildl. Ser. Spec. 

Sci. Rep. Fish. 604, pp. 1-14. 
Menzies, R. J., and G. T. Rowe. 1969. The distribution and significance of 

detrital turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum, on the deep-sea floor off 

North Carolina. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol., vol. 54, pp. 217-222. 
Oelshlegel, F. J., Jr. 1969. Potential for protein concentrates from alfalfa 

and waste green plant material. Jour. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 17, pp. 

665-668. 
Olney, P. J. S. 1968. The food and feeding habits of the pochard, Aythya 

ferina. Biol. Conserv., vol. 1, pp. 71-76. 
Parker, P. L. 1966. Movement of radioisotopes in a marine bay: cobalt-60, 

iron-59, manganese-54, zinc-65, sodium-22. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., Univ. 

Texas, vol. 11, pp. 102-107. 
Philld?s, R. C. 1960. Observations on the ecology and distribution of the 

Florida seagrasses. Florida State Bd. Conser., Prof. Papers Ser., No. 2, 

St. Petersburg, iv + 72 pp. 
Raguse, C. A., and D. Smith. 1965. Carbohydrate content in alfalfa herb- 
age as influenced by methods of drying. Jour. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 

13, pp. 306-309. 
. 1966. Some nonstructural carbohydrates in forage legume herbage. 

Jour. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 14, pp. 423-426. 
Randall, J. E. 1965. Grazing effect on seagrasses by herbivorous reef fishes in 

the West Indies. Ecology, vol 46, pp. 255-260. 
Strickland, J. D. H, and T. R. Parsons. 1965. A manual of sea water 

analysis, 2nd ed. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. Bull. No. 125. Ottawa, viii + 

203 pp. 
van Breedveld, J. F. 1966. Preliminary study of seagrass as a potential source 

of fertilizer. Florida State Bd. Conser., Mar. Lab. Spec. Sci. Rep. 9, 

pp. 1-20. 



108 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Virupaksha, T. K., and L. V. S. Sastry. 1968. Studies on the protein content 
and amino acid composition of some varieties of grain sorghum. Jour. 
Agr. Food Chem., vol. 16, pp. 199-203. 

Westlake, D. F. 1965. Some basic data for investigations of the productivity 
of aquatic macrophytes. In: C. R. Goldman (ed. ), Primary Productivity 
in Aquatic Environments. Mem. 1st. Ital. Idrobiol., 18 Suppl., Univer- 
sity of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 229-248. 

Williams, R. B., and M. B. Murdock. 1969. The potential importance of 
Spartina alterniflora in conveying zinc, manganese, and iron into es- 
tuarine food chains. In D. J. Nelson and F. C. Evans (eds. ), Sym- 
posium on Radioecology, 2nd Nat. Symp., Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 
431-439. 

Yee Thong Tan. 1970. Composition and nutritive value of some grasses, 
plants, and aquatic weeds tested as diets. Jour. Fish. Biol., vol. 2, 
pp. 253-257. 

Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Laboratory, Sabine Island, 
Gulf Breeze, Florida 32561. An associate laboratory of the National 
Environmental Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon. Contribution 
No. 126. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Noteworthy Marine Fishes from Eastern Louisiana 
Jerry G. Walls 

Over the last ten years, a small collection of local fishes has ac- 
cumulated at the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Comm. Marine 
Biology Laboratory on Grand Terre Island, Louisiana. Many of the 
specimens were collected incidental to shrimp studies and saved for 
later identification. Although most came from Barataria Bay, many 
were collected between 15 and 25 miles south of Grand Isle, where 
average depths of 15 to 25 fathoms occur. A few other specimens 
were donated by charter boat captains who found their catches to 
be of unusual interest. Although often poorly preserved, some speci- 
mens in this collection are noteworthy and are reported here. 

1. Hemanthias vivanus (Jordan and Swain). Red barbier. Three 
specimens of this beautiful fish were caught on 4 Dec. 1970, by Mr. 
Jess Lane, while fishing with squid bait for red and vermilion snap- 
per. They were caught near Rig 122-C, southeast of Grand Isle 
near the Mississippi River delta, at a depth of 260 feet. All three 
specimens were of similar size. Data on the single available speci- 
men follow: total length 343 mm; standard length, 257; depth at 
anal base, 87.5; head, 85.5; snout, 27.5; eye, 19; interorbital, 19.5; 
upper caudal lobe, 72; lower caudal lobe, 79; left ventral, 134; pec- 
toral, 62; caudal peduncle depth, 40; dorsal spines: 1st, 10; 2nd, 20; 
3rd, 72; 4th, 27; 7th, 22; 10th, 17.5; first dorsal ray, 26; first anal 
spine, 11; second, 20.5; third, 23 mm. D. X, 13; A. Ill, 8; P 1? 17-18; 
P 2 , 1, 5; pored LI. scales, 52; GR, lower limb, 26. This specimen was 
a mature male with large (55 mm long), firm testes. The peritoneum 
was white; stomach contents consisted of a small amount of blue- 
gray mud and a packet of very small, silvery fish scales; the gas 
bladder was expanded into the mouth. 

Of Gulf of Mexico anthiids, only Hemanthias vivanus and H. 
leptus resemble the present specimen. Louis R. Rivas ( in lit., 
Feb., 1971 ) separates H. vivanus from H. leptus by more gill rakers 
(30 in H. vivanus vs. 26 in H. leptus), fewer pored lateral line scales 
(48-50 vs. 55), elongated, flexible third dorsal spine (pungent and 
of normal length in H. leptus), and the absence of a deeply lunate 
caudal fin (deeply lunate in H. leptus). The present specimen 
agrees with H. vivanus in the prolonged dorsal spine and nearly 



110 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

truncate caudal fin; the scale count is intermediate, and the gill 
raker count fits H. leptus. Available descriptions of these species 
(Jordan and Evermann, 1896; Longley and Hildebrand, 1940, 1941; 
Ginsburg, 1952) are confusing and provide little information of 
value. The confusing aspects of the Louisiana specimen may be 
due to normal variation and to sex or degree of maturity. It is re- 
ferred to Hemanthias vivanus pending a revision of the genus. 

2. Alectis crinitus (Mitchill). African pompano. Although ju- 
veniles of this species are occasionally reported from the northern 
Gulf of Mexico (Springer and Hoese, 1958; Richmond, 1968), 
adults appear to be very rare. A large (615 mm SL, 10 pounds) 
male was taken on hook and line (squid bait on snapper rig) by 
charter boat captain Charlie Sebastian in late August, 1970. The 
specimen comes from Block 130 south of Timbalier Island, about 
40 miles south of Grand Isle, in about 185 feet of water. It appears 
to be the first published Louisiana record, and the first adult re- 
corded from the northern Gulf, excluding Florida. Measurements: 
greatest depth, 270; head length, 171; eye, 33; pectoral, 184; longest 
anal ray, 249 mm. The dorsal fin was still filamentous, with at least 
one ray (others broken) extending beyond the caudal fin; filaments 
were banded with black and white much as in juveniles. Black 
blotches were present at the upper edge of the operculum, above 
the eye, and on the dorsal half of the caudal peduncle. The testes 
were large, unequal (right 82, left 70 mm long), and firmly con- 
nected to the gut by tough membrane; surfaces were rough, like 
shagreen. Stomach contents consisted of five large (90 mm total 
length) mantis shrimp, Squilla empusa. All were doubled-up, with 
the bend pointed posteriorly; three specimens were quite fresh in 
appearance. The stomach, liver, and pyloric caeca were covered 
by a partially transparent, tough, and adherent membrane; peri- 
toneum white. 

3. Kyphosus sectatrix ( Linnaeus ) . Bermuda chub. This mostly 
tropical and Gulf Stream species is reported by SCUBA divers to 
occur in large schools near oil rigs in clear water south of Grand 
Isle. The only available specimen, 265 mm SL, was speared 16 Aug. 
1960, south of Grand Isle. Dawson (1963) reported one specimen 
from off Cat Island, Mississippi, but the present specimen appar- 
ently represents the first Louisiana record. 

4. Holacanthus bermudensis Goode. Blue angelfish. This species 



Walls: Marine Fishes from Louisiana 111 

is also reported to be common near oil rigs in clear water. The avail- 
able specimen measures 188 mm SL, with an indistinct nape spot 
and a dark caudal fin with a light terminal band. It was speared 
16 Aug. 1960, south of Grand Isle, and represents the first Louisiana 
record. 

5. Nomeus gronowi (Gmelin). Man-of-war fish. This pelagic 
fish is seldom recorded inshore along the Gulf coast, and only three 
small specimens are available. One specimen, 17.9 mm SL, was 
taken on 16 April 1961, near the Freeport Sulphur Rig, 4 miles 
south of Grand Isle. Two additional juveniles, 22.1 and 18.8 mm 
SL, were dipnetted in the boat basin at Grand Terre I. on 7 Dec. 
1961. All three specimens had three brown body saddles, one sad- 
dle on caudal peduncle, and long black pelvics connected to the 
body by a membrane. 

6. Erotelis smaragdus ( Valenciennes ) . Emerald sleeper. Daw- 
son (1969) reported only two records of this goby in Mississippi 
and indicated that it is rarely collected. Four Louisiana specimens 
are in the collection, three from within Barataria Bay. Two juven- 
iles (48.3 and 45.4 mm SL) were taken at Middle Bank Light in 
April, 1969, and another juvenile (47.8 mm SL) was collected near 
Independence Island, 20 Jan. 1971. In life this specimen was gray- 
brown with numerous small dark spots on the sides; dorsal and anal 
fins were streaked with brown, and the caudal fin was uniformly 
dark brown. The single large specimen, 103 mm SL, was taken 25 
miles south of Grand Isle in May, 1961. These specimens seem to 
be the first recorded from Louisiana. 



Literature Cited 

Dawson, C. E. 1963. Kyphosus sectatrix in the Gulf of Mexico with a new 

record from Mississippi. Copeia, no. 1, pp. 181-182. 
. 1969. Studies on the gobies of Mississippi Sound and adjacent waters 

II. An illustrated key to Gobioid fishes. Publ. Gulf Coast Res. Lab. 

Mus., no. 1, pp. 1-59. 
Ginsburg, Isaac. 1952. Eight new fishes from the Gulf Coast of the United 

States, with two new genera and notes on geographic distribution. J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 84-101. 
Jordan, David Starr, and Barton W. Evermann. 1896. The Fishes of 

North and Middle America. . . . Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, part 1, 

pp. i-lviii, 1-1240. 
Longley, William H., and Samuel F. Hildebrand. 1940. New genera and 



112 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

species of fishes from Tortugas, Florida. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Papers 

Tort. Lab., vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 223-285. 
. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida with 

observations on color, habits, and local distribution. Ibid., vol. 34, pp. 

i-xiii, 1-331. 
Richmond, E. Avery. 1968. A supplement to the fauna and flora of Horn 

Island, Mississippi. Gulf Res. Rpts., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 213-254. 
Springer, Victor G., and Hinton D. Hoese. 1958. Notes and records of 

marine fishes from the Texas coast. Texas J. Sci., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 

343-348. 

P. O. Box 49, Hightstown, New Jersey 08520. 
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Antarctica, Isostacy, and the Origin of Frogs 

Coleman J. Goin and Olive B. Goin 

It is a basic tenet of zoogeography that an animal group arises 
in and spreads from a single area, its center of origin. For larger, 
more inclusive groups, as the more primitive members move out 
from the center of origin, successively more advanced forms evolve 
in the center. As they in turn spread, they tend to eliminate the 
more primitive forms by competition. A large group that has been 
in existence for a long time typically shows a pattern of distribution 
in which the primitive species are located at the periphery of the 
range, in areas that the more advanced members have not yet 
reached or have reached only recently. 

The more primitive members of many vertebrate groups are 
found in the southern continents, in South America, Africa south 
of the Sahara, and Australia. The order Testudinata ( turtles ) com- 
prises two suborders. The more primitive suborder, Pleurodira, in- 
cludes the side-necked turtles, which draw the head under the shell 
by bending the neck to the side. Of the two families of side-necked 
turtles, Pelomedusidae occur in South America and Africa and 
Chelidae in South America and Australia. Fossil pelomedusids are 
known from the Upper Cretaceous of North America and Europe. 
The suborder Cryptodira includes more advanced forms, which 
withdraw the head by bending the neck in a sigmoid curve. They 
are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the northern conti- 
nents. The only cryptodires to reach Australia are the marine tur- 
tles, and cryptodires have probably been in South America and 
Africa only since the Miocene. 

Distribution patterns similar to that shown by the turtles are 
found in many vertebrates. This led Matthew (1915) to postulate 
a Holarctic center of origin for the majority of the groups of verte- 
brates. Darlington, on the other hand, believes that most of the 
groups arose in the Old World tropics. 

Some vertebrates do not conform to the distribution pattern de- 
scribed above and do not seem to have originated either in the 
Holarctic or in the Old World tropics. One such group is the frogs 



114 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

(Salientia). We believe that the evidejice suggests an Antarctic 
origin for this group. 

Antarctica 

This continent, which caps the southern polar region and is cov- 
ered with ice, seems an improbable place to seek for the origin of 
frogs, but certainly it was not always as it is today. Although no 
petroleum or gas have yet been located there, "estimates of enor- 
mous coal reserves in the Beacon sediments of the Trans-Antarctic 
Mountains have been made from time to time" (Warren, 1965, p. 
314). The climatic conditions under which coal is formed are also 
capable of supporting an amphibian fauna. The Beacon Group 
sediments lie on a peneplain of igneus and metamorphic rocks com- 
plex and variable in both age and lithology. In the McMurdo Sound 
District, the sediments are estimated to range in total age from 
pre-Devonian to Jurassic. The formation containing Glossopteris 
(Permian) is about 700 m thick in the upper Beardmore district, a 
thickness unequaled in other areas so far measured. Glacial condi- 
tions were present in the late Paleozoic and also in the Jurassic. 

Among fossils previously reported from the Beacon Group are 
Devonian freshwater fishes (Woodward, 1921) and Jurassic fresh- 
water gastropods, fishes, and beetles (Adie, 1962). Plumstead 
(1964) has given a review of the plant fossils of the Beacon Group. 
The first amphibian material known from Antarctica is a fragment 
of a labyrinthodont jaw taken at Graphite Peak in the Trans-Ant- 
arctic Mountains by Peter Barrett in 1967. In 1969 Dr. E. H. Col- 
bert and his party collected about 450 specimens of fossil vertebrate 
material from exposed outcrops in Coalsack Bluff just a few miles 
from their Beardmore Camp. Additional materials were collected 
during a second field season. These fossils represent in essence the 
Lystrosaurus fauna. 

ISOSTACY 

Seismic and gravitational studies ( Bentley, 1965; Gow, 1965 ) in- 
dicate that the ice cover over wide-spread areas of Antarctica rang- 
es between 2000-3000 m in thickness; in west-central East Antarctica 
the land is under a load of 3600 m of ice. Isostatic studies indicate 
that with this load part of the continent should be depressed about 
1000 m. 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 



115 



Antarctica is at present connected with each of the three south- 
ern continents, South America, Africa, and Australia, by the follow- 
ing undersea ridges at depths appreciably less than 1000 m: the 
Scotia Ridge to South America; the Macquarie Rise to Australia; 
and the Atlantic-Indian Rise, the West Indian Ridge, and the South 
Madagascar Ridge to Africa. Of these, the Scotia Ridge appears at 
the surface as the Falkland Islands, South Georgia Island, the 
South Sandwich Islands, and the South Orkney Islands. The Mac- 
quarie Rise reaches the surface as MacQuarie Island and, on the 
prong that extends to New Zealand, as the Aukland Islands. The 
Ridge to Madagascar and South Africa appears at the surface as 
the Bouvet and Prince Edward Islands. These ridges are shown 
in Figure 1. 




Fig. 1. Present location of undersea ridges that might, at a time of iso- 
static adjustment, have been emergent ridges or at least island chains that frogs 
would have been able to cross. 



There is no assurance that even if the main body of the continent 
did rise 1000 m to attain isostatic balance during glacier-free times 
its margins and the ridges would have risen an equal amount. How- 
ever, had they been elevated by only one third that amount there 
could have been either direct land connections or island chains be- 



116 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

tween Antarctica and the southern continents since the crests of the 
ridges rise in many places closer than this to the surface. 

Origin of the Frogs 

The earliest known remains of any salientian-type animal are 
some footprints found in the Ecca formation in the basal Permian 
of South Africa. The prints are of the fore-feet and indicate the 
presence of an animal that swam about or groveled on the bottom. 
The earliest fossilized skeleton is that of Triadobatrachus (Proto- 
batrachus) from the Lower Triassic of Madagascar. This animal 



$ 







Fig. 2. Distribution of the three earliest evidences of salientians. "P" 
are footprints from Permian Ecca beds of South Africa; "T" represents Triado- 
batrachus from the Triassic of Madagascar; "J" is Vieraella from the Lower 
Jurassic of Patagonia. This figure and all of the following distribution maps 
are based on an Azimuthal Equidistant Projection, centered on the South Pole. 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 117 

had a froglike skull and showed a tendency toward elongation of 
the hind legs. These remains indicate that the probable ancestors 
of the modern frogs were present in Gondwanaland. 

The oldest known real frog (order Anura) is Vieraella from 
Patagonia, which shows that the basic anuran pattern had been es- 
tablished by the Lower Jurassic. Notobatrachus is from the mid- 
Jurassic of Patagonia. Upper Jurassic frogs are known from both 
North America and Europe. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the 
earliest salientian fossils. 

Distribution of Modern Frogs 

The modern families of frogs are divisible into four primitive 







Fig. 3. Distribution of the living members of the family Ascaphidae; 
Ascaphus in the northwestern United States and Leiolopelma in New Zealand. 



118 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

families (Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae, Rhinophrynidae, and Pip- 
idae); one family, Pelobatidae that "unquestionably couples the 
more primitive with the advanced families but, none the less, is 
separable from both" (Griffiths, 1963, p. 271); and the more ad- 
vanced families like the Hylidae, Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and 
Ranidae. 

Ascaphidae. This most primitive family of living frogs is found 
today in two widely separated populations: Leiopelma in the fog- 
dampened ridges of New Zealand, and Ascaphus in the cold moun- 
tain streams of western North America ( Fig. 3 ) . 

Discoglossidae. Today represented by four living genera, this 
family shows a typical relict distribution: Bomhina in Europe and 
eastern Asia; Discoglossus in Europe and northern Africa; Alytes 








£ 



$rf 



Fig. 4. Distribution of the living members of the family Discoglossidae. 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 



119 



in western Europe; and Barbourula on a single island in the Philip- 
pines (Fig. 4). 

Rhinophrynidae. This family is known from a single species, 
Rhinophrynus dorsalis from the lowlands of Mexico. 

Pipidae. This family of highly aquatic frogs comprises one 
genus from the northeastern coast of South America and three from 
Africa in a trans-continental belt south of the Sahara but not in- 
cluding southern Africa or Madagascar ( Fig. 5 ) . 

Pelobatidae. The following three subfamilies of pelobatids are 
recognized: Pelobatinae, which includes one genus in Europe and 
northern Africa and another in North America; Pelodytinae ( some- 
times recognized as a separate family) with a single genus in Eu- 




Fig. 5. Distribution of the living members of the family Pipidae. 



120 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

rope; and Megophryninae with about half a dozen genera and many 
species in southeastern Asia and the East Indies ( Fig. 6 ) . 

Ranidae. This is a large, modern family containing many genera 
and hundreds of species. It is centered in Africa, where six of the 
seven subfamilies occur; four of them are found no place else. One 
subfamily is confined to the Seychelles Islands north of Madagascar. 
Another extends from Africa across southern Asia to the northern 
coast of Australia. The subfamily Raninae includes several genera 
of local distribution in Africa and southern Asia and the cosmo- 
politan genus Ram which has spread from Africa through Europe, 
Asia, and North America and has reached the northern parts of 
Australia and South America. Figure 7 shows the distribution of 
the Ranidae except for Rana. 




Fig. 6. Distribution of the living members of the family Pelobatidae. 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 121 

Dendrobatidae. This family of three genera and about sixty 
species is confined to Central America and South America. It is 
sometimes classed as a subfamily of the Ranidae. 

Rhacophoridae. This family of largely arboreal frogs is obvi- 
ously derived directly from the ranids. At present it is found in 
Africa, southern Asia, Japan, the Philippines, the East Indies, and 
Madagascar. There are over a dozen genera and many species. 

Microhylidae. This family is found in Africa south of the Sahara, 
Madagascar, southern Asia and the East Indies to New Guinea and 
the northern tip of Australia, and in South America. One genus 
ranges north to central United States and one Asian group north to 
Manchuria. There are about forty genera and many species. Figure 
8 shows the distribution of the Microhylidae. 




Fig. 7. Distribution of the living members of the family Ranidae (except 
Rana ) . 



122 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Phrynomeridae. This small family is confined to Africa south 
of the Sahara. It contains only a single genus and about half a 
dozen species. As the rhacophorids evolved from a ranid stock, so 
the phrynomerids apparently evolved from a microhylid stock. 

Bufonidae. Except for the cosmopolitan genus Bufo, the Bufo- 
nidae are found in Africa south of the Sahara (but not Madagas- 
car), southern Asia and the East Indies, and South America (Fig. 
9). Bufo, with its many species, occurs on most of the major land 
areas of the world except Australia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. 

Atelopodidae. These toads are widespread in Central and South 
America in the form of Atelopus, but the only other genus, Brachy- 
cephalus, is found only in eastern Brazil. 

Hylidae. This large family of tree frogs includes over thirty 




Fig. 8. Distribution of the living members of the family Microhylidae. 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 123 

genera and several hundred species. Except for the genus Hyla 
sensu lato, and Nyctimystes of New Guinea, it is confined to the 
Americas from northern Argentina northward to extreme south- 
western United States ( Fig. 10 ) . For the purposes of this paper, we 
consider the weakly defined North American genera Pseudacris and 
Acris to represent simply small groups of semi-specialized Hyla. 
We are not the first to so consider them (Noble, 1931). Hyla is 
widespread not only in South America but also in North America 
and Australia. A single variable species extends across the Pale- 
arctic Region from western Europe and North Africa to Japan. 

Leptodactylidae. This is another large family with hundreds of 
species. The geographic range covers South and Central America 




Fig. 9. Distribution of the living members of the family Bufonidae (ex- 
cept Bufo). 



124 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

northward to extreme southwestern United States and Australia and 
New Guinea. Heleophryne, a little-known genus that occurs in the 
mountains of southern Africa, is sometimes placed in this family, 
but this allocation is doubted by some herpetologists. Figure 11 
shows the distribution of the Leptodactylidae. 

Ceratophryidae. This family includes seven genera of wide- 
mouthed, toadlike forms. It seems to have been derived from the 
Leptodactylidae and is confined to South America. 

Pseudidae. Two small genera of aquatic South American frogs 
are placed in this family. Its relationships are obscure, but it may 
have been derived from the Leptodactylidae. 

Centrolenidae. This small family of arboreal frogs, which we 



$ 



Cy 




4 



% 



<§rQ 



Fig. 10. Distribution of the living members of the family Hylidae (except 
Holarctic members of the genus Hyla, sensu lato). 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 125 

believe to have been derived from the leptodactylids in South Amer- 
ica, occurs only in tropical America. 

Discussion 

As we look at the data given above, several points stand out. 
The oldest evidences of any frogs or froglike creatures are geo- 
graphically close to Antarctica; Permian footprints in the Ecca beds 
of South Africa, Triadobatrachus from the Lower Triassic of Mada- 
gascar, and Vieraella from the Lower Jurassic of Patagonia. 

Primitive living frogs have typical relict distributions with the 
Ascaphidae in western North America and New Zealand, and the 
Discoglossidae in Europe, North Africa, eastern Asia and the Philip- 




Fig. 11. Distribution of the living members of the family Leptodactylidae. 



126 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

pines. Except for the oceanic island of New Zealand, all of these 
geographic points are peripheral when plotted on an Azimuthal 
Equidistant Projection centered on the South Pole. Leiopelma is 
the only frog on New Zealand and there is no evidence that any 
other frogs ever reached there. The Pelobatidae also have a dis- 
junct distribution in North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia 
and the East Indies. Except for Leiopelma, the only primitive frogs 
found in the southern land masses are the completely aquatic Pipi- 
dae. Their habits may have sheltered them from competition with 
the more advanced, more terrestrial forms. They are peripheral 
ecologically. 

Four of the big, modern families of frogs are centered in the 
southern continents and have spread northward from them. The 
Hylidae are most numerous in South America; several genera reach 
extreme southern United States and the genus Hyla has spread 
across much of North America and from there to the Palearctic 
Region. Hyla is common in Australia and New Guinea where it has 
given rise to the genus Nyctimystes. The Leptodactylidae are also 
very common and diversified in South America and Australia. They 
have spread northward to southern United States and to New 
Guinea. If the isolated genus, Heleophryne, of the mountains of 
southern Africa does belong to this family, it may have reached that 
continent by rafting. The Ranidae have spread from Africa to south- 
ern Asia, the East Indies, and northern Australia, and, in the form 
of Rana, to most parts of the world except the central and southern 
half of Australia and the southern half of South America. The 
Bufonidae are well represented in Africa and like the ranids seem 
to have spread from there to southern Asia and the East Indies. 
Bufo has extended its range throughout much of the Palearctic. On 
the basis of karyological data, the North American members of the 
genus Bufo seem to be allied to the Palearctic forms and were prob- 
ably derived from them. The South American bufos apparently 
represent a separate stock. 

The microhylids are most numerous in Southeast Asia, Mada- 
gascar, and New Guinea. They are present in the northern tip of 
Australia and in southern Africa. In the New World they extend 
from Argentina north to central United States. The American micro- 
hylids are apparently more closely related to the Southeast Asian 
forms than to the African ones. Parker (1934) believes the group 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 127 

originated in Southeast Asia from a pro-ranid stock sometime before 
the close of the Mesozoic and spread from there south westward to 
Africa and Madagascar, southward to New Guinea and Australia, 
and eastward to the Americas. He suggested that the scarcity of 
microhylids in Australia in contrast to their great abundance in New 
Guinea may result from their relatively recent arrival across the 
Torres Strait but that it more probably reflects the difference in 
climatic conditions between the two regions. If the latter alterna- 
tive is correct, the microhylids may once have been more wide- 
spread in Australia when the climate was more humid and the di- 
rection of spread may have been northward to New Guinea and 
Southeast Asia. 

Except for the relict populations of Ascaphus, the discoglossids, 
and the pelobatids, there is hardly a frog in the Holarctic Region 
that is not a member of one of three vigorous genera, Hyla, Rana, 
and Bufo. 

It should also be noted that the large families that are centered 
in more than one of the southern continents are not necessarily cen- 
tered in adjacent continents. The bufonids are in Africa and South 
America but the leptodactylids and hylids are in Australia and 
South America. 

Finally, there are several obviously derived families that should 
be mentioned. The Rhacophoridae now exist in two separate popu- 
lations, one in Africa and one in southern Asia. This distribution 
can be explained in one of two ways. Either the rhacophorids 
evolved in Africa from the ranids and accompanied them eastward 
into southern Asia and the East Indies; or, as Laurent ( 1951 ) thinks 
more likely, after the ranids had extended eastward and split into 
two disjunct populations, each separate stock independently gave 
rise to arboreal forms. The Rhacophoridae would then be diphy- 
letic in origin. The Phrynomeridae stand in the same relation to the 
Microhylidae that the Rhacophoridae do to the Ranidae. They ( the 
phrynomerids ) are simply microhylids that are modified for climb- 
ing. They apparently evolved in and are still restricted to Africa. 

Other small families also probably evolved in the place where 
they live today. We suspect that the Centrolenidae evolved from 
the Leptodactylidae in South America much as the phrynomerids 
did from the microhylids in Africa, and that the Atelopodidae arose 
from the South American Rufonidae. On the other hand, if the 



128 Quarterly Journal of the Florhja Academy of Sciences 

Dendrobatidae are derived from the Ranidae, the ancestors of the 
family probably arrived in South America from West Africa by 
rafting. They are more similar to some of the African forms than 
they are to Rana, and Rana itself apparently reached South America 
too recently to have given rise to the distinctive dendrobatids. 

Conclusions 

The lines of dispersal of the major anuran stocks thus seem to 
point back to an Antarctic center of origin for the group. The fossil 
history of the frogs is not well enough documented to allow us to 
say much about early events in the evolutionary history of the group. 
If Triadobatrachus (order Proanura) of the very early Triassic is 
on or close to the line leading to the frogs, the salientian stock may 
have originated in the late Paleozoic. It is probable that the frogs 
(order Anura) evolved from the Proanura in the Triassic and that 
by Late Triassic or Early Jurassic times the radiation of the frogs 
was under way. The best known of the Upper Jurassic and Cretace- 
ous frogs of the Holarctic Region are placed in the primitive fam- 
ilies Discoglossidae and Pipidae, but some fragmentary remains in- 
dicate that representatives of the more advanced families were pres- 
ent in the northern hemisphere in the Cretacous and possibly in the 
Upper Jurassic. 

We appeal to isostacy as an explanation for the routes by which 
the modern frogs spread from Antarctica rather than to continental 
drift because of the more or less random distribution of the major 
families. The Leptodactylidae and Hylidae are centered in South 
America and Australia, the Bufonidae in South America and Africa, 
the Microhylidae possibly in all three, and the Ranidae basically 
only in Africa. Thus while the frog families were evolving and 
moving out from Antarctica, this continent was from time to time 
variously connected with the three southern continents; with Africa 
but not South America and Australia, with Africa and South Amer- 
ica but not Australia, with Australia and South America but not 
Africa, and also perhaps with all three at the same time. If the 
radiation of the frogs had taken place before the fragmentation of 
Gondwanaland, then it seems to us the major families should be 
equally distributed on all three of the southern continents. On the 
other hand, if continental drift began shortly before the radiation 
of the frogs, there was probably a closer isostatic relationship be- 



Goin and Goin: Antarctica and Origin of Frogs 129 

tween Antarctica and the southern continents at that time than 
there is today. 

It is to be hoped that the discovery of additional fossil material 
in Antarctica and the southern continents will not only elucidate the 
early history of the frogs but will also contribute to an understand- 
ing of the geologic history of Antarctica. 

LlTERATUBE ClTED 

Adie, R. J. 1962. The Geology of Antarctica. Geophys. Monogr., vol. 7, 

pp. 26-39. 
Bentley, C. R. 1965. The land beneath the ice. In T. Hatherton, editor, 

Antarctica. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, pp. 259-277. 
Darlington, P. J. Jr. 1957. Zoogeography. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 

675 p. 
Gow, A. J. 1965. The ice sheet. In T. Hatherton, editor, Antarctica. New 

York, Frederick A. Praeger, pp. 221-258. 
Griffiths, I. 1963. The phylogeny of the Salientia. Biol. Rev., vol. 38, pp. 

241-292. 
Laurent, R. 1951. Sur la necessite de supprimer la famille de Rhacophoridae 

mais de creer celle des Hyperolidae. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., vol. 45, pp. 

116-122. 
Matthew, W. D. 1915. Climate and evolution. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 

vol. 24, pp. 171-318 (reprinted, 1939, as Special Pub. New York Acad. 

Sci., 1). 
Noble, G. K. 1931. Biology of the Amphibia. New York, McGraw-Hill, 577 

p. (reprinted, 1954, by Dover Publications). 
Parker, H. W. 1934. A monograph of the frogs of the family Microhylidae. 

London, British Museum (Natural History), 208 p. 
Plumstead, E. P. 1964. Paleobotany of Antarctica. In R. J. Adie, editor, 

Antarctica geology. Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 

637-654. 
Warren, G. 1965. Geology of Antarctica, In T. Hatherton, editor, Antarctica. 

New York, Frederick A. Praeger, pp. 279-320. 
Woodward, A. S. 1921. Fish-remains from the Upper Old Red Sandstone of 

Granite Harbour, Antarctica. British Antarctica ("Terra Nova") ex- 
pedition, 1910. Natural history report. Geology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 51- 

62, pi. 

Museum of Northern Arizona, P. O. Box 1389, Flagstaff, Arizona 
86001. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Characteristics of the Western Atlantic Reef-fish Fauna 

Carter R. Gilbert 

The western Atlantic reef-fish fauna is better known than that 
of any similar area of the world, with the possible exception of the 
Hawaiian Islands. This should give one an idea of how extremely 
limited is our knowledge of the faunistically richer and geographi- 
cally more vast Indo-Pacific region. Most of our knowledge of west- 
ern Atlantic reef fishes has accumulated during the past 15 years, and 
this can be attributed to three factors 1) the tremendous increase 
in numbers of ichthyologists investigating the fauna, 2) the devel- 
opment of SCUBA gear and rotenone-based fish toxicants, and 3) 
the exploratory fishing activities of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries. Of the many new species that have been discovered 
during this time, a high percentage are small, cryptic reef dwellers, 
particularly of the families Clinidae and Gobiidae. For example, of 
the 46 clinids (including the Chaenopsidae and Tripterygiidae ) 
and 41 gobies listed by Bohlke and Chaplin (1968) for the Ba- 
hamas, 13 species in each family have been described since 1953. 
In addition, two Bahamian gobies and one clinid have since been 
named, and at least a dozen other known Bahamian species have 
yet to be described. Many others undoubtedly remain to be discov- 
ered. The same relative totals for the gobies reported by Starck 
( 1968 ) from Alligator Reef, Florida, are even more illuminating; 
14 of the 27 species listed have been described within the same pe- 
riod. Knowledge of most groups of marine invertebrates is even 
substantially less than for the fishes. 

Although it is unlikely that man's activities will result in the 
wholesale extermination of reef-fish species from extensive geo- 
graphic areas, such as has occurred for certain freshwater forms, 
the need for accurate and relatively complete lists from the various 
parts of the western Atlantic is no less acute. The faunistic studies 
for Puerto Rico (Evermann and Marsh, 1902), Haiti (Beebe and 
Tee- Van, 1928), and the Dry Tortugas (Longley and Hildebrand, 
1941) all are very valuable contributions; however, many of the 
small reef dwellers were not collected because of the primitive div- 
ing gear and lack of completely effective fish toxicants. Other use- 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 131 

ful works are those by Cervigon ( 1966 ) for Venezuela and by Cald- 
well (1966) for Jamaica, although both of these suffer somewhat 
from the paucity of reef collections below the 50 foot level. The 
paper by Birdsong and Emery ( 1968 ) , which lists collections made 
by Birdsong and Walter A. Starck II from the poorly known west- 
ern Caribbean, is also a valuable contribution. Other important re- 
cent collections of fishes, for which published faunal reports have 
not yet appeared, are from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (J. 
E. Randall), Grand Cayman Island (J. C. Tyler and C. R. Gilbert), 
Haiti (Tyler, T. Devany, and H. A. Feddern), Old Providence Is- 
land (Tyler and Gilbert), British Honduras (D. W. Greenfield), 
and from various islands in the Lesser Antilles (Tyler and W. N. 
Eschmeyer). The most complete faunal studies, however, are 
those by Bohlke and Chaplin (1968) for the Bahamas, and by 
Starck ( 1968 ) for Alligator Reef and vicinity, in the northern Flor- 
ida Keys. The latter undoubtedly is the most thorough study of a 
limited reef area done anywhere in the world. These two works, to- 
gether with the paper by C. R. Robins (in press), have provided 
much of the information upon which the present paper is based. 

Despite the large amount of data that has recently accumulated, 
it is impossible to determine accurately the distribution patterns 
for many species of western Atlantic reef fishes. Although basically 
due to the incomplete geographical coverage of our collections, the 
difference in abundance of various species, either on a permanent 
basis or at a particular time, is an important contributing factor. 
This is especially true of the smaller forms. Lack of consistency in 
the composition of the coral reef-fish fauna from one time to an- 
other is, in fact, the rule rather than the exception. Thus, collections 
made over a limited period of time will almost invariably miss the 
bulk of the species. For example, Starck (1968) recorded a total 
of 517 species of fishes from Alligator Reef, Florida, of which 389 
are true members of the reef community; however, the most thor- 
ough collections from this area at any one time (i.e., day) probably 
would not exceed 100 or 125 species. Sometimes rarity of usually 
common species is the result of introduction of occasional strays 
into an unfavorable ecological situation. Starck's (1968) list in- 
cludes at least 12 species that evidently fall into this category, all 
of which are widespread in the Bahamas. Two of these (the 
chaetodontids Centropyge argi and Prognathodes aculeatus) main- 



132 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Scdsnces 

tain permanent populations just north of Miami, where the water is 
consistently more clear than in the Florida Keys, thus leading 
Starck to conclude that water turbidity ( coming from Florida Bay ) 
is the most important factor preventing the establishment of these 
and other Bahamian species in the Keys. More often, however, the 
rarity of a species is not so readily explained. A very important 
thing to realize is that many, if not most, of the small reef species 
are annuals. Thus, unfavorable environmental conditions during 
spawning can result in an abrupt and drastic reduction in abun- 
dance from one season to the next, as has been demonstrated by 
Robins ( 1958 ) for the gobiid fish Gobiosoma macrodon in the Flor- 
ida Keys. The opposite, of course, can also happen. Short genera- 
tion time and cyclic fluctuations in size and composition of the gene 
pool are very important factors in the evolution of coral-reef species. 
The tropical western Atlantic fish fauna (as well as that of the 
tropical eastern Pacific) was derived from the rich Indo-Pacific 
fauna, elements of which reached the New World at some time prior 
to the mid-Cenozoic (Rosenblatt, 1963). There are two possible 
ways in which this could have happened 1) from the west, across 
the broad, open eastern Pacific; or, 2) from the east, via the pre- 
historic Tethys Sea. There is considerable evidence, and general 
agreement among ichthyologists, that the latter route was by far the 
more important. The Tethys Sea was once located in the area now 
occupied by the Mediterranean Sea and the countries of the Middle 
East. As a result, the faunas of the Indo-Pacific had free access to 
the New World tropics, and many, though by no means all, Indo- 
Pacific groups succeeded in reaching there. During Miocene times, 
however, this connection was broken by uplift of the Tethyan syn- 
cline, which effectively isolated the Mediterranean and New World 
faunas from that of the Indo-Pacific. In late Pliocene the final up- 
lift of Middle America occurred, thus splitting the New World 
tropical fauna in two. Still later, most of the tropical Mediterranean 
fauna was exterminated as a result of lowered temperatures result- 
ing from Pleistocene glaciation; undoubtedly some of the New 
World fauna was similarly affected, but to a much lesser degree 
(Walters and Robins, 1961). As a result of the above series of 
events, the faunas of the above four areas ( eastern Pacific, western 
Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indo-Pacific) became progressively 
less homogeneous with regard to one another, and each proceeded 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 133 

to develop its own unique characteristics. Because of the extermina- 
tion of much of its tropical fish fauna and the complete elimination 
of its living coral reefs, the Mediterranean, despite its intermediate 
geographical position, has less in common with the other three areas 
than they do with each other, at least as far as the reef fishes are 
concerned. For obvious reasons the faunas of the western Atlantic 
and eastern Pacific are the most similar, with many closely related 
gemmate species, and in some cases the same species, being present 
in both areas. 

The tropical New-World fish fauna is basically a diluted Indo- 
Pacific fauna. It is characterized by 1) the absence of a number 
of Indo-Pacific families, 2) nearly always by fewer genera and 
species than occur in the same families in the Indo-Pacific, and 3) 
by the near absence of any endemic families (the only exceptions 
being the Chaenopsidae [Stephens, 1963] and Dactyloscopidae, and 
some consider the former only to be a subfamily of the Clinidae). 
However, several distinctive subgroups apparently evolved largely 
or entirely in the New World, such as the subfamily Gobiesocinae 
(family Gobiesocidae ) (Briggs, 1955), the subtribe Labrisomini 
( family Clinidae ) ( Springer, 1959 ) , and the seven-spined species of 
Gobiidae (Bohlke and Robins, 1968). 

The fish fauna of the tropical western Atlantic is substantially 
richer than that of either the eastern Pacific or eastern Atlantic, 
particularly with regard to the rock or reef-inhabiting forms. This 
can be attributed both to the more compressed tropical zones and 
near-absence of coral reefs in the latter two areas. The fish fauna 
of the western Atlantic, however, is not nearly so speciose as that 
of the Indo-Pacific. Starck (1968, pp. 12-13) has estimated that the 
fish fauna of Alligator Reef, Florida, contains approximately half as 
many species as areas of comparable size in the Indo-Pacific. Con- 
sidering that the Indo-Pacific region also is geographically much 
more extensive than the western Atlantic, it is likely that at least 
3.5 times as many kinds of reef fishes (or approximately 2500 
species) occur throughout the former area. 

Although the Indo-Pacific as a whole is richer than the western 
Atlantic, this does not tell the complete story. The difference in 
numbers of genera and species between some groups is much more 
pronounced than between others, and in one case (the Clinidae) 
the situation is completely reversed. A comparison of the number 



134 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 

of genera and species of several typical reef families from the west- 
ern Atlantic and Marshall Islands ( Table 1 ) illustrates these points 
(data from latter area from Schultz et al, 1953; 1960). 

TABLE 1 
Comparison of number of genera and species for some marine fish families 

Western Atlantic Marshall Islands 

Acanthuridae 1-4 4-22 

Apogoniidae ( shallow-water ) 3-21 7-32 

Blenniidae 6-15 15-35 
Clinidae (including Chaenopsinae 

and Tripterygiinae ) 14-60 2-6 

Holocentridae 7-11 5-19 

Labridae 7-19 21-55 

Pomacentridae 5-15 5-41 



Although not included in Table 1, the total number of New- 
World species of Gobiesocidae is approximately the same as for the 
Indo-Pacific; however, unlike the clinids, this is not true for the 
genera, which are about three times as numerous in the Indo-Pacific 
(Briggs, 1955). The large total number of New- World gobiesocid 
species is, in great degree, due to the explosive evolution of the 
subfamily Gobiesocinae (particularly the genus Gobiesox) in the 
eastern Pacific. 

The most notable exception to the rule of greater species num- 
bers in the Indo-Pacific is seen in the family Clinidae. A partial ex- 
planation for this may be that competition from the closely related 
blenniids has prevented extensive clinid speciation in the Indo- 
Pacific, whereas many of the ecological niches occupied by the blen- 
nies in the Indo-Pacific are taken over by the clinids in the New 
World (Starck, 1968, p. 13). Another interesting aspect to this is 
that only about half the approximately 15 western Atlantic blenniid 
species are characteristic components of the tropical reef fauna 
(Bohlke, 1959; Springer, 1962, 1967; Randall, 1966), whereas the 
others occur in rocky situations outside the limits of living coral 
reefs. Of these, most reef-inhabiting species belong to the sub- 
family Salariinae, whereas most non-reef forms are of the subfamily 
Blenniinae (V. G. Springer, pers. comm.). In contrast, no western 
Atlantic clinid species lives totally out of the reef area. This situa- 
tion differs somewhat from what one finds in the eastern Pacific, 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 135 

where five genera of clinids (including 13 species) are entirely re- 
stricted to cool waters (Alloclinus, Cryptotrema, Gibbonsia, Heter- 
ostichus, and Neoclinus) (Hubbs, 1952, 1953, 1954). 

One of the most noticeable differences between the western At- 
lantic and Indo-Pacific reef faunas is the relative contributions, in 
terms of biomass, of certain fish families. This cannot be attributed 
solely to differences in species numbers, although it may be factor. 
In the western Atlantic the grunts ( Pomadasyidae ) and sometimes 
the snappers (Lutjanidae) may occur in tremendous numbers, a 
phenomenon one does not usually see in the Indo-Pacific (where 
the Pomadasyidae is largely replaced by the closely related, or 
identical, Gaterinidae ) . In the Indo-Pacific the surgeonfishes ( Acan- 
thuridae) and cardinalfishes ( Apogonidae), in particular, are much 
more important, in terms of total weight, than in the western 
Atlantic. 

Although we are primarily concerned with the western Atlantic 
reef fishes, it is necessary to consider briefly those fishes living in 
other habitats as well. Robins (1971) recognizes two kinds of 
tropical fish faunas, Continental and Insular. Continental faunas live 
in regions where environmental change is the rule (temperature, 
salinity, and turbidity), whereas Insular faunas occur in regions of 
great environmental stability. Turbid waters, muddy or silty bot- 
tom, and absence of coral reefs are characteristic features of the 
continental habitat, just as clear water, bottom sediments composed 
mainly of calcium carbonate, and extensive coral reef development 
are usual features of the insular habitat. 

Certain fish families are primarily continental in distribution, al- 
though none ( at least of those containing more than a few species ) 
is exclusively so. Typical continental families in the western At- 
lantic include the Sciaenidae (of which all but six of the over 60 
western Atlantic species are continental), Batrachoididae (only one 
of 24 is insular, and that perhaps not entirely so; Walters and Rob- 
ins, 1961), Sparidae, Ophidiidae, Bothidae, and Cynoglossidae. 
Some, such as the Gobiidae, are about equally divided with regard 
to numbers of continental and insular forms, and others (e.g., the 
Pomadasyidae) contain mostly insular forms. The family Carangi- 
dae in general, as well as certain individual species in other fam- 
ilies (the sphyraenid Sphyraena barracuda, the gobiids Bathygobius 
soporator and Gobionellus boleosoma, the gerreids Eucinostomus ar- 



136 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

genteus and E. gula, the blenniid Blennius cristatus, the ophichthid 
Myrophis punctatus, and the lutjanids Lutjanus griseus and L. 
jocu), seem to be at home in either type of environment. All of 
these are wide-ranging forms that evidently have an unusual ability 
to adapt to a wide variety of ecological conditions. Those families 
essentially limited to continental waters would be expected to have 
limited mobility, both during larval and adult stages. Although 
some do (e.g., the Batrachoididae ) , this is by no means always true. 
As Robins (1971) points out, one of the most characteristic con- 
tinental species is the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus macu- 
latus), and only one of the nine Florida species of the ophichthid 
eel genera Ophichthus, Bascanichthys, Echiopsis, and Letharchus 
(a deep-water species of Ophichthus) occurs in the Bahamas. All 
of the above are highly pelagic at some stage of their life history, 
and there is nothing to prevent them from reaching insular areas. 
This brings up a most important point, which Starck (1968) and 
Robins (1971) have clearly shown: that the distinctions between 
the continental and insular faunas are due in much greater degree 
to ecological barriers than to physical barriers to movement. 

The tropical continental fauna may be divided into northern and 
southern components (Robins, 1971), the former extending from 
central Florida (or in summer from the Carolinas) southward to- 
ward the tip of Florida and around the Gulf of Mexico to Yucatan; 
the latter extends from Yucatan southward. Exceptions to this oc- 
casionally occur; for example, the northern sciaenids Menticirrhus 
littoralis and M. americanus have been collected in the Caribbean 
(Roy D. Irwin, pers. comm.), and the southern sciaenid Bairdiella 
sanctaeluciae has recently been taken on the lower east Florida 
coast (specimens in Unversity of Florida and Cornell University 
collections ) . Of the 30 species of Sciaenidae recorded for Venezuela 
(Cervigon, 1966, pp. 499-539), however, only six occur in Florida 
(four in the Bahamas); all but one (the above B. sanctaeluciae) 
are clear- water inhabitants (atypical for sciaenids) of the genera 
Equetus, Odontoscion, and Umbrina, and have insular, rather than 
continental, distributions. Of the 26 species recorded from Guyana 
by Lowe (McConnell), 1966, only B. sanctaeluciae and the insular 
Equetus lanceolatus also occur in Florida. This distribution even 
holds at the generic level, inasmuch as only seven of the total of 21 
sciaenid genera are common to both the Guianas and Florida. As 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 137 

might be expected, those families of greater mobility are more likely 
to have species of wide distribution. Thus, of the six species of the 
eel family Ophichthidae (not including two species of Echelinae) 
listed by Cervigon (1966, pp. 186-197) from Venezuela, three 
(Echiopsis intertincta, Ophichthus gomesi, and Ophichthus ocelh- 
tus) are also elements of the Florida continental fauna. 

The insular fauna extends, in pure form, from the Bahamas 
southward through the West Indies. Because of its area and extent 
of coral-reef development, the Bahamas may be considered to be 
the center of the western Atlantic insular fauna. Bermuda and the 
islands of the Fernando Naronha group (off the eastern hump of 
Brazil ) are distant outposts of this fauna. Varying degrees of mixing 
of the insular and continental faunas occur in Florida, the Greater 
Antilles, Trinidad, and along much of the Central and South Amer- 
ican coasts. The richness of the Florida Keys fish fauna is due in 
large degree to this mixing effect (Starck, 1968, p. 10). 

In contrast to the continental groups, one finds a number of fam- 
ilies in which all species (in the western Atlantic at least) are 
more-or-less strictly confined to an insular habitat. This includes the 
Chaetodontidae, Holocentridae, Apogonidae, Clinidae, Scaridae, 
Labridae, and perhaps the Pomacentridae. For the first two families 
this is invariably true, as it is for the Labridae (if one does not 
consider the two northern cold-water genera Tautoga and Tauto- 
golabrus ) . However, some of the other families contain representa- 
tives which, though found in a basically insular environment, seem 
to require a certain degree of continental influence. For example, 
the clinid Starksia ocellata is always found in rocks or reefs and is 
one of the most common of the Florida Clinidae. It is absent from 
the Bahamas, but occurs in the Greater Antilles and along the Cen- 
tral and South American coasts (Gilbert, 1971). Other examples 
are the apogonid Astrapogon alutus and the scarid Nicholsina usta, 
both of which are absent from the Bahamas and present in Florida, 
where they are especially common along the west coast. 

The insular fauna of the western Atlantic, in contrast to the con- 
tinental fauna, is characterized by relative homogeneity; and some 
species, nearly all with long-lived pelagic larvae, have very wide 
distributions. For example, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Clinidae), 
Rypticus saponaceus ( Grammistidae ) , Holocentrus ascensionis and 
Myripristis jacobus (Holocentridae), Bothus lunatus (Bothidae), 



138 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Acanthostracion quadricornis ( Ostraciidae ) , Pomacentrus leuco- 
stictus and Chromis insolatus ( Pomacentridae ) , Diodon holacanthus 
( Diodontidae ) , Epinephelus adscensionis and Paranthias furcifer 
( Serranidae ) , Malacanthus plumieri ( Branchiostegidae ) , Scorpaena 
plumieri ( Scorpaenidae ) , Mulloidichthys martinicus (Mullidae), 
Acanthurus bahianns and A. coeruleus ( Acanthuridae ) , Balistes 
vetula and Melichthys niger (Balistidae) all range from Florida to 
Ascension Island and/or St. Helena or beyond (Cadenat and Mar- 
chal, 1963). The vast majority of insular species, however, have 
much more restricted distributions. Florida, for example, has eight 
apparently endemic reef or reef -associated species (Hypoplectrus 
gemma and Liopropoma eukrines [Serranidae], Lythrypnus phorel- 
lus, Gobionellus stigmaturus, and Ioglossus calliurus [Gobiidae], 
Starksia starcki [Clinidae], Emblemariopsis diaphana [Clinidae, 
subfamily Chaenopsinae], and Ophidion selenops [Ophidiidae]. In 
addition, the pomacentrid Chromis scotti, though recently discov- 
ered in the Bahamas (C. R. Robins, pers. comm.), probably should 
be included in this group. Although some of the above will likely 
be discovered elsewhere, others probably will not. For example, 
Hypoplectrus gemma is a fairly common, readily-observed species 
in tropical Florida waters, and it seems unlikely that such a dis- 
tinctive fish would have been overlooked elsewhere. Other western 
Atlantic reef species undoubtedly have equally restricted distribu- 
tions, although collections outside of Florida are not yet complete 
enough to know just which species are involved, particularly the 
deeper-living forms. The main point, however, is that there is no 
clearcut division of the insular fauna into northern and southern 
components, as there is for the continental fauna. Of the 23 species 
of Clinidae (including the Chaenopsidae and Tripterygiidae ) re- 
ported by Cervigon (1966, pp. 660-689) from Venezuela, 14 occur 
in the Bahamas and 13 in Florida. This contrasts sharply with the 
very dissimilar sciaenid faunas in these two areas (see above). 

The only island in the tropical western north Atlantic that is 
sufficiently isolated that it could be a significant center of endemism 
is Bermuda. This island, however, possesses relatively few endem- 
ics, only 14 forms ( or about five per cent ) presently falling into this 
category, none of which is very strongly differentiated (Collette, 
1962; Caldwell, 1965; Briggs, 1966). The fauna is, in fact, on the 
depauperate side, particularly with regard to the small cryptic reef 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 139 

species. This problem has been discussed by Briggs (1966), who 
points out that Bermuda is located sufficiently far north as to have 
been adversely affected by the cooling effects of the various Pleisto- 
cene glaciations. Insufficient time has elapsed since the last (Wis- 
consin) glacial period to permit recruitment and subsequent evo- 
lution of a highly endemic fish fauna. 

The only other area in the tropical western Atlantic that would 
be predicted to harbor a substantial endemic fauna is the coast of 
extreme eastern Brazil, including the offshore islands of the Fer- 
nando Naronha group. This area has living coral reefs, and is over 
1000 miles from the next closest area of extensive reef development 
(i.e., Trinidad) (Bohlke and Chaplin, 1968: inside front cover). 
Not only is the coastline to the northwest largely devoid of favor- 
able habitat for most reef species, but two major river systems (the 
Amazon and Orinoco) empty large volumes of turbid, hyposaline 
water into the intervening ocean. One would expect, as a result of 
this isolation, for some faunal endemism to have developed, and the 
few available collections from this area indicate that such is indeed 
the case. 

This is not to say that all insular faunas will be as noticeably 
homogeneous as that of the western Atlantic. For example, in the 
eastern Pacific the long, linear open shoreline of the western Mid- 
dle American coast (punctuated by widely separated rocky out- 
crops); the absence of fringing coral reefs along shore and the 
near-absence of closely adjacent offshore islands; the presence of 
distant offshore islands (Galapagos, Cocos, Clipperton, and the 
Revillagigedos ) ; cold upwellings at various points along the coast; 
and the geographical and physical nature of the Gulf of California 
have resulted in numerous pockets of endemism among the basical- 
ly insular fish groups. In contrast, the tropical western Atlantic is 
a circular, semi-enclosed sea, containing numerous closely-adjacent 
islands; and with rich coral growths present around nearly all the 
islands and bordering much of the shoreline. In addition, the Gulf 
Stream flows through the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and up 
the Florida Straits between the Bahamas and Florida. This current 
is very important in distributing the pelagic larvae or adults of many 
kinds of organisms, either directly or as a result of subsidiary "spin- 
off" currents (Caldwell, 1963). 

I have reviewed a number of papers on western Atlantic reef 



140 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

fishes to see if I could find evidence of specific distribution patterns. 
The results have not been very conclusive. There is some evidence 
that distinct patterns do exist, although considerably more work is 
necessary before these can be accurately delineated. To take one 
example, the gobiid Gobiosoma louisae and the holocentrid Adioryx 
poco have been recorded only from the Bahamas, Grand Cayman 
Island, and Providencia ( Old Providence ) Island. This may be due 
in part to the fact that neither of these species lives in very shallow 
water; however, it could well be significant that neither has been 
collected in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, despite extensive deep 
work by Dr. John E. Randall. 

Although living coral reefs in Florida are found only a short dis- 
tance north of Miami, the ranges of a number of reef-inhabiting 
fish species extend considerably farther northward. Recent explora- 
tory fishing by the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has re- 
vealed that apparent resident populations of reef species such as 
Holocentrus ascensionis and Myripristis jacobus ( Holocentridae ) , 
Chaetodon sedentarius and Holacanthus tricolor ( Chaetodontidae ) , 
Anisotremus virginicus ( Pomadasyidae ) , and Bodianus pulchellus 
(Labridae) occur much farther north (to Cape Hatteras, North 
Carolina) than was previously realized (Anderson and Gutherz, 
1965 ) . These fishes live in rocky outcroppings offshore, where they 
are restricted to somewhat deeper water than is usual for more 
tropic latitudes. Their restriction to these deeper waters is occa- 
sioned by the cold winter temperatures inshore, coupled with the 
moderating effects of the Gulf Stream offshore. The scarcity of 
favorable habitat inshore may also be a partial, though less im- 
portant, factor. A few of the reef species maintain permanent pop- 
ulations in rocky inshore areas along the Florida coast, at least as 
far north as Matanzas Inlet (ca. 50 miles south of Jacksonville). 
The most notable of these is Labrisomus nuchipinnis ( family Clini- 
dae), a hardy, wide-ranging species that occurs south to eastern 
Brazil and across the Atlantic to West Africa (Springer, 1959, p. 
486). This species is excessively abundant in rocky situations along 
the Florida coast, much more so than it ever is in coral-reef areas, 
where it must compete with other closely related species. Other 
reef species found here include Starksia ocellata (Clinidae), Aniso- 
tremus surinamensis (Pomadasyidae), Scorpaena plumieri (Scor- 
paenidae ) , and Abudefduf saxatilis and A. taurus ( Pomacentridae ) 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 141 

(Gilbert, 1969). The last four species, however, may not represent 
permanent populations, but instead may be the result of a more or 
less continuous recruitment of eggs and young from the south, which 
are carried north and deposited by the Gulf Stream. In addition, 
this rocky shoreline is also inhabited by certain other species that 
either are rare in the tropics or do not occur there at all; Gobiesox 
strumosus (Gobiesocidae), and Hypleurochilus geminatus and Hyp- 
soblennius hentzi Blenniidae). Similar extensions of the tropical 
reef fauna are known from the eastern and northern Gulf of Mex- 
ico (Briggs, 1958; Caldwell, 1959, 1963; Springer and Woodburn, 
1960; Caldwell and Briggs, 1957; Briggs and Caldwell, 1957; Daw- 
son, 1962, 1963), as well as for the western Gulf (Hoese, 1959; 
Springer and Hoese, 1958; Briggs, Hoese, Hadley, and Jones, 1964). 
They apparently represent a mixture of both resident and non-resi- 
dent species, the latter of which are annually recruited from the 
south but do not survive the cold winter temperatures. 

This paper was presented at a symposium on coral-reef biology 
held at Bimini, Bahamas, in March, 1969, which was partly sup- 
ported by ONR grant no. 552(07). 

Literature Cited 

Anderson, W. D. Jr., and E. J. Gutherz. 1965. New Atlantic coast ranges 
for fishes. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 27, no. 45, pp. 299-306. 

Beebe, W., and J. Tee- Van. 1928. The fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti/ 
with a summary of the known species of marine fish of the island of 
Haiti and Santo Domingo. Zoologica, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-279. 

Birdsong, R. S., and A. R. Emery. 1968. New records of fishes from the 
western Caribbean. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 
187-196. 

Bohlke, J. E. 1959. A new fish of the genus Hypsoblennius (Blenniidae) 
from the Bahamas. Notulae Naturae, no. 321, pp. 1-5. 

Bohlke, J. E., and C. C. G. Chaplin. 1968. Fishes of the Bahamas and ad- 
jacent tropical waters. Livingston Publ. Co., Wynnewood, Pa., pp. v- 
xxiii, 1-771. 

Bohlke, J. E., and C. R. Robins. 1968. Western Atlantic seven-spined gobies, 
with descriptions of ten new species and a new genus, and comments on 
Pacific relatives. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 120, no. 3, 
pp. 45-174. 

Briggs, J. C. 1955. A monograph of the clingfishes (Order Xenopterygii ) . 
Stanford Ich. Bull., no. 6, pp. ii-iv, 1-224. 

. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Florida 

State Mus., Biol. Sci., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 223-318. 



142 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



. 1966. Oceanic islands, endemism, and marine paleo-temperatures. 

Syst. Zool., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 153-163. 
Briggs, J. C, and D. K. Caldwell. 1957. Acanthurus randalli, a new surgeon 

fish from the Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., vol. 

2, no. 4, pp. 43-51. 
Briggs, J. C, H. D. Hoese, W. F. Hadley, and B. S. Jones. 1964. Twenty- 
two new marine fish records for the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Texas 

Jour. Sci., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 113-116. 
Cadenat, J., and E. Marchal. 1963. Besultats des campagnes oceano- 

graphiques de la Beine-Pokou aux iles Sainte-Helene et Ascension. 

Bull, de lTnst. Francais d'Afrique Noire, 25, vol. A, no. 4, pp. 1235- 

1315, figs. 1-48. 
Caldwell, D. K. 1959. Observations on tropical marine fishes from the north- 
eastern Gulf of Mexico. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 22, no. 1, 

pp. 69-74. 
. 1963. Tropical marine fishes in the Gulf of Mexico. Quart. Jour. 

Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 188-191. 
. 1965. A new sparid fish of the genus Diplodus from Bermuda. Fieldi- 

ana (Zoology), vol. 44, no. 23, pp. 217-225. 
. 1966. Marine and freshwater fishes of Jamaica. Bull. Inst. Jamaica, 

Sci. Ser., no. 17, pp. 1-120. 
Caldwell, D. K., and J. C. Briggs. 1957. Some extensions of western North 

Atlantic fishes with notes on some soles of the genus Gymnachirus. 

Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-11. 
Cervigon, M. F. 1966. Los Peces marinos de Venezuela. Vols. 1-2. Fund. 

La Salle Cien. Nat. Monogr., nos. 11-12, pp. 1-951. 
Collette, B. B. 1962. Hemiramphus bermudensis, a new halfbeak from 

Bermuda, with a survey of endemism in Bermudian shore fishes. Bull. 

Mar. Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 432-449. 
Dawson, C. E. 1962. New records and notes on fishes from the north-central 

Gulf of Mexico. Copeia, 1962, no. 2, pp. 442-444. 
. 1963. Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) in the Gulf of Mexico with a 

new record from Mississippi. Copeia, 1963, no. 1, pp. 181-182. 
Evermann, B. W., and M. C. Marsh. 1902. The fishes of Porto Bico. Bull. 

U. S. Fish Comm. (1900), vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 49-350, 49 col. pis. 
GrLHERT, C. B. 1968. Western Atlantic batrachoidid fishes of the genus 

Porichthys, including three new species. Bull. Mar. Sci., vol. 18, no. 3, 

pp. 671-730. 
. 1969. A mass inshore movement of fishes on the Florida coast. Quart. 

Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 70-78. 
. 1971. Two new Atlantic clinid fishes of the genus Starksia. Quart. 

Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 193-206. 
Hoese, H. D. 1959. A partially annotated checklist of the marine fishes of 

Texas. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 312-352. 
Hubbs, C. 1952. A contribution to the classification of the blennioid fishes of 

the family Clinidae, with a partial revision of the eastern Pacific forms. 

Stanford Ich. Bull., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 41-165. 



Gilbert: Western Atlantic Reef Fishes 143 

. 1953. Revision and systematic position of the blenniid fishes of the 

genus Neoclinus. Copeia, 1953, no. 1, pp. 11-23. 
. 1954. Additional records of clinid fishes, with the description of a 

new species of Cryptotrema from the Gulf of California. Copeia, 1954, 

no. 1, pp. 17-19. 
Longley, W. H., and S. F. Hildebrand. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the 

fishes of Tortugas, Florida, with observations on color, habits, and local 

distribution. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. no. 535, pp. i-xiii, 1-331, 

34 pis. 
Lowe (McConnell), R. H. 1966. The sciaenid fishes of British Guiana. Bull. 

Mar. Sci., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 20-57. 
Randall, J. E. 1966. The West Indian blenniid fishes of the genus Hypleuro- 

chilus, with the description of a new species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, vol. 79, pp. 57-71. 
Robins, C. R. 1958. Garmannia zehrella, a new gobiid fish from Trinidad, 

with notes on the species of the subgenus Tigrigobius Fowler. Jour. 

Wash. Acad. Sci., 48(6) = 192-198. 
. 1971. Distributional patterns of fishes from coastal and shelf waters 

of the tropical western Atlantic. In Symposium on investigations and 

resources of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent regions, pp. 249-255. 

FAO, Fish. Rep. 71-2. 
Rosenblatt, R. H. 1963. Some aspects of speciation in marine shore fishes. 

Syst. Assoc. Publ. no. 5 (Speciation in the Sea), pp. 171-180. 
Schultz, L. P., E. S. Herald, E. A. Lachner, A. D. Welander, L. P. 

Woods. 1953. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., vol. 202, no. 1, pp. ii-xxxii, 1-685. 
Schultz, L. P., W. M. Chapman, E. A. Lachner, L. P. Woods. 1960. Fishes 

of the Marshall and Marianas islands. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 202, 

no. 2, pp. ii-ix, 1-438. 
Springer, V. G. 1959. Systematics and zoogeography of the clinid fishes of 

the subtribe Labrisomini Hubbs. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 417- 

492. 
. 1962. A review of the blenniid fishes of the genus Ophioblennius 

GiU. Copeia, 1962, no. 2, pp. 426-433. 
. 1967. Revision of the circumtropical shorefish genus Entomacrodus 

(Blenniidae: Salariinae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 122, no. 3582, pp. 

1-150, pis. 1-30. 
Springer, V. G, and H. D. Hoese. 1958. Notes and records of marine fishes 

from the Texas coast. Texas Jour. Sci., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 343-348. 
Springer, V. G, and K. D. Woodburn. 1960. An ecological study of the 

fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Florida State Bd. Conservation, Prof. 

Papers Ser., no. 1, pp. i-v, 1-104. 
Starck, W. A. II. 1968. A list of fishes of Alligator Reef, Florida, with com- 
ments on the nature of the Florida reef fish fauna. Undersea Biology, 

vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-40. 
Stephens, J. S., Jr. 1963. A revised classification of the blennioid fishes of 



144 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

the American family Chaenopsidae. Univ. California Publ. Zool., no. 68, 
pp. iii-iv, 1-165. 
Walters, V., and C. R. Robins. 1961. A new toadfish ( Ratrachoididae ) 
considered to be a glacial relict in the West Indies. Amer. Mus. 
Novitates, no. 2047, pp. 1-24. 

Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor- 
ida 32611. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



Annotated Checklist of the Boynton Beach Hammock 

Daniel F. Austin and Joanne G. Weise 

East of highway A1A between the Boynton Beach Inlet and the 
"developed" portion of beach in Boynton Beach, Palm Beach Coun- 
ty, Florida, is a strip of land covered by a natural plant association 
known as "Shore Hammock," "Beach Hammock" (Harper, 1927), 
or "Coastal Hammock" (Davis, 1943). This half-mile long ham- 
mock is unique in that it is the last of its size existing on the eastern 
peninsular coast of the state and is an extension of this type of 
vegetation north of the last reported site ( Alexander, 1958b ) . There 
are scattered remnants of beach hammocks in a few spots along the 
east coast, but north of the Keys they lack the complexity and un- 
disturbed aspects of the hammock at Boynton Beach. Most of 
these hammocks have been destroyed and replaced with hotels, mo- 
tels, and condominiums (Alexander, 1958b). Even in 1927 when 
Harper wrote his Natural History of Southern Florida this vegeta- 
tion type was considered "very sparingly represented on the east 
coast." 

Since the Boynton Beach Hammock is scheduled to become an- 
other accession of the "Florida Gold Coast" syndrome of land "de- 
velopment" in response to malignant population growth, it is imper- 
ative that the plant species present be recorded. The site has been 
used by different members of Florida Atlantic University as an 
"outdoor laboratory" for several years, and their use will continue 
until the demise of the hammock. Perhaps before this beach ham- 
mock is destroyed, we will be able to record some of the biological 
complexities that allowed its development and existence. The ac- 
companying checklist is a small contribution to that record. 

The vegetation of beach hammocks or, as they are sometimes 
called, "cactus thickets," is in many ways similar to the deserts of 
the southwestern United States. Several spiny plants related to 
desert species occur in the association. Among these spiny plants 
are Yucca, Erythrina (Coral-Bean), Zanthoxylum (Wild-lime), 
Caesalpinia (Nicker Bean), Opuntia (Prickly-Pear Cactus), Acan- 
thocereus (Barbed-Wire Cactus), and Agave (Century Plant). Most 
of these prickly plants are restricted to the ocean side of the ham- 
mock at the ecotone between the hammock and the beach. 



146 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

To the ocean side of the prickly zone is a beach plant associa- 
tion common in subtropical and tropical latitudes throughout the 
New World (Sauer, 1967). The portion inland from the prickly 
zone contains the actual hammock. Common trees in the hammock 
are Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palmetto), Bursera simaruha (Gumbo 
Limbo), Metopium toxiferum (Poison Wood), Coccoloba uvifera 
( Sea Grape ) , Mastichodendron foetidissimum ( Mastic ) , and Ficus 
aurea ( Wild Fig ) . The transition from open beach to the center of 
the hammock involves a vegetational, water, and mineral content 
gradient. The hammock itself is the most favorable habitat be- 
cause of higher moisture, more stable temperature, wind protection, 
and increased mineral content. 

The substratum throughout the hammock is composed primarily 
of sand. This sand is mostly a non-siliceous type derived from the 
shells of sea bivalves; calcium content is very high. The substratum 
forms a series of terraces between the hammock and shore which 
coincide with the height of major tides, and a series of higher dunes 
beneath the hammock. These dunes are part of old ocean deposits 
(Cooke, 1939, 1945) which have been stabilized by the hammock 
vegetation. The special xeric conditions of coastal hammocks make 
them ecologically unique. 

There are several noteworthy noristic differences between this 
hammock and those described from other areas of Florida. The 
ocean depth and currents and the prevailing wind patterns account 
for some of the divergence from the beach hammocks described on 
the western coast by Harper (1927). Kurz (1942) studied beach 
areas north of that at Boynton Beach and consequently found heavy 
influence from the temperate flora. Those hammocks described by 
Phillips (1940), and Alexander (1958a) are inland hammocks dif- 
fering in species composition from coastal hammocks. 

The herb composition of the Boynton Beach Hammock is similar 
to the description given by Harper ( 1927 ) . There are some species 
in each area which are unique, but this might be expected as a 
result of dispersal from available floristic sources. The major differ- 
ence is the complete absence of Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae at 
the Boynton Beach Hammock. Harper listed three widely distribu- 
ted species of air plants, Tillandsia utriculata, T. balbisiana, and 
T. fasciculata as well as the orchid, Encyclia tampensis. None of 
these has been found at Boynton Beach. 



Austin and Weise: Boynton Beach Vegetation 147 

The hammock at Boynton Beach is not particularly rich in 
species, with only 98 being found. The most characteristic feature 
of the area is that these species represent 49 different families. 
Twenty-six of these families are represented by only one species, 
and twelve by only two species. The families dominating the ham- 
mock in terms of numbers of species are, in order of decreasing size, 
Leguminosae, Gramineae, Euphorbiaceae, Compositae, Rubiaceae, 
and Convolvulaceae. Each of these families is represented by more 
than three species. 

A common problem with plant nomenclature in southern Florida 
is that much of it is based on the system used by Small (1933). 
Many of the problems of synonymy have been solved recently by 
Liogier (1963, 1965a, 1965b, 1968), Lakela and Craighead (1965), 
D'Arcy (1967), Radford, Ahles, and Bell (1968), Ward (1968), and 
Long ( 1970 ) . Where pertinent the names used, with a few excep- 
tions, follow these authors. When exceptions occur, they are usually 
followed by the synonym used by these authors, who are abbrevi- 
ated with the first letter of their surnames, and the source. For 
example, Catharanthus roseus (=Vinca rosea RAB, 1968: 847). 
Names for the Anacardiaceae follow Gillis ( 1972 ) ; for the Euphor- 
biaceae they follow Burch (personal communication). Names for 
the Convolvulaceae follow the interpretation of the senior author. 

The family sequence follows Dalla Torre and Harms (1900- 
1907). Species are listed alphabetically under the appropriate 
family. 

PTERIDOPHYTA 

Family Polypodiaceae 

Acrostichum aureum L. One population on the lee side of the inner dune near 

the SW corner. Austin 4414. 
Phlebodium aureum (L. ) J. Sm. A rare epiphyte in the hammock; on Sabal 
in the northern end. Austin 4419. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

Family Typhaceae 
Typha domingensis Pers. A small population found in a depression at the SW 
corner of the hammock. Austin 4409. 

Family Gramineae 
Cenchrus tribuloides L. Common on the southern end in disturbed areas. 

Austin 4396. 
Cenchrus echinatus L. Plants are scattered along the beach, being more or less 
concentrated in the Uniola zone. Austin 4437. 



148 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Paspalum vaginatum Swartz. Common near the bathing beach. Weise 1, 2; 
det. by O. Lakela. 

Pennisetum aff. latifolium Spreng. Forming a large clump in a pool near the 
southern end; apparently an escaped cultivar variety. Austin 4397; det. 
D. B. Ward. 

Phragmites communis Trin. One population near the road in a depression at 
the SW corner of the hammock. Austin 4411. 

Spartina cynosuroides (L. ) Roth? Mostly near the northern end. Weise 78. 

Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze (St. Augustine Grass). Commonly 
planted as a lawn grass. 

Uniola paniculata L. Forming a distinct zone between the lower beach zone 
(Ipomoea pes-caprae zone) and the outer edge of the Coccoloba zone. 
Weise 12. 

Family Cyperaceae 

Cladium jamaicense Crantz (=Mariscus jamaicensis RAB, 1968: 214). 
Found in only one isolated depression near the southern end of the ham- 
mock. Not in Lakela and Craighead ( 1965). Austin 4415. 

Cyperus thyrsifiorus Schlect. & Cham. Uncommon and scattered around the 
margins of the hammock. Austin 4403; det. J. Beckner. 

Remirea maritima Aubl. Common on the middle beach. Weise 124. 
Family Palmae 

Cocos nucifera L. Scattered plants are found near the highway. Austin 4408. 

Sabal palmetto ( Walt. ) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. Fairly common on inner 
dune. Austin 4418. 

Serenoa repens (Bartr. ) Small. Fairly common near the bottom at the lee side 
of the inner dune. Weise 11. 

Family Lemnaceae 

Lemna valdiviana Phil. Floating on water in a small standing pool at the SW 
corner of the hammock. Austin 4410. 

Family Commelinaceae 

Commelina communis L. Rare. One plant found in a "blow-out." A widely 
spread weed. Austin 4392. 

Family Liliaceae 

Smilax bona-nox L. Fairly common and scattered throughout the hammock. 
Weise 36; Austin 4405. 

Yucca aloifolia L. Scattered along the ecotone between the Uniola and Cocco- 
loba zones. Carrow & Marsh s.n. 

Family Amaryllidaceae 

Agave decipiens Baker. Not common. Scattered throughout the "prickly zone." 
Weise 77. 

Hymenocallis latifolia (Mill.) Roem. (=H. keyensis LC 1965: 26). One patch 
near the northern end. Weise s.n. (4.28.1969). 
Family Casuarinaceae 

Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. A few plants, mosdy near some which are plant- 
ed by a house at the northern end of the hammock. Introduced. Austin 
4379. 



Austin and Weise: Boynton Beach Vegetation 149 

Family Salicaceae 
Salix caroliniana Michx. Several small trees occur near the road close to the 
center of the hammock. Austin 4412. 

Family Moraceae 
Ficus aurea Nutt. Common along the inner dune. Weise 85. 

Family Polygonaceae 
Coccoloha diversifolia Jacq. Rare, found only on the inner part of the ham- 
mock. Weise 55; Austin 4421. 
Coccoloha uvifera (L. ) L. Very common and forming pure stands in a zone 
between the beach and the hammock. Weise 28. 
Family Amaranthaceae 
Alternanthera maritima (Mart.) St. Hil. Common on the outer edge of the 

Coccoloha zone. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 
Iresine celosia L. Uncommon and scattered along the ocean side of the ham- 
mock. Austin 4404. 

Family Batidaceae 
Batis maritima L. Fairly common along the beach. Not in Lakela and Craig- 
head (1965). Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Family Phytolaccaeae 
Rivina humilis L. Uncommon on the lee side of the hammock. Weise s.n. 
(4.28.69). 

Family Aizoaceae 
Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Common on the beach. Not in Lakela and Craig- 
head (1965). Weise 24. 

Family Annonaceae 
Annona glabra L. One tree found just north of the depression pool in the SW 
corner of the hammock. Austin 4417. 

Family Lauraceae 
Cassytha jiliformis L. Locally abundant along the ocean side of the hammock. 

Parasitic on diverse hosts in many different habitats. Austin 4377. 
Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb. Fairly common on the lee side of the inner 
dune. Weise 65. 

Family Capparidaceae 
Capparis cynophallophora L. Fairly common within the hammock. More com- 
mon on the lee side of the inner dune. Weise 50. 
Capparis flexuosa (L. ) L. Fairly common within the hammock. Weise 45. 

Family Rosaceae 
Chrysobalanus icaco L. Common on the ecotone between the beach zone and 
the Coccoloha zone. Austin 4407. 

Family Leguminoseae 
Caesalpinia honduc ( L. ) Roxb. The Nicker Bean is common along the beaches 
of Palm Beach County, but apparendy more common south of Boynton 
Beach. Weise s.n.; Austin 4413. 
Canavalia maritima (Aubl. ) Thouars. Common all along the beach zone. 

Weise s.n. 
Crotalaria pumila Ortega. Scattered, but locally common. Found mostly along 
paths. Pfefferle s.n. 



150 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L. ) Taub. On the lee side of the southern end of 
the hammock. Austin 4399. 

Erythrina herbacea L. Uncommon. Scattered plants occur on the ocean side 
of the hammock near the ecotone between the beach and the Coccoloba 
zone. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Lysiloma latisiliqua (L. ) Benth. (=L. bahamensis Benth.?). One tree near 
the road on the northwest side of the hammock. This is apparently the 
northern limit reported for the species. Carrow ir Marsh s.n.; Austin 4672; 
Det. D. G. Burch. 

Pithecellobium keyense Britt. Fairly common on the ocean side of the Cocco- 
loba zone, scattered elsewhere throughout the hammock. Austin 4400. 

Sophora tomentosa L. One individual plant was found at the northern end of 
the hammock. Austin 4381. 

Family Zygophyllaceae 

Tribulus cistoides L. Locally common in the areas of high disturbance at the 
southern end of the hammock. Absent elsewhere. Austin 4395. 
Family Rutaceae 

Amyris elemifera L. Uncommon. Weise 92. 

Zanthoxylum fagara ( L. ) Sarg. A common plant in all parts of the hammock 
except the dense central part of the Coccoloba zone. Weise 86. 
Family Simaroubaceae 

Simarouba glauca DC. Scattered, but fairly common within the hammock. 
Weise 63. 

Suriana maritima L. Rare. Occurring at the inner edge of the storm beach. 
Weise s.n. (4.28.69). 

Family Burseraceae 

Bursera simaruba (L. ) Sarg. One of the two most common trees in the ham- 
mock. Often found from the second dune to the lower part of the lee side 
on the inner dune. Weise 84. 

Family Polygalaceae 

Poly gala grandiflora Walt. Scattered plants are uncommon in the southern 
end of the hammock. Austin 4671. 

Family Euphorbiaceae 

Chamaesyce bombensis (Jacq. ) Dugand. {=C. ammanioides) . Scattered, but 
common along the beach. Weise 7. 

Chamaesyce mesembryanthemifolia (Jacq.) Dugand. (=C. buxifolia). Com- 
mon along the beach. Weise 125. 

Cnidoscolus stimulosus ( Mich. ) Raf . Common in sunny areas along margins of 
the hammock. Austin 4388. 

Croton punctatus Jacq. Fairly common in sunny margins of the hammock. 
Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Phyllanthus abnormis Baillon. One plant found at the northern end of the 
hammock near the outer edge of the first dune. Austin 4380. 

Poinsettia cyathophora (Murr. ) Kl. & Gke. Uncommon in sunny margins of 
the hammock. Weise 81. 



Austin and Weise: Boynton Beach Vegetation 151 

Family Anacardiaceae 
Metopium toxiferum (L. ) Krug & Urban. Perhaps the most common tree in 
the hammock. Very common on the lee side of the inner dune. Weise s.n. 
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. An introduced species from southern South 
America; now widely naturalized in southern Florida because birds spread 
the seeds. Scattered throughout the hammock. Weise 108. 
Toxicodendron radicans (L. ) Knutze subsp. radicans. Fairly common on the 
lee side of the inner dune. 

Family Rhamnaceae 
Krugiodendron ferreum (Vahl. ) Urban. Common along with Randia aculeata 
on the outer edge of the Coccoloba zone. Weise s.n.; det. O. Lakela. 
Family Vitaceae 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L. ) Planch. Uncommon and somewhat de- 
paupered where encountered; on the ocean side of the Coccoloba zone. 
Austin 4402. 
Vitis coriacea Shuttlw. Some large vines are found near the center of the 
hammock on the lee side of the inner dune. Austin 4667. 
Family Passifloraceae 
Passiftora pallida L. One plant climbing on the Coccoloba uvifera near the N 
end of the hammock, on the ocean side. Austin 4436. 
Family Caricaceae 
Carica papaya L. Scattered plants occur throughout the hammock. Not very 
common. Weise 100. 

Family Loasaceae 
Mentzelia -ftoridana Nutt. Scattered, but fairly common around margins of the 
hammock. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Family Cactaceae 
Acanthocereus floridanus Small. Not common, but there are scattered patches 
with several individuals per patch on the lee side of the inner dune. 
Austin 4401. 
Opuntia dillenii (Ker.) Haw. Common in the "prickly" area between the 
Coccoloba zone and the beach. Weise 26. 

Family Combretaceae 
Conocarpus erecta L. Near the center of the hammock near the road. Carrow 
& Marsh s.n. (4.28.70); Austin 4416. 

Family Myrtaceae 
Eugenia axillaris ( Sw. ) Willd. Occuring in large patches from the middle dune 

inland. Often in pure stands. Weise 116. 
Eugenia myrtoides Poir. Often sympatric with E. axillaris. Weise 44, 97. 

Family Myrsinaceae 
Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. Fairly common and scattered through- 
out the hammock. Weise 120. 
Myrsine guianensis (Aubl. ) Kuntze. Clumps scattered through the hammock; 
apparently not as common as Ardisia. Weise s.n. 
Family Plumbaginaceae 
Plumbago scandens L. A few vines on the northern end. Austin 4670. 



152 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Family Sapotaceae 
Mastichodendron foetidissimum ( Jacq. ) Cronq. Fairly common throughout the 
hammock. Weise 114. 

Family Oleaceae 
Forestiera segregata (Jacq.) Krug & Urban. Several plants clustered near the 
northern end of the hammock. Austin 4431. 
Family Apocynaceae 
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (=Lochnera rosea LC, 1965: 73; =Vinca 
rosea RAB, 1968: 847). A common weed in disturbed and sunny spots 
throughout. Introduced. Austin 4387. 

Family Asclepiadaceae 
Sarcostemma clausa Vail. Uncommon on lee side of inner dune. Weise s.n. 

Family Convolvulaceae 
Calonyction aculeatum (L. ) House. Uncommon near road on the lee side of 

inner dune. Austin 4398. 
Calonyction tuba (Schlecht. ) Colla. Four plants growing with Tournefortia. 
Vitality not good but with some fruits on one plant. The only collection 
known from Palm Beach County. Austin 4385. 
Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl. ) Roem. & Schult. (=7. cathartica LC, 1965:75). 
Common along the margins of the hammock. Some plants climbing to 
canopy within the hammock. Weise 122. 
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. ) Sweet. Common on the beach. Weise 11. 

Family Boraginaceae 
Heliotropium parviflora L. Rare. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Tournefortia gnaphaloides ( L. ) R. Br. One fairly large clump of plants occurs 
in about the middle area; there are smaller clumps at both ends of the 
large one. The plants grow near the upper (storm) beach limit near the 
prickly zone. The species is on the verge of extinction in the United States. 
Weise 27. 

Family Solanaceae 
Salanum bahamense L. Rare. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 

Family Rubiaceae 
Chiococca alba (L. ) Hitch. Fairly common throughout the hammock. Austin 

4389. 
Ernodea littoralis Sw. Fairly common in "blow-outs" and near the ocean side 

of the Coccoloba zone. Weise 123. 
Psychotria nervosa Sw. Fairly common throughout the hammock. Weise 115. 
Randia aculeata L. Common along the ecotone between the Coccoloba zone 
and the beach. Weise 109; Austin 4390. 

Family Goodeniaceae 
Scaevola plumieri Vahl. Common on the beach. Weise s.n. (4.28.69). 

Family Compositae 
Baccharis halimifolia L. Uncommon near the highway inside the inner dune. 

Carrow & Marsh s.n. (4.28.70). 
Bidens pilosa L. ( =B. leucantha L. ) . Fairly common on the southern end 
near the highway. Weise s.n. (4.24.69). 



Austin and Weise: Boynton Beach Vegetation 153 

Helianthus dehilis Nutt. Common on the upper beach and in the outer parts 

of the first dune. Weise 127. 
Mikania cordifolia (L. ) Willd. Fairly common around margins of hammock. 

Austin 4406. 
Verbesina laciniata (Poir. ) Gray (=V. virginica var. laciniata RAB, 1968: 

1120). Not common. In isolated patches near the southern end. Weise 

s.n. (2.27.69). 

Acknowledgments 

The Euphorbiaceae were determined by D. G. Burch; the Ana- 
cardiaceae by W. T. Gillis. Determination assistance by these men 
and by J. Beckner, O. Lakela, and D. B. Ward is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. The original manuscript was read and criticized by J. Beck- 
ner, W. T. Gillis, and D. B. Ward. This study was partially based 
on an ecology term paper submitted by the junior author, and sup- 
ported by a grant from the Florida Atlantic University Division of 
Sponsored Research. 

Literature Cited 

Alexander, T. R. 1958a. High Hammock Vegetation of the Southern Florida 
Mainland. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 21, pp. 293-298. 

. 1958b. Ecology of the Pompano Beach Hammock. Quart. Jour. 

Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 21, pp. 299-304. 

Cooke, C. W. 1939. Scenery of Florida Interpreted by a Geologist. Geol. 
Bull., vol. 17, pp. 1-118. 

. 1945. Geology of Florida. Geol. Bull., vol. 29, pp. 1-339. 

Dalla Torre, K. W. V., and H. Harms. 1900-1907. Genera Siphonogama- 
rum. 

D'Arcy, W. G. 1967. Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, 
Virgin Islands. Rhodora, vol. 69, pp. 385-450. 

Davis, J. H. 1943. The Natural Features of Southern Florida. Florida Geol. 
Bull., no. 25, pp. 6-301. 

Gillis, W. T. 1972. Biosystematics and ecology of Poison-Ivy and the Poison- 
Oaks (Toxicodendron: Anacardiaceae ) . Rhodora, vol. 73, pp. 370-443. 

Harper, R. M. 1927. Natural resources of southern Florida. 18th Ann. Report 
Florida Geol. Survey, pp. 27-206. 

Kurz, H. 1942. Florida dunes and scrub, vegetation and geology. Geol. Bull., 
no. 23, pp. 1-154. 

Lakela, O., and F. C. Craighead. 1965. Annotated checklist of the vascular 
plants of Collier, Dade, and Monroe Counties, Florida. Fairchild Trop- 
ical Garden and University of Miami Press. 

Liogier, Bro. A. 1963. Novitates Antillanae I. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 
90, pp. 186-192. 



154 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



. 1965a. Novitates Antillanae II. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 92, pp. 

288-304. 

. 1965b. Nomenclatural changes and additions to Britton and Wilson's 

"Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands." Rhodora, vol. 67, pp. 
315-361. 

. 1968. Novitates Antillanae III. Brittonia, vol. 20, pp. 148-161. 

Long, R. W. 1970. Additions and nomenclatural changes in the flora of 
southern Florida I. Rhodora, vol. 72, pp. 17-46. 

Phillips, W. S. 1940. A tropical hammock on the Miami (Florida) Lime- 
stone. Ecology, vol. 21, pp. 166-175. 

Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular 
flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 

Sauer, J. 1967. Geographic reconnaissance of seashore vegetation along the 
Mexican Gulf Coast. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 

Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Reprint by the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 

Ward, D. B. 1968. Checklist of the vascular flora of Florida I. Bull. Agr. 
Expt. Sta., no. 762, pp. 1-72. 

Herbarium, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic 
University, Boca Raton, Florida 33432. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



A Sediment Trap for Use in Soft-bottomed Lakes 

Frank G. Nordlie and John F. Anderson 

The usual means of evaluating deposition rates work well for 
situations involving thick strata or rapid rates of sedimentation but 
are not satisfactory for short term studies, especially when low rates 
of deposition are involved. The investigator wishing to evaluate 
deposition rates over short periods (six months to a year, for ex- 
ample, as is necessary in carrying out community energetic studies ) 
faces a paucity of suitable techniques. A few devices designed for 
this purpose have been described ( e.g., Raymond and Stetson, 1931, 
and the later modification, Hough, 1955), but such large and elab- 
orate devices were beyond our needs as well as means. Also they 
must be set on the bottom, which precludes their use in situations 
where the bottom deposits are not compact enough to prevent their 
sinking. Consequently we designed and constructed from poly- 
ethylene materials the simple and inexpensive sediment trap seen in 
Fig. 1. We would like to express our appreciation to Mr. Paul 
Laessle for preparing the drawings. The trap can be suspended at 
any depth to avoid any potentially offending flocculent layer over 
the compact bottom. The suspension rope is anchored on the bot- 
tom and attached to a surface float. The length of the anchor line 
is adjusted to eliminate slack and keep the trap in an upright posi- 
tion. 

Construction 

The trap is constructed from a piece of polyethylene tubing 24 
in. ( 61 cm. ) in length with an outside diameter of 3 1/4 in. ( 8.3 
cm.) and wall thickness of 1/8 in. (0.35 cm.). The inside diameter 
of 3 in. (7.7 cm.) is equal to the outside diameter of a 16 oz. (ca. 
500 ml.) screwtop polyethylene bottle. One of these bottles, with 
bottom cut out and cap removed, is inserted neck-first into the top 
of the polyethylene tube and driven down so that the bottom rim is 
below the top of the outside tube. A second bottle, also bottomless 
but in this case capped, is inserted neck down into the bottom of 
the polyethylene tube and driven in so that the shoulder of the bot- 
tle is above the lower edge of the tube. In our work we found that 



FLOAT ( PLASTIC) 




TRAP WELL BELOW 
EUPHOTIC ZONE 



ANCHOR 



SAND FILLED PLASTIC 
JUG USED AS ANCHOR 
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of construction and operation of polyethylene 
sediment trap. 



Nokdlie and Anderson: Sediment Trap 157 

the fit between the outer tube and the bottles was so snug that no 
adhesive was necessary. 

Holes were drilled below the upper margin and above the lower 
margin of the outer tube to accommodate No. 3 nylon cord used to 
attach the trap to the suspension rope. 

The traps are filled with filtered water prior to setting in order 
to sink them and to avoid contamination during setting (important 
in studies of rates or organic deposition ) . The traps are emptied by 
removing the screw cap from the lower bottle and collecting the 
contents. Several rinses may be necessary to remove all of the sedi- 
ment. 

Our traps were successfully operated for a period of one year 
in Lake Mize, Florida, a deep lake (ca. 25 m. ) but with a small 
surface area (ca. 0.86 ha.). The traps may be less appropriate in 
large lakes with heavy wind action. 

Literature Cited 

Hough, Jack L. 1955. Bottom sampling apparatus. In: Parker D. Trask (edi- 
tor), Recent Marine Sediments — A Symposium. Soc. Economic Paleon- 
tologists and Mineralogists. Special Publ. No. 4, pp. 631-664. 

Raymond, P. E., and H. C. Stetson. 1931. A new factor in the transporta- 
tion and distribution of marine sediments. Science, vol. 73, no. 1882, 
pp. 105-106. 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor- 
ida 32601. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



New Records for Marine Fishes in South Carolina Waters 
David M. Cupka and Robert K. Dias 

Increased collecting along the eastern shore of North America 
should result in range extensions for a number of fish species (An- 
derson and Gutherz, 1965 ) . These range extensions will result partly 
from stray, migrant and expatiate individuals, but some will repre- 
sent unrecorded indigenous faunal components. Paranthias furcifer 
Valenciennes (Serranidae) and Astroscopus guttatus Abbott (Ura- 
noscopidae) are recorded for the first time from South Carolina 
waters and represent significant range extensions. The recorded 
bathymetric range of Kathetostoma albigutta Bean ( Uranoscopidae ) 
is extended considerably with the captures of specimens in shallow 
inshore areas. The single specimen of Paranthias furcifer probably 
represents a stray individual of a species which normally does not 
range this far north. The small specimens of Kathetostoma albigutta 
may represent individuals which developed from pelagic larval 
forms which drifted into the shallow capture areas. The specimens 
of Astroscopus guttatus, because of their size and differences in lo- 
calities and dates of collection, are felt to represent a species which 
is indigenous to the ichthyofauna of South Carolina. 

A single specimen of Paranthias furcifer (263 mm standard 
length [SL] ) was caught with rod and reel approximately 48 nauti- 
cal miles ESE of Charleston ( ca. la. 32° 23', long 79° 02'; 9 Novem- 
ber 1968; 46-55 m depth ) . The northernmost record for this species 
in the western Atlantic is Bermuda (Briggs, 1958), whereas the 
northernmost record off eastern North America is Miami (Smith, 
1961 ) . This specimen represents a range extension of approximately 
420 nautical miles northward along the east coast of the United 
States. P. furcifer has also been reported from the Gulf of Mexico 
and the eastern Pacific ( Smith, 1961 ) . 

Two specimens of Astroscopus guttatus (104 and 115 mm SL) 
were captured with a 4.6 m, 13 mm stretch mesh otter trawl in Jones 
Creek in Georgetown County (lat 33° 19.1', long 79° 10.4'; 22 
August 1969; water temperature 20.0 C). Another specimen (59 
mm SL) was taken with a 6.1 m, 25 mm stretch mesh otter trawl 
in Russel Creek in Charleston County (lat 32° 36.4', long 80° 19.0'; 
19 April 1970; over sand and mud in 3.0-7.6 m depth; surface water 



Cupka and Dias: Marine Fishes from South Carolina 159 

temperature 21.5 C). Berry and Anderson (1961) gave the range 
of this species as Long Island, New York, to Cape Lookout, North 
Carolina. The collection of this specimen in Russel Creek repre- 
sents a range extension of approximately 200 nautical miles south- 
westward along the Atlantic coast of the United States. 

A specimen of Kathetostoma albigutta (20 mm SL) was cap- 
tured with a 19.8 m, 13 mm stretch mesh bag seine in Jones Creek 
(lat 33° 19.1', long 79° 10.4'; 9 November 1970; 1.0 m depth; sur- 
face water temperature 16.8 C; surface salinity 32.3 ppt) and an- 
other of the same species (21 mm SL) while seining at Hunting 
Island Beach in Beaufort County (lat 32° 22.5', long 80° 26.1 , ; 19 
February 1971; 0.2-0.8 m depth; surface water temperature 10.5 C; 
surface salinity 26.9 ppt). Previous workers (Berry and Anderson, 
1961; Moe and Martin, 1965; Struhsaker, 1969) have shown this 
species to occur in deeper water. This, however, may be partially 
attributed to the fact that the vessels on which these specimens 
were collected operated mainly in offshore waters. Berry and An- 
derson (1961) examined 87 specimens (29-204 mm SL) collected 
from 37-384 m with the majority coming from 55 m to 110 m. Moe 
and Martin ( 1965 ) collected three specimens ( 70-239 mm SL ) in 
48 m of water in the Tampa Bay area. Struhsaker (1969) reported 
K. albigutta as common, being taken in more than fifty per cent of 
the trawl samples in the primary habitat of the species, which ac- 
cording to Struhsaker's definition is the lower-shelf and shelf-edge. 
As far as we can determine our specimens represent the first inshore 
records and the smallest individuals yet recorded of K. albigutta. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Harry 
W. Freeman, College of Charleston, who made available two of the 
specimens of Astroscopus guttatus. We are also indebted to Dr. 
William D. Anderson, Jr., Grice Marine Biological Laboratory, and 
Mr. Charles M. Bearden, South Carolina Marine Resources Division, 
who critically read the manuscript and offered valuable suggestions. 

Literature Cited 

Anderson, W. D. Jr., and E. J. Gutherz. 1965. New Atlantic Coast ranges 
for fishes. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. (1964), vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 
299-306. 



160 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Berry, F. H., and W. W. Anderson. 1961. Stargazer fishes from the western 

North Atlantic (Family Uranoscopidae ) . Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vol. 

112, no. 3448, pp. 563-586. 
Briggs, J. C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. 

Florida State Mus., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 223-318. 
Moe, A. M., and G. F. Martin. 1965. Fishes taken in monthly trawl samples 

offshore of Pinellas County, Florida, with new additions to the fish 

fauna of the Tampa Bay area. Tulane Stud. Zool., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 

129-151. 
Smith, C. L. 1961. Synopsis of biological data on groupers (Epinephelus and 

allied genera) of the western North Atlantic. FAO Fish. Biol. Synopsis 

No. 23, 67 pp. 
Struhsaker, P. 1969. Demersal fish resources: composition, distribution, and 

commercial potential of the continental shelf stocks off southeastern 

United States. Fish. Ind. Res., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 261-300. 

South Carolina Wildlife Resources Department, Marine Re- 
sources Division 217 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 
29412. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(2) 1972(1973) 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Institutional Members for 1972 

American Medical Research Institute 

Archbold Expeditions 

Barry College 

Edison Community College 

Florida Atlantic University 

Florida Institute of Technology 

Florida Presbyterian College 

Florida Southern College 

Florida State University 

Florida Technological University 

Jacksonville University 

Manatee Junior College 

Miami-Dade Junior College 

Mound Park Hospital Foundation 

Ormond Beach Hospital 

Rollins College 

St. Leo College 

Stetson University 

University of Florida 

University of Miami 

University of South Florida 

University of Tampa 

University of West Florida 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Founded 1936 



OFFICERS FOR 1972 

President: Dr. Richard E. Garrett 

Department of Physics, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 

President Elect: Dr. James G. Potter 

Department of Physics, Florida Institute of Technology 

Melbourne, Florida 32901 

Secretary: Dr. Robert W. Long 

Department of Botany, University of South Florida 

Tampa, Florida 33620 

Treasurer: Dr. Richard A. Edwards 

Department of Geology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 

Editor: Dr. Pierce Brodkorb 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 



Membership applications, subscriptions, renewals, changes 

of address, and orders for back numbers should 

be addressed to the Treasurer 



Correspondence regarding exchanges 
should be addressed to 

Gift and Exchange Section, University of Florida Libraries 
Gainesville, Florida 32611 



VqFcs 

S T 

Quarterly Journal 

of the 

Florida Academy of Sciences 



Vol. 35 December, 1972 No. 4 



CONTENTS 



Notes on parasites of gray squirrels from Florida 

7. C. Parker, E. J. Riggs, and R. B. Holliman 161 

Occurrence of two trematodes in Florida anoles 

Richard Franz and Sam R. Telford, Jr. 163 

Reproductive rates in white-tailed deer of Florida Richard F. Harlow 165 

Food of the barn owl on Grand Cayman, B. W. I. David W. Johnston 171 

Balanomorph barnacles on Chrysemys alabamensis 

Crawford G. Jackson, Jr., and Arnold Ross 173 

Synopsis of the species of Trachurus (Pisces, Carangidae) 

Frederick H. Berry and Linda Cohen 177 

Defensive behavior in Rana areolata and Hyla avivoca Ronald Altig 212 

Commercial fishery on Lake Okeechobee, Florida Lothian A. Ager 217 

Nuclear DNA and developmental rate in frogs K. Bachmann 225 

Some airborne algae from North Central Florida 

R. T. Parrando and J. S. Davis 232 

Bird remains from pre-Columbian middens in the Virgin Islands 

Pierce Brodkorb 239 



^WTHSfj 



flp R 51974 li 



Published March 15, 1974 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 
Editor: Pierce Brodkorb 



The Quarterly Journal welcomes original articles containing sig- 
nificant new knowledge, or new interpretation of knowledge, in any 
field of Science. Articles must not duplicate in any substantial way 
material that is published elsewhere. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

Rapid, efficient, and economical transmission of knowledge by means of 
the printed word requires full cooperation between author and editor. Revise 
copy before submission to insure logical order, conciseness, and clarity. 

Manuscripts should be typed double-space throughout, on one side of 
numbered sheets of 8Y2 by 11 inch, smooth, bond paper. 

A Carbon Copy will facilitate review by referees. 

Margins should be \ x k inches all around. 

Titles must not exceed 55 characters, including spaces. 

Footnotes should be avoided. Give Acknowledgments in the text and 
Address in paragraph form following Literature Cited. 

Literature Cited follows the text. Double-space and follow the form 
in the current volume. For articles give title, journal, volume, and inclusive 
pages. For books give title, publisher, place, and total pages. 

Tables are charged to authors at $25.00 per page or fraction. Titles 
must be short, but explanatory matter may be given in footnotes. Type each 
table on a separate sheet, double-space, unruled, to fit normal width of page, 
and place after Literature Cited. 

Legends for illustrations should be grouped on a sheet, double-spaced, in 
the form used in the current volume, and placed after Tables. Titles must be 
short but may be followed by explanatory matter. 

Illustrations are charged to authors ($17.00 per page or fraction). 
Drawings should be in India ink, on good board or drafting paper, and 
lettered by lettering guide or equivalent. Plan linework and lettering for re- 
duction, so that final width is 4% inches, and final length does not exceed 6% 
inches. Do not submit illustrations needing reduction by more than one-half. 
Photographs should be of good contrast, on glossy paper. Do not write 
heavily on the backs of photographs. 

Proof must be returned promptly. Leave a forwarding address in case 
of extended absence. 

Reprints may be ordered when the author returns corrected proof. 



Published by the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Printed by the Storter Printing Company 

Gainesville, Florida 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

of the 

FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Vol. 35 December, 1972 No. 4 

Notes on Parasites of Gray Squirrels from Florida 
J. C. Parker, E. J. Riggs, and R. B. Holliman 

In December, 1969, three male and one female gray squirrels, 
Sciurus carolinensis carolinensis Gmelin, 1788, were collected on a 
farm woodlot in Marion County near Ocala, Florida. These squir- 
rels were examined for intestinal and blood protozoa and intestinal 
helminths, which revealed at least two species of eimerian coccidia, 
one species of cestode, one species of acanthocephalan and four 
species of nematodes. 

A review of the literature yielded only two references concern- 
ing internal parasites in this host from Florida. Bond and Bovee 
(1958) reported Eimeria sp. from this host and Chandler (1947) 
reported Moniliformis clarki (Ward, 1917). 

Analysis of the fecal material revealed the oocysts of two forms 
of eimerian coccidia. The first was observed in all hosts examined 
and was ellipsoidal in shape, resembling the organism described 
as Eimeria sp. by Bond and Bovee (1958). The second resembled 
the characteristic pyriform-shaped oocysts of Eimeria ontarioensis 
Soon and Dorney ( In press ) and occurred in only one of the hosts 
examined. Also helminth eggs were observed in all fecal samples. 

The examination of the visceral organs revealed the cestode, 
Raillietina bakeri Chandler, 1942, in the small intestine of 2 squir- 
rels; one tapeworm was recovered from one host, two from the 
other. The acanthocephalan, Moniliformis clarki Ward, 1917, oc- 
curred in the small intestine of two hosts; 3 worms in one squirrel, 
one in the other. The largest of these worms measured 325 mm in 
length and filled most of the lumen of the small intestine. The 
average length of the 4 worms was 167 mm. 



162 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

The nematode, Heligmodendrium hassalli (Price, 1929) was 
found in the small intestine of 3 hosts (1, 44, and 115 worms per 
host). Twenty-five specimens of Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 
1942, were recovered from the small intestine of one squirrel. One 
specimen of Syphacia (Si/phacia) thompsoni Price, 1928, was found 
in the cecum of each of two hosts, and one Trichostrongylus calca- 
ratus Ransom, 1911, was recovered from the cecum of a single host. 

The examination of Wright's stained blood smears for presence 
of Hepatozoon and microfilariae was negative. 

This report tentatively extends the present known distribution 
of Eimeria ontarioensis from Canada to Florida. Apparently, 
Syphacia (Syphacia) thompsoni, Heligmodendrium hassalli, 
Strongyloides robustus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus are new 
records for this host in Florida. Raillietina bakeri appears to be a 
new host record. 

We are grateful to Dr. R. S. Dorney of the University of Water- 
loo, Ontario, Canada, for information on his new coccidian, E. on- 
tarioensis. 

Literature Cited 

Bond, B. B., and E. C. Bovee. 1958. A redescription of an eimerian coc- 
cidian from the flying squirrel, Glaucomijs volans, designating it Eimeria 
parasciurorum nov. sp. Jour. Protozool., vol. 4, pp. 225-229. 

Chandler, A. C. 1947. Notes on Moniliformis clarki in North American 
squirrels. Jour. Parasit., vol. 33, pp. 278-281. 

Soon, B. L., and R. S. Dorney. In press. Eimeria ontarioensis n. sp., E. 
wongi n. sp. and Eimeria sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from the Ontario 
gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. Jour. Protozool. 

Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 
University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Occurence of Two Trematodes in Florida Anoles 

Richard Franz and Sam R. Telford, Jr. 

The digenetic trematode Alloglyptus crenshawi ( Macroderoidi- 
dae ) was described by Ryrd ( 1950 ) from a series of 30 specimens 
taken from the small intestine of a single Anolis carolinensis col- 
lected in Baker County, Georgia. No additional collections of this 
parasite have been reported, to the best of our knowledge. 

During autopsy of over 100 Anolis carolinensis from various 
Florida localities, three were found to be infected with A. cren- 
shawi. Eight specimens in all were removed from the upper small 
intestines of lizards collected along the north shore of Redwater 
Lake, 4 mi. E of Hawthorne, Putnam County, Florida. An addi- 
tional 23 anoles from this locality were uninfected. All were col- 
lected on a sandy ridge in a palmetto-live oak thicket within 50 feet 
of the shoreline. These trematodes agree closely with Byrd's de- 
scription, but average somewhat smaller (2-3 mm) in length. All 
specimens contained numerous mature ova. 

Examination of 15 gastro-intestinal tracts from A. carolinensis, 
including those of the infected lizards, revealed that ants and mos- 
quitoes comprised 58 per cent of the ingested food items, followed 
by winged termites (21 per cent). The remainder of the food items 
included hymenopteran wings and two small snails, probably 
Mesophix sp. Spiders and lepidopteran larvae, commonly fed upon 
by anoles, were not found in these samples. Sellers ( 1971 ) reported 
that Anolis carolinensis serves as host to another trematode, Uro- 
trema wardi Viqueras, 1940, in Florida. This species was previ- 
ously known only from Anolis porcatus of Cuba. We too have en- 
countered Urotrema in Florida anoles: six specimens were removed 
from an A. carolinensis collected at Hart Springs, Gilchrist County, 
Florida. While slight differences in measurement are present, these 
trematodes are probably best assigned to U. wardi, in the opinion 
of Dr. J. M. Kinsella, Department of Veterinary Science, University 
of Florida, who confirmed our identification of them. 

The specimens have been accessioned into the collections of the 
Florida State Museum, to which institution we are indebted for sup- 
port of our continuing studies upon the trematodes of Florida rep- 
tiles. 



164 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Literature Cited 

Byrd, E. E. 1950. Alloglyptus crenshawi, a new genus and species of oogen- 
etic trematode ( Plagiorchiinae ) from the chamacleon. Trans. Amer. 
Microscop. Soc, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 280-287. 

Sellers, L. G. 1971. Three helminths recovered from Anolis carolinensis. 
Jour. Parasitol., vol. 57, no. 2, p. 355. 

Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 
32601. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Reproductive Rates in White-tailed Deer of Florida 

Richard F. Harlow 

This paper presents possible reasons for the low reproduction 
rates of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in central Flor- 
ida and attempts to show that overpopulation and quantity of avail- 
able forage are not involved. 

In most regions of the Southeast, quantity of available food is 
sufficient, yet average reproductive rates are lower than for most 
northern areas. Sileo (1966) assembled reproductive data on 8,564 
white-tailed deer from 20 eastern states. He found that fecundity 
rates of white-tailed deer in southern forests were significantly lower 
than those of deer in either the northern forests or the central hard- 
wood forests. In the South, fecundity of deer in the Coastal Plain 
was lowest and that of deer in the Piedmont was highest. Forest 
type and soil were found to exert the greatest influence on deer 
fecundity. Short (1969) stated that most upland forests in the 
South have infertile soils and produce roughages that are seasonally 
deficient in net energy, protein, and phosphorus for deer. 

In the present study, 99 does were collected from central and 
north Florida for examination during February when food supplies 
were considered lowest. All deer were inspected for fat content of 
the bone marrow, pericardial and peritoneal fat, numbers of ecto- 
and endoparasites, body size, weight, and stomach contents. 

Variation in Reproductive Rates 

No deer suffered from malnutrition. After adjustment for age 
differences, body weight and physical measurements of the 61 does 
from central Florida did not differ significantly (P<.05) from the 
38 does from north Florida. However, the average reproductive 
rate of does from central Florida was 0.98 fetus per doe as com- 
pared to slightly over 1.5 in deer from north Florida. The reproduc- 
tive rate of the central Florida sample was similar to that (1.06) 
reported in New York where winter starvation was chronic ( Cheat- 
um and Severinghaus 1950). Reproductive rates of deer in north 
Florida were comparable to those of northern white-tails on ranges 
where winter foods were adequate. 



166 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Availability of Forage 

Quantity and variety of available forage does not appear to be 
limiting factors to herd fecundity in central Florida. Quantities of 
available forage on four study areas during winter ranged from 80 
pounds per acre ( oven-dry ) on the longleaf pine-turkey oak site to 
from 400 to 1,800 pounds per acre on two flatwood sites and one 
sand pine-scrub oak type. The number of species of major woody 
plants available to deer ranged from 20 to 30 (Harlow 1959), and 
the study sites contained small acreages of bayheads, hammocks, 
and cypress swamps which added to habitat diversity. 

Deer Populations 

Deer numbers on three of the study areas in central Florida 
were moderate to low, varying from one deer per 40 acres to one 
per 100 acres. Only one area, the longleaf pine-turkey oak, had a 
population density considered high — one deer per 13 to 20 acres 
( Harlow 1959 ) . The reproductive rate of adult does from this area 
averaged 0.86, even lower than that of does from the other areas 
which averaged 0.98. Also, a comparison of the weights of adult 
does in the same age classes from the different sites showed that 
deer from the longleaf pine-turkey oak type averaged lighter in 
weight but not significantly (Harlow and Jones 1965). However, 
an examination of the bone marrow of 20 deer sacrificed from this 
area of comparatively high population during February 26 to March 
3, 1962, by the Southeastern Cooperative Deer Disease Study, indi- 
cated the deer were in good physical condition. The fat content of 
the bone marrow exceeded 90 per cent. Low reproductive rates are 
often associated with poor physical condition. 

Effects of Hunting 

Deer hunting with dogs occurred annually on all vegetation 
types, except the longleaf pine-turkey oak area which exhibited the 
lowest reproductive rate. Hunting with dogs has been blamed for 
poor deer reproduction; however, this has not been adequately 
demonstrated. Such hunting occurs in north Florida where repro- 
ductive rates are higher. On areas where deer hunting with dogs 
is allowed, the peak of the rutting season has passed by the time 
hunting season starts ( Harlow and Jones 1965 ) . 



Haklow: Reproduction of Deer 167 

Soil Fertility 

Low fertility of the soils of central Florida may be an important 
factor limiting herd reproduction. The upland soils of northwest 
Florida (particularly Leon, Gadsden, and Madison Counties where 
the reproductive data from north Florida were collected) have 
much more clay present in the subsoil than do upland soils in cen- 
tral Florida, and, according to analysis, the upland soils of north- 
west Florida also have higher potential fertility (Alsberg et al., 
1952). 

Another possible limiting factor may be a lack of certain mineral 
elements in the soil. Data supporting this possibility were reported 
in a study of range cattle management in Alachua County, Florida, 
by Camp ( 1932 ) . His studies showed that the calf crop averaged 
only 34.4 per cent in flatwoods and 37.1 per cent in pine-oak up- 
lands, while calf crops in prairies averaged 54.1 per cent and those 
in hammock habitats averaged 71.6 per cent. "Salt sick," or nutri- 
tional anemia, was reported to be common in pine-palmetto flat- 
woods and pine-oak uplands, where the soils are mostly deep white 
and gray sands without red clay which is found in prairies and 
hammocks. Becker et al. ( 1931 ) found that "salt sick" occurs on 
white and gray sandy soils and on many soils which have no clay, 
and that affected cattle recovered when changed to clay ranges. 
These soils low in clay are deficient in iron, or in iron and copper, 
and it is believed that the "salt sick" condition was caused by the 
scarcity of these elements. 

Thornton et al ( 1960 ) , however, states that "Preliminary results 
of experiments underway but not yet completed, indicate a corre- 
lation between the occurrence of 'salt sickness' in cattle and the 
cobalt content of the soils upon which the animals were pastured. 
These studies also indicate a relation to available phosphorus and 
copper but the correlation was not as high as with cobalt. Cattle 
were anemic when pastured on all soils containing less than 0.02 
parts per million of available cobalt and only one case of anemia 
was found on soils containing more than this amount." If cobalt 
is the trace element responsible for the poor performance of deer, 
this is not the first instance in which it has been suspected of play- 
ing a part. Smith et al. ( 1956 ) considered that inadequate cobalt 
levels partially explain the poor reproductive performance of deer 
in certain sections of North Carolina. 



168 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Lignin Content and the Availability of Mast 

Another factor influencing low reproductive rates of deer in cen- 
tral Florida may be the high lignin content associated with forage 
in the Coastal Plain. Halls et al. ( 1957 ) found that lignin content 
of browse plants in the Georgia Coastal Plain varied from 21 per 
cent in the summer to 26 per cent in the winter. They state that 
this high lignin content renders the browse nearly indigestible and 
that large quantities of lignin tend to decrease the digestibility of 
other nutrients. The browse plants studied were also relatively low 
in the more digestible portion of the carbohydrate fraction and, 
therefore, low in energy. It is known that lignin reduces digestibil- 
ity and energy value as well as intake. 

Where forage is high in lignin content and low in energy over 
large areas, mast crops may assume a very important role, depend- 
ing on the extent that mast contributes to the annual diet of a deer 
herd. Harlow and Tyson (1959) found a significant correlation be- 
tween the abundance of acorn and palmetto mast and the weight 
and reproduction of deer in central Florida. When mast produc- 
tion was low, weights of harvested deer were lower than when 
mast was abundant. Also, the percentage of harvested 1 1/2-year- 
old bucks declined the second hunting season following the year 
when mast growth was low. According to Morrison (1957), acorns 
have no digestible protein but are high in fat, which produces en- 
ergy. In central Florida, a lack of acorns and palmetto berries as 
a result of periodic mast failures may further compound a detri- 
mental effect on reproduction of the naturally high lignin content 
of the forage. 

Although high lignin content of the forage and mast failures also 
occur in north Florida where reproductive rates are higher, I be- 
lieve that it is the additional factor of soil deficiencies that accounts 
for the lower reproductive efficiency of deer in central Florida. 

This does not necessarily imply that deer populations from com- 
paratively poor range cannot reach densities approaching those on 
better range. I am only theorizing that herd increases will occur at 
a much slower rate and that high densities will be sustained for 
shorter periods. 

Conclusions 
It is obvious that more detailed information is needed on the 



Haklow: Reproduction of Deer 169 

nutritional requirements of deer in Florida and the inherent ca- 
pacity of the different vegetational types to support white-tails. 
Such data are necessary before we can develop adequate and eco- 
nomically feasible management techniques to improve the range 
and reproductive rate of particular populations. Possible avenues 
of further investigation include: 

1. Methods of increasing production of long-lasting, palatable, 
nutritious foods such as grasses and clovers on deer range. 

2. Methods of maintaining natural deer foods in the most palat- 
able and nutritious state or perhaps through such techniques as pre- 
scribed burning, fertilizing, and mowing. 

3. Methods of increasing certain natural foods which are par- 
ticularly high in energy content, such as acorn mast and palmetto 
berries. 

4. Methods of correcting mineral deficiencies. 

Acknowledgments 

Data on the reproductive rates, physical condition, and popula- 
tion estimates of deer, and on the habitat characteristics of the 
study areas, are a contribution of Federal Aid Project W-41-R, Flor- 
ida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, and the Southeastern 
Cooperative Deer Disease Study, University of Georgia, Athens, 
Georgia. 

Literature Cited 

alsberg, H. C, J. M. Scott, B. W. Allin, and O. C. Bryan. 1952. Agri- 
cultural conservation and soils of Florida. Florida Dept. Agr. Bull, no. 
91, 115 pp. 

Becker, R. B., W. M. Neal, and A. L. Shealy. 1931. 1. Salt sick: Its 
causes and prevention. II. Mineral supplements for cattle. Florida 
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 231, 23 pp. 

Camp, P. D. 1932. A study of range cattle management in Alachua County, 
Florida. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 248, 28 pp 

Cheatum, E. L., and C. W. Severinghaus. 1950. Variation in fertility of 
white-tailed deer related to range conditions. N. Amer. Wildlife and 
Natur. Resources Conf. Trans. 15, pp. 170-190. 

Halls, L. K., F. E. Knox, and V. A. Lazar. 1957. Common browse plants 
of the Georgia Coastal Plain, their chemical composition and contribu- 
tion to cattle diet. U. S. Forest Serv. Southeast. Forest Exp. Sta. Pap. 
no. 75, 18 pp. 



170 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Harlow, R. F. 1959. An evaluation of white-tailed deer habitat in Florida. 

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm. Tech. Bull. no. 5, 64 pp. 
Harlow, R. F., and F. K. Jones. 1965. The white-tailed deer in Florida. 

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm. Tech. Bull. no. 9, 240 pp. 
Harlow, R. F., and E. L. Tyson. 1959. A preliminary report on the effect 

of mast abundance on the weight and reproduction of deer in central 

Florida. Ann. Conf. Southeast. Assn. Game and Fish Comm. Proc, no. 

13, pp. 62-69. 
Morrison, F. B. 1957. Feeds and feeding. Morrison Publishing Co., Ithaca, 

New York, 630 pp. 
Short, H. L. 1969. Physiology and nutrition of deer in southern upland for- 
ests. U. S. Forest Serv. Southern Forest Exp. Sta., Nacogdoches, Texas. 

Symposium on White-tailed Deer in the Southern Forest Habitat Proc, 

pp. 14-18. 
Sileo, L., Jr. 1966. Fertility analysis of the ranges of white-tailed deer in 

the eastern United States. M. S. Thesis, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs. 

50 pp. 
Smith, F. H., K. C. Beeson, and W. E. Price. 1956. Chemical composition 

of herbage browsed by deer in two wildlife management areas. Jour. 

Wildlife Management, no. 20, pp. 359-367. 
Thornton, G. D., W. W. McCall, R. E. Caldwell, and F. B. Smith. 1960 

Soils and fertilizers. Florida Dep. Agr. Bull., no. 137, 70 pp. 

Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, 105 Wilson Avenue, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Food of the Barn Owl on Grand Cayman, B. W. I. 

David W. Johnston 

Despite the wide distribution of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in 
the West Indies, its breeding and feeding habits are poorly docu- 
mented for specific islands. The most complete accounts of foods 
are from fossil and subfossil cave deposits in Jamaica (Williams, 
1952) and from numerous contemporary sites on Hispaniola (Wet- 
more and Swales, 1931 ) . On Grand Cayman, an island of 71 square 
miles and 180 miles south of Cuba, the Barn Owl has been known 
as a resident since the earliest ornithological explorations in 1886, 
yet prior to this paper neither nesting sites nor foods have been re- 
ported for the island. The present brief account is ecologically sig- 
nificant because this owl is the island's sole resident avian predator. 
Furthermore, the mammalian fauna, part of the owl's diet, is poorly 
known. 

One nest site, located inside an abandoned boat at the edge of 
North Sound, was examined on 18 December 1970. In January 1970 
it contained a single egg that subsequently disappeared. This site 
must have been used previously because the wooden floors nearby 
were paved with bones, chiefly those of Rattus rattus and Mus mus- 
culus. Also present were remains of a single hermit crab (Paguri- 
dae) and the mandible of Elaenia martinica. 

Near Savannah, on the south end of the island, an active nest 
was located on 19 December 1970. It was in a deep hollow of an 
old mango tree (Mangifera indica) and contained three downy 
young. Beneath neighboring mango trees were fresh and broken 
owl pellets plus scattered bones. These included many skeletal 
parts from Rattus rattus (30 skulls) and Mus musculus, one skull 
each of Rattus norvegicus, Aristelliger praesignis, Brachyphylla 
nana, Artibeus jamaicensis, and an assortment of avian bones. The 
latter belonged to Leucophoyx thula, Quiscalus niger, Mimus poly- 
glottos, Dumetella carolinensis, Dendroica (probably palmarum), 
Coereba flaveola, and Centurus super ciliar is. The avian remains 
constituted approximately 40 per cent of the identified food items. 

The two bats (Brachyphylla and Artibeus) have not been pre- 
viously reported from Grand Cayman (Hall and Kelson, 1959) al- 
though both Donald Buden (in 1970) and Albert Schwartz (in 



172 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

1961) have collected Artibeus on the island. Buden also took 
Brachyphylh there in 1970. Miller (1902) recorded both of these 
bat species from Barn Owl pellets on Cuba. 

Of ecological significance is the relatively high proportion of 
avian remains in the Cayman material. For numerous continental 
sites the Barn Owl is renowned for its concentration on rodent prey 
and for a low percentage (ca. 1 per cent) of avian prey (Wallace, 
1948), but on islands birds may become more important or even 
exclusive food items (Howell, 1920). On Hispaniola in addition to 
rats, mice, lizards, bats and frogs, 29 species of birds were identi- 
fied from Barn Owl pellets ( Wetmore and Swales, 1931 ) . It seems 
likely that on some islands, such as Grand Cayman where small 
mammal prey is reduced in diversity and total numbers, the Barn 
Owl becomes alternatively a significant predator of birds and other 
nonmammalian vertebrates. 

Assistance in the identification of food items was given by Wal- 
ter Auffenberg, Edward Bender, Pierce Brodkorb, and Ronald Pine. 
A Biomedical Sciences Grant from the University of Florida sup- 
ported the field work. 

Literature Cited 

Hall, E. Raymond, and Keith R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North 

America. Ronald Press, New York, vol. 1, pp. 129-137. 
Howell, A. B. 1920. Habits of Oceanodroma leucorhoa beali vs. O. socor- 

wensis. Condor, vol. 22, pp. 41-42. 
Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. 1902. Twenty new American bats. Proc. Acad Nat. 

Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 54, pp. 409-410. 
Wallace, George J. 1948. The barn owl in Michigan. Mich. State College, 

Tech. Bull. no. 208, pp. 50-55. 
Wetmore, Alexander, and Bradshaw H. Swales. 1931. The birds of Haiti 

and the Dominican Republic. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 155, pp. 234- 

236. 
Williams, Ernest E. 1952. Additional notes on fossil and subfossil bats from 

Jamaica. Jour. Mamm., vol. 33, pp. 171-179. 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor- 
ida 32611. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Balanomorph Barnacles on Chrysemys alabamensis 
Crawford G. Jackson, Jr., and Arnold Ross 

The Alabama red-bellied turtle, Chrysemys alabamensis ( Baur ) 
ranges from Apalachee Bay, Florida to Mobile Bay, Alabama, in 
marshes and mangrove-bordered creeks and other bodies of brackish 
or fresh water (Conant, 1958). Although C. alabamensis was de- 
scribed prior to the turn of the century (Baur, 1893), it remained 
so poorly known that even its taxonomic validity was in doubt 
until the work of Carr and Crenshaw ( 1957 ) . During studies on 
the insular herpetofauna in the upper Gulf of Mexico, we had the 
opportunity of studying a specimen of this seldom-observed turtle 
that was heavily fouled by the balanomorph barnacle Balanus im- 
provisus Darwin (Fig. 1). Fouling by balanomorphs, and the oc- 
currence near an offshore island, suggest that C. alabamensis is 
relatively salt tolerant as Carr (1952) indicated for the congeneric 
C. concinna mobilensis (Holbrook) and C. concinna suivanniensis 
( Carr ) , which also occur in coastal areas of the upper Gulf. Previ- 
ously Carr ( 1940 ) had noted the presence of barnacles on several 
individuals of the latter in a heap of shells at Cedar Key, Florida. 

The turtle was collected by W. T. Seibels on 17 December 1968 
in shallow water off Dauphin Island, Mobile County, Alabama 
(approximately 30°10'51.6 ,, N, 88°15'12"W), which is one of several 
islands fronting Mobile Bay. The specimen, an adult male now 
housed in the collections of the University of South Alabama ( USA- 
1253 ) , measures as follows ( in mm ) : carapace length 262, carapace 
width 186, plastron length 228, anterior plastral width 105, posterior 
plastral width 104, bridge width 84, shell depth 107, head width 
34.5. The right side of the carapace shows evidence of multiple 
injuries, all of which are well healed, and were probably incurred 
when the turtle was much younger. 

Balanus improvisus ranges widely in the Caribbean and Atlantic, 
and has been reported from other regions about the world ( Utinomi, 
1966; Carlton and Zullo, 1969). It is commonly found in the inter- 
tidal zone and in shallow water estuarine environments on inani- 
mate objects as well as in association with oysters and other mol- 
lusks adapted to reduced salinities (Newman, 1967; Carlton and 
Zullo, 1969). Because B. improvisus is able to conform osmotically 



174 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Scdznces 




Fig. 1. Dorsal view of the Alabama red-bellied turtle Chrysemys alaham- 
ensis (Baur) fouled by the littoral barnacle Balanus improvisus Darwin. 



Jackson and Ross: Turtle Barnacles 175 

and remain active in low salinity waters for indefinite periods, it is 
regarded as a highly successful estuarine species (Newman, 1967). 
But low resistance to dessication is probably the limiting factor to 
its successful settlement and widespread occurrence on turtles that 
spend long periods out of water. 

More than 600 barnacles settled on the carapace of C. alabam- 
ensis. We measured 513 of these, which ranged in size from 1.0-10.2 
mm, with a mean value of 4.2 mm. All of the specimens fall into five 
size classes, probably from successive larval settlements in one or 
more seasons. Under natural conditions at Beaufort, North Carolina, 
B. improvisus reaches a rostro-carinal diameter of 4-5 mm in about 
20 days (Costlow and Bookhout, 1957). We estimate that nearly 
all of the present specimens are probably no less than two days 
and no more than 10 weeks old. Several individuals have reached 
a size that possibly indicates settlement during a previous season, 
and thus are much older than 10 weeks. 

Cypris larvae of intertidal and shallow water balanomorphs not 
only select a particular site for attachment but orient at settlement 
in response to either light intensity, water movement or currents, 
surface contour or texture, or a combination of these (Crisp and 
Barnes, 1954; Crisp and Stubbings, 1957). During the growth pe- 
riod after attachment the barnacle may reorient in response to water 
currents (Moore, 1933). From our study of the present specimens 
it appears that 1) settlement was wholly within the interlaminal 
grooves or in striae in the surface of the laminae, 2) apparently all 
barnacles in the same groove are similarly oriented, 3) there is no 
predominant angle of orientation with respect to the antero-pos- 
terior axis of the turtle, and 4) none of the specimens appear to 
have changed their initial orientation. 

Present evidence suggests that true turtle barnacles and whale 
barnacles orient initially in response to water currents (Crisp and 
Stubbings, 1957). In general, these barnacles adopt an orientation 
with the cirral net facing directly into the current, thereby maxi- 
mizing the fishing capabilities of the net which is employed in 
gathering food. The barnacle, however, is capable of partially ro- 
tating the net and this may account for variations in the angle of 
orientation from the antero-posterior axis of the host. Although 
much of the work on barnacle settlement has been done with arti- 
ficial, essentially planar surfaces, we believe that future studies 



176 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

should be made on models with a laminar spindle configuration. 
Use of such models would go a long way in helping to explain the 
occurrence of intertidal as well as turtle barnacles on one area of 
the host and not on another, and would also help to explain gross 
variations in orientation of the barnacles from one position to 
another on the same turtle. 

We thank A. Floyd Scott, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
University of South Alabama, Mobile, for permission to study the 
turtle, and Jack Lahr, San Diego State College Photographic Lab- 
oratories, for preparing the photograph. 

Literature Cited 
Baur, G. 1893. Notes on classification and taxonomy of the Testudinata. Proc. 

Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 31, pp. 210-225. 
Carlton, J. T., and V. A. Zullo. 1969. Early records of the barnacle Balanus 

improvisus Darwin from the Pacific Coast of North America. California 

Acad. Sci. Occ. Paper 75, pp. 1-6. 
Carr, A. F. Jr. 1940. A contribution to the herpetology of Florida. Univ. of 

Florida Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., vol. 3, no. 1, 1-118. 

. 1952. Handbook of turtles. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, 542 pp. 

Carr, A. F., and J. W. Crenshaw, Jr. 1957. A taxonomic reappraisal of the 

turtle Pseuclemys alabamensis Baur. Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 2, 

no. 3, pp. 25-42. 
Conant, R. 1958. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians. Houghton Mif- 
flin Co., Boston, 366 pp. 
Costlow, J. D., Jr., and C. E. Bookhout. 1967. Body growth versus shell 

growth in Balanus improvisus. Biol. Bull., vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 224-232. 
Crisp, D. J., and H. Barnes. 1954. The orientation and distribution of bar- 
nacles at settlement with particular reference to surface contour. Jour. 

Animal Ecol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 142-162. 
Crisp, D. J., and H. G. Stubbings. 1957. The orientation of barnacles to 

water currents. Jour. Animal Ecol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 176-196. 
Moore, H. B. 1933. Change of orientation of a barnacle after metamorphosis. 

Nature, vol. 132, pp. 969-970. 
Newman, W. A. 1967. On physiology and behavior of estuarine barnacles. 

Proc. Sympos. Crustacea, Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, pt. 3, pp. 1038-1066. 
Utinomi, H. 1966. Recent immigration of two foreign barnacles in Japanese 

waters. Proc. Japanese Soc. Syst. Zool., vol. 2, pp. 36-39. 

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State College for 
Women, Columbus, Mississippi 39701; Department of Paleontology, 
Natural History Museum, P. O. Box 1390, Balboa Park, San Diego, 
California 92112. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Synopsis of the species of Trachurus (Pisces, Carangidae) 
Frederick H. Berry and Linda Cohen 

Trachurus is one of three closely related genera (with Decap- 
terus and Selar) of the carangid subfamily Caranginae. The genus 
includes 13 species, one of which is described herein as new. It 
occurs in most of the neritic and inner oceanic areas of all tropical 
and temperate marine waters. Several species are of commercial 
importance. 

The genus and its species are diagnosed, and an analysis of 
morphological variation in certain characters is given for the single 
western Atlantic representative, Trachurus lathami. The distri- 
bution of the species is shown in Fig. 1. 

Methods and Materials 

Methods and terminology follow Berry (1968, 1969). Major 
characters used in distinguishing the 13 species are the position of 
termination of the dorsal accessory lateral line beneath the dorsal 
fin, numbers of gillrakers on the lateral side of the first gill arch, 
numbers of scales and scutes in the lateral fine, and relative heights 
of scales in the curved lateral line and scutes in the straight lateral 



TABLE 1 
Frequency distributions of numbers of dorsal softrays in Trachurus 

Species 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Mean 

lathami 

mediterraneus 

picturatus 

trecae 

trachurus 

capensis 

margaretae 

indicus 

mccullcchi 

declivis 

japonicus 1 - 

symmetricus 6 8 4 3 4 32.6 

murphyi 112 2 2 5 1 33.6 



9 


33 


45 


23 


6 


1 




30.8 


5 


4 


8 


4 


2 


- 


1 


30.9 




1 


1 


4 


6 


5 


2 


33.0 


5 


4 


1 


2 


1 






30.2 


3 


9 


5 


2 


5 






30.9 




1 


1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 32.7 


2 


2 












29.5 


1 


- 


4 


3 


1 






31.4 


1 


3 


5 


7 


1 






31.2 






1 


1 


1 


- 


1 


32.7 


- 


3 


6 


2 








30.7 



178 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Scdznces 




Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 179 

line. Other useful distinguishing characters are pectoral fin length, 
eye diameter, and body depth. 

Frequency distributions of numbers of dorsal and anal softrays 
are given in Tables 1-2, of gillrakers in Tables 3-5, and of lateral- 
line scales and scutes in Tables 6-8. Relative sizes of lateral-line 
scales and scutes are given in Table 9. The species can be identified 
by the following dichotomous key. 

A list of specimens of Trachurus examined is given at the end of 

TABLE 2 
Frequency distributions of numbers of anal softrays in Trachurus 

Species 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Mean 

lathami 

mediterraneus 

picturatus 

trecae 

trachurus 

capensis 

margaretae 

indicus I 

mccullochi 

declivis 

japonicus 

symmetricus 

murphyi 



TABLE 3 
Frequency distributions of numbers of upper limb gillrakers in Trachurus 

Species 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mean 

lathami 

mediterraneus 

picturatus 

trecae 

trachurus 

capensis 

margaretae 

indicus 

mccullochi 

declivis 

japonicus 

symmetricus 

murphyi 



4 


9 


38 


41 


22 


5 


27.6 




5 


7 


6 


1 




27.2 






3 


4 


7 


4 


28.7 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1 




26.6 


1 


5 


9 


4 


4 




27.1 






1 


2 


1 


2 


28.7 


2 


2 










25.5 


- 


- 


3 


4 


1 




27.3 


1 


1 


1 


8 


7 


1 


28.2 








2 


- 


2 


29.0 






3 


6 


4 




28.1 




2 


5 


8 


7 


2 


28.1 






2 


3 


5 


3 


1 28.9 



2 37 


49 


23 


4 






13.9 


3 


8 


4 


2 


2 




14.6 




1 


6 


4 


2 




15.5 




1 


2 


10 






15.7 






5 


9 


6 


2 


16.2 








1 


- 


1 1 


3 18.8 


1 


2 


2 


1 






14.5 








6 


2 


1 


16.4 






8 


7 


3 


1 


15.8 




1 


1 


2 






15.3 




2 


8 


3 






14.1 




1 


10 


8 


2 


2 


15.7 






1 


6 


5 


1 


16.5 



180 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



9 c 



ffl 00 H i-i 3 H H ri H O) 05 © CD 

cDCD^-^-^in^^^cDcD'^Tr 



CD I (N CN T}< in 



H f N W M H I> 



(M co in 



b- CD —t 



HH^cq 



5SI 






U X fc =* 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 



181 



° 5 





■t! 


in 




W 


Mh O 


hJ 


o OT 


pq 


S £ 


< 


03 <S 



in 



n q cq m h q in to h n q q tj< 

O ^f N N'H O W O) N Tf ri CO © 

mininincor-mmminininco 



(N l-H 

cq CD | 

l> 

ce> 

CD 

wm< r— i i— i 

i-l I CO ■ — I I 

h co n cq co cm 

n « i I t-n co in 
■— r | i— i cq cq co 

I CO Tf H i-H C5 

in co cq I i-i 



i-H •* 

cq i-i oo 



cq 



nnrf M 



£ £ 



(3 tj 

£ a 



"» S e 
8 "S « 



£ -5 £^ 



t §> £ 



182 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



li 

en 

V o 

C rQ 

c E 

C 3 



NNCDMoqoqoq ^ p in ■* o 

N CO W O) CD N lfi 00 CD M t-' M CO 

coTrmcocococococo^comin 



CD 


in 


M 

p 




M 



PQ U 



CO <N CO 

■* in in 



e a a ~ 5 

§ I 1 s -3 







co " ^2 






£S£ 






^-c ^ *-z 






« ^,^ 






in 2 n 






in "* w 






^-T --C s-Z. 






in ■— ' t> 












Tt< 00 N 






lO^W 














OB 

3 




i— i i— ( i— i 










cq co -h 


•- 


Sj 


m ^t" in 


S 


-£ 




§- 


< PQ 6 


CO 


1 





Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 



183 



co cq oq © i> p eo. so eo oq © t>_ oq 

10 oi ri iri ri co n cd to oi ■* t>" •<* 

con^onnconccconTf^ 



*~ J I 

J = o 
ffl c <u 

-sis 

o j^ 



cq co 

CD CO 

in in 



HH | HIN 



—i cq co co 10 



cq 

CD iH lO CD 

cd co r> 

00 CO CD 



« § u b a 



t£ 'O 



I -s t II 



184 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

this paper. The institutions in which they are preserved are given 
in the section on acknowledgments. 

Trachurus Rafinesque, 1810 

Trachurus Rafinesque, 1810, p. 41 (type species ? Trachurus suareus Risso in 

Cufvier and Valenciennes, 1833=T 'rachurus picturatus Bowdich, 1825). 
Brachialepes Fowler, 1938, p. 46 (type species Selar tabulae Barnard, 1927 

= Trachurus capensis (Castelnau, 1861)). 
Suareus Dardignac and Vincent in Furnestin et al., 1958, p. 444 (type species 

Suareus furnestini Dardignac and Vincent, 1958 = ? Trachurus mediter- 

raneus Steindachner, 1868). 

Diagnosis. A genus of Caranginae with teeth in a single row in 
both jaws, a narrow longitudinal band of teeth on tongue and nar- 
row band on each palatine, and vomer with a narrow anchor-shaped 
arrangement of teeth. Scales in anterior (curved) part of lateral 
line enlarged and almost scutelike. Dorsal accessory lateral line 
extending posteriad to below middle of first dorsal fin or beyond. 
First two anal spines subequal or the first one usually the longer. 
Low scaled sheath along bases of dorsal and anal softrays; scales 
on head extending anteriad above eyes, largely covering all oper- 
cular bones, suborbital area, and on expanded portion of maxillae; 
scales on membranes between anterior three or four rays of second 
dorsal and second anal fins, and scales on membranes between 
most rays of pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins. A slight furrow on 
dorsal edge of cleithral ridge, but no papillae. Anterior lobes of 
soft dorsal and anal fins relatively low. Last softray of dorsal and 
anal fins becoming displaced from rest of fin with growth in some 
species, but not forming a detached finlet. First dorsal fin with 
eight spines. Second dorsal fin with one spine and 28-37 softrays. 
Anal fin with two spines followed by one spine and 24-31 softrays. 
Gillrakers on upper limb 12-20, on lower limb 33-56. Lateral line 
scales and scutes 66-107. Branchiostegal rays, seven. Vertebrae 
10 + 14. 

Synonymy . The type species of Trachurus is uncertain, although 
most authors have cited it as T. saurus Rafinesque ( = T. trachurus 
Linneaus ) ( see Jordan, 1917, p. 79 ) . The genus was established by 
Rafinesque (1810, p. 41), who included the three species Trachurus 
Aliciolus, Trachurus Imperialis ( with Trachurus Saurus listed under 
that account ) , and Trachurus Aguilus, described on page 42 as new. 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 185 

Based on his account and his plate 11, only T. imperialis appears to 
belong to the Caranginae, and it has generally been regarded as a 
junior synonym of Caranx dentex (Bloch and Schneider 1801). 
Later, Rafinesque (1815, pp. 20-21) listed five species under Tra- 
churus. The first was "Trachurus saurus Raf. (Caraux trachurus 
Lac. Scomber trachurus Linn.)." T. saurus Rafinesque 1810 in a 
nomen nudum. If T. saurus Rafinesque 1815 were regarded as a 
replacement name for T. trachurus (Linnaeus 1758), this would 
invalidate the tautonym and first named species of the genus (as 
we now know it). T. suareus Risso 1833, was documented by 
Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes (1833, p. 33) and examination 
of the holotype (by Berry) discloses that it is a junior synoym of 
T. picturatus (Bowdich, 1825). 

Several genera of Carangidae, including the type genus Caranx 
and Trachurus, may be regarded as technically invalid, but they 
have entrenched usage and should be conserved. When the generic 
limits and the nominal species are all finally analyzed, an appeal 
for this conservation should be made. 

Key to the Species of Trachurus 

1. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad to beyond 5th dorsal 

softray 2 

Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating anterior to 5th dorsal softray 5 

2. Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below 19th-32nd dorsal 

softray _.__ 3 

Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below 6th to 10th dorsal 
softray 4 

3. Lower limb gillrakers 41-48 (Northeastern Atlantic).— trachurus 

Lower limb gillrakers 49-56 (Southeastern Atlantic) capensis 

4. Scales and scutes in curved lateral line 40-43 (Australia, New 

Zealand ) 1— .... declivis 

Scales and scutes in curved lateral line 52-58 ( Eastern Atlantic ) picturatus 

5. Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below first 3 to 6 spines of 

dorsal fin (Eastern Atlantic) trecae 

Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below 7th dorsal spine to 4th 
dorsal softray 6 

6. Total scales and scutes in lateral line 68-89 8 

Total scales and scutes in lateral line 93-107.— 7 

7. Scales in curved lateral line low, 2.3-3.1 per cent SL (Northeastern 

Pacific) symmetricus 

Scales in curved lateral line high, 4.6-5.6 percent SL (Southeastern 
Pacific) murphyi 



186 Quarterly Journal of the Florcda Academy of Sciences 

8. Scutes in straight lateral line high, 6.8-7.5 per cent SL and scales in 
curved part less high than scutes in straight part, 1.30-1.48 ratio 

( South Africa ) margaretae 

Scutes in straight lateral line low, 4.5-6.8 per cent SL, or scales in 
curved part higher than scutes in straight part 9 

9. Pectoral fin short, less than 27 per cent SL at sizes of 100 mm SL 

and larger (Eastern Atlantic) mediterraneus 

Pectoral fin more than 27 per cent SL 10 

10. Eye small at sizes greater than 165 mm SL, diameter 7.4 per cent SL 

or less (Australia, New Zealand) mccidlochi 

Eye 7.8 per cent SL or larger 11 

11. Lower gillrakers 42-47; and scutes in straight lateral line not high, 

4.8-5.4 per cent SL (Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf) indicus 

Lower gillrakers 33-40; or scutes in straight lateral line higher, 6.1- 

7.4 per cent SL __12 

12. Height of scales in curved part and scutes in straight part of lateral 
line greater, 5.5-7.0 per cent SL curved and 6.1-7.4 per cent SL 

straight (Japan and China) — japonicus 

Height of scales in curved part and scutes in straight part of lateral 
line less, 4.2-6.2 percent SL curved, 5.0-6.8 per cent SL straight 

( Western Atlantic ) lathami 

Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner) 

Caranx trachurus mediterraneus Steindachner, 1868, p. 393 (type locality 

Mediterranean Sea). 
Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev, 1956, p. 178 (type locality Black 

Sea). 
?Suareus furnestini Dardignac and Vincent in Furnestin et al, 1958, p. 445 

(type locality Morocco). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between eighth spine and third softray. Scales 
and scutes in curved part of lateral line 39-48. Total scales and 
scutes in lateral line 75-89. Height of scales or scutes in curved 
lateral line, 3.3-4.3 per cent SL; in straight lateral line 4.5-5.3 per 
cent SL. Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral-line scales 
1.15-1.47. Total gillrakers, 50-59. Pectoral length 24.5-26.5 per cent 
SL above 125 mm SL. Body depth 22.0-24.2 per cent SL. Eye 
diameter 8.2-8.8 per cent SL. 

Remarks. Conflicting opinions exist about the species and sub- 
species of Trachurus and their proper scientific names in the north- 
eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean-Black Sea area (see for example 
Tortonese 1952, Aleev 1956, Blanc and Bauchot 1961, and Slasten- 



Berry and Gohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 187 

enko 1965). We accept the opinion of Aleev (1956, p. 183) that 
Scomber lacerta Pallas 1811 is a nomen dubium. Based on the 
limited amount of material available in this study and our attempt 
to ameliorate various pronouncements in the literature, we tenta- 
tively recognize three species in the above area: trachurus, pictura- 
tus, and mediterraneus. 

Relationships. T. mediterraneus is most similar morphologically 
to lathami ( discussed under that species ) and to indicus. Compared 
to mediterraneus, indicus has a longer pectoral fin (27.2-32.5 per 
cent SL vs. 24.5-26.7 per cent SL) and a greater body depth (26.1- 
28.2 per cent SL vs. 22.0-24.2 per cent SL), but the differences in 
gross appearance of the two species suggest that they are not closely 
related phylogenetically. 

Distribution. Northeastern Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay to 
the Straights of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, Black, Marmana, 
and Azov Seas ( Aleev, 1956 ) ; to Casablanca ( if furnestini is a valid 
synonym ) . 

Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 

Seriola picturata Bowdich, 1825, p. 123, fig. 27 (type locality Madeira). 
Caranx suareus Bisso in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833, p. 33 (type locality 

Mediterranean; holotype 435 mm SL, MNHN B.869). 
Trachurus melanosaurus Cocco, 1839, p. 1. 
Caranx cuvieri Lowe, 1841, p. 183 (type locality Madeira). 
Trachurus fallax Capello, 1868, p. 318 (type locality Portugal). 
Trachurus rissoi Giglioli, 1880, p. 27. 
Decapterus longimanus Norman, 1935, p. 255, fig. 1 (type locality Tristan de 

Cunha; holotype 412 mm SL, BMNH 1935.5.2.3). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between 6th and 10th sof trays. Scales and scutes 
in curved part of lateral line 52-58. Total scales and scutes in lateral 
line 93-100. Height of scales or scutes in curved lateral line, 3.6-5.1 
per cent SL; in straight lateral line 3.9-5.4 per cent SL. Ratio of 
height of straight to curved lateral-line scales 1.03-1.21. Total gill- 
rakers 55-60. Pectoral length 23.4-29.3 per cent SL. Body depth 
18.8-22.2 per cent SL. Eye diameter 7.1-9.7 per cent SL. 

Remarks. We have not investigated the synonymy of this 
species, but follow the account of Tortonese ( 1950 ) , with the addi- 
tion of two synonyms. A direct comparison of an adequate series 



188 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

of specimens might reveal differences between those from the 
North Atlantic and those from the South Atlantic. 

Arrangement of dentition is similar in all species of the genus, 
but variation was noted in three of nine specimens of T. picturatus 
from Maderia; two had an enlarged head of the vomer (MMF 3432 
and 3859), and one had an expanded vomerine shaft ( MMF 21674). 

Relationships. The very extended dorsal accessory lateral line 
and the high number of scales and scutes in the lateral line differ- 
entiate picturatus from all other Trachurus. T. picturatus appears 
most closely related morphologically to murphyi and declivis. Sus- 
pected hybridization is discussed under the account of T. trachurus. 

Distribution. Northeast Atlantic in the Bay of Biscay, from the 
Azores to the Canary Islands, and in the Mediterranean Sea (Aleev, 
1956); southeastern Atlantic at Tristan de Cunha. 

Trachurus trecae Cadenat 

Trachurus trecae Cadenat, 1949, p. 668 (type locality Mauritania; two syn- 
types, MNHN 50-71, 158-178 mm SL). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line normally extending 
posteriad beneath dorsal fin to between the first and sixth spines. 
Scales and scutes in curved part of lateral line 36-43. Total scales 
and scutes in lateral line 71-78. Height of scales or scutes in curved 
lateral line, 2.1-2.9 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 3.2-4.0 per 
cent SL. Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral-line scales 
1.39-1.61. Total gillrakers 54-61. Pectoral length 28.3-30.3 per cent 
SL at sizes larger than 125 mm SL. Body depth 25.0-27.1 per cent 
SL. Eye diameter 8.4-9.4 per cent SL. 

Remarks. The dorsal accessory lateral line is shorter and ends 
farther forward in trecae than in other Trachurus. On the basis of 
our definition of the termination point (from beneath the anterior 
origin of a dorsal fin spine to the origin of the succeeding spine 
posteriad), 656 specimens of trecae from throughout most of its 
range had the following frequency distribution of accessory lateral- 
line terminations: 
spine position 12 3 4 5 6 

number of specimens 3 8 36 192 379 35 3. 
In the three specimens (from three separate collections) with the 
zero position, the accessory lateral line ended well anterior to the 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 189 

dorsal fin. Tabulations were taken on the left side of each fish. 
The termination on the right was usually symmetrical, but varied 
slightly in some specimens; two specimens from one collection 
lacked the line on the right side. 

Distribution. Mauritania to Angola. 



Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus) 

Scomber trachurus Linnaeus, 1758, p. 298 (type locality Mediterranean). 
Caranx semispinosus Nilsson, 1832, p. 84 (type locality Norwegian Sea). 
Trachurus europaeus Gronovius, 1854, p. 125 (type locality seas of Europe: 

holotype BMNH 1853.11.12.95, length 189 mm). 
Trachurus linnaei Malm, 1877, p. 421 (type locality Bohuslan, Sweden). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between 23rd and 31st softrays. Scales and 
scutes in curved lateral line 33-40. Total scales and scutes in lateral 
line 66-75. Height of scales or scutes in curved part of lateral 
line, 6.3-8.2 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 6.5-7.9 per cent SL. 
Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral line scale 1.05-1.23. 
Total gillrakers 56-65. Pectoral length 26.6-28.2 per cent SL at sizes 
larger than 150 mm SL. Body depth 21.6-24.1 per cent SL. Eye 
diameter 8.2-8.9 per cent SL. 

Remarks. Three of 23 specimens of Trachurus examined from 
Madeira were intermediate in appearance and in certain characters 
between the two species, trachurus and picturatus, known to occur 
there. They may represent a distinct species, but we consider them 
hybrids, especially because we have so few specimens from a single 
oceanic location. The following text-table indicates the intermedi- 
acy of the specimens we presume to be hybrids on the basis of 
ranges of four characters; number of scales and scutes in curved 
lateral line ( A ) , number of scutes in straight lateral line ( B ) , num- 
bered softray under which the accessory lateral line ends (C), and 
relative height of scales in the curved lateral line as percent SL 
(D): 





A 


B 


C 


D 


picturatus 


52-58 


39-46 


6-8 


3.6-5.1 


hybrids 


44-46 


35-38 


15-23 


5.8-6.5 


trachurus 


35-40 


31-36 


23-32 


6.3-8.2 



190 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

One hybrid (TABL 106537) has nine spines in the first dorsal 
fin and eight associated interneurals. Eight first dorsal spines and 
seven associated interneurals is the maximum number normally 
found in most species of Caranginae. In examining thousands of 
specimens of most species of the subfamily we found only one other 
specimen with nine first dorsal spines, Uraspis secunda (Poey), 
MCZ 16073. 

One specimen from Madeira (256 mm SL, MMF 3409), with a 
pug-nosed condition, had an extremely distorted and expanded 
shaft of the vomer. 

Because of our relatively small sample of specimens of trachurus, 
we have not been able to analyze the possibility of subspecies in 
this species. A clinal relationship in three meristic characters was 
evident. A comparison of six specimens from Scandinavia, 11 from 
the Mediterranean, and seven from Madeira, revealed mean in- 
creases from 32.5-33.7-34.9, respectively, in scutes in the straight 
lateral line, increases from 57.6-61.4-63.1 in total gillrakers, and in- 
creases from 56.0-57.8-59.5 in sums of dorsal and anal softrays. A 
similar trend was seen in specimens of the closely related capensis 
from Nigeria and South Africa in means of total gillrakers but not 
in other characters. 

Relationships. The eastern Atlantic trachurus. and capensis are 
the only species of the genus with the accessory lateral line extend- 
ing so far posteriad on the body ( to beneath the 19th dorsal softray 
or beyond). T. trachurus has fewer total gillrakers (56-65 vs. 66- 
76) and higher scales and scutes in the lateral line (6.3-8.2 per cent 
SL vs. 4.8-5.2 per cent SL in the curved lateral line: 6.5-7.9 per cent 
SL vs. 5.5-5.9 per cent SL in the straight lateral line). 

Distribution. Northeast Atlantic from Iceland to the Cape Verde 
Islands and Mediterranean Sea eastward to the Bosporus (Aleev, 
1956). 

Trachurus capensis Castelnau 

Trachurus capensis Castelnau, 1861, p. 43 (type locality South Africa). 
Selar tabulae Barnard, 1927, p. 538 (type locality Table Bay, South Africa; 
holotype in South African Museum, length 410 mm). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral fine extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between 19th and 27th softrays. Scales and scutes 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 191 

in curved lateral line 34-45. Total scales and scutes in lateral line 
71-79. Height of scales or scutes in curved part of lateral line, 4.8- 
5.2 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 5.5-5.9 per cent SL. Ratio 
of height of straight to curved lateral line scales 1.05-1.23. Total 
gillrakers 66-76. Pectoral length 27.7-29.7 per cent SL, above 175 
mm SL. Body depth 23.2-27.5 per cent SL. Eye diameter 7.9-8.5 
per cent SL. 

Remarks. Castelnau's name of capensis is accepted for this 
species following the opinion of Nichols ( 1920, 1935 ) . Margaret M. 
Smith ( personal communication ) informed us that the type of Bar- 
nard's tabulae had been examined by J. L. B. Smith, who found 
that it was a Trachurus. The high counts of dorsal softrays (38), 
and lower limb gillrakers (55) given for tabulae by Barnard (1927, 
p. 538) cause us to synonymize these two nominal species. 

Relationships. The relation to trachurus and differentiation of 
capensis and trachurus are discussed under that species. 

Distribution. Imperfectly known. Specimens examined by us 
from Nigeria and South Africa. Reported westward to Delagoa 
Bay by Smith ( 1961, p. 213 ) . Apparently reported from Angola ( as 
T. trachurus) by Poll (1954, p. 117). 

Trachurus margaretae, new species ( Fig. 2 ) 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between eight and ninth spines. Scales and 
scutes in curved part of lateral line 33-36. Total scales and scutes 
in lateral line 69-73. Height of scales or scutes in curved lateral 
line, 4.7-6.0 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 6.5-7.5 per cent SL. 
Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral line scales 1.09-1.48. 
Total gillrakers 52-58. Pectoral length 30.9-32.0 per cent SL at 
157-154 mm SL, 25.9 per cent SL from 89.5-123 mm SL. Body 
depth 23.2-26.1 per cent SL. Eye diameter 8.5-9.1 per cent SL. 

Material. Holotype, USNM 93661, 123 mm SL, from Durban, 
South Africa. Paratypes: USNM 153510, 3 specimens, 68.5-89.5 mm 
SL, from Knysna Estuary, South Africa; SAM 16734, 174 mm SL, 
South Africa; TABL 107267, 157 mm SL, Durban, South Africa. 

Description of the holotype. Standard length 123 mm. Caudal 
fin broken. Accessory lateral line ending under ninth dorsal spine. 
Dorsal fin VIII, 1-29. Anal fin II, 1-25. Pectoral fins 1-20 (both). 
Pelvic fins 1-5 (both). Gillrakers 16 + 41 (right side), 15 over 



192 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 




Fig. 2. Trachurus margaretae n. sp., holotype, Durban, South Africa, 
123 mm SL (USNM 93661). 



hypobranchial including one anterior rudiment. Gill filaments on 
lateral side of first arch 33+81 (right). Pseudobranch filaments 21 
(left). Branchiostegal rays 3 + 4 (both). Lateral line, curved 
(right) 30 scales and 4 scutes; curved (left), 31 scales and 3 scutes; 
straight (right), 38 scutes and 3 scales; straight (left), 39 scutes 
and 3 scales. Vertebrae 10 + 14. Measurements in per cent SL: 
head length 28.6; eye diameter 8.5; snout length 8.0; postorbital 
head length 11.5; upper jaw length 10.7; maxillary depth 3.7; body 
depth, 24.2 maximum vertical, 25.0 from first dorsal spine to pelvic 
insertion, 25.0 from ninth dorsal spine to first anal spine; pectoral 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 193 

length 25.9; pelvic length 16.2; longest dorsal spine 15.5 (3rd); 
longest dorsal softray ca. 14.0 (1st); anal spine lengths, 6.4 (1st), 
5.8 (2nd); longest anal softray ca. 13.1 (1st); maximum height of 
scales or scutes in curved lateral line 5.8, in straight lateral line, 7.5. 
Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral line scales 1.29. Ratio 
of lengths of curved to straight lateral line 0.70 (both). 

Remarks. Two species occur in South African waters and two 
available names exist for Trachurus from that area. The later 
named species ( tabulae of Barnard ) is not this new species, especi- 
ally in view of the high lower limb gillraker count (55) given in 
the original description. The first named species (capensis of 
Castelnau ) has such an imprecise description ( and we do not know 
if a type specimen exists) that we relate it to the more common 
species from South Africa, as has been done previously. We there- 
fore describe the rarer T. margaretae as new. 

Distribution. Currently known only from Durban and Knysna 
Estuary, South Africa. 

Name. Named in honor of Margaret Mary Smith, Director, J. 
L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology. 

Trachurus indicus Necrassov 

Trachurus mediterraneus indicus Necrassov, 1966, p. 141 (type locality off 
Oman, Arabian Sea). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between seventh and eighth spines. Scales and 
scutes in curved part of lateral line 37-41. Total scales and scutes 
in lateral line 72-79. Height of scales or scutes in lateral line, 3.6- 
5.1 per cent SL curved, 4.8-5.4 per cent SL straight. Ratio of height 
of straight to curved lateral line scales 1.06-1.34. Total gillrakers 
58-65. Pectoral length 29.9-32.5 per cent SL, at sizes larger than 
168 mm SL. Body depth 26.1-28.2 per cent SL. Eye diameter 8.5- 
10.1 per cent SL. 

Remarks. In one specimen ( TABL 105998 ) the accessory lateral 
line is abnormally bent near its termination on each side of the 
body; it ends abnormally short under the first spine on the right 
side and under the fourth spine on the left. 

Relationships. Discussed under the account of mediterraneus. 

Distribution. Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. 



194 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Trachurus mccullochi Nichols 

Trachurus mccullochi Nichols, 1920, p. 479 (type locality Australian seas; 
description based on account of McCulloch, 1915). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between eighth spine and second dorsal softray. 
Scales and scutes in curved part of lateral line 34-39. Total scales 
and scutes in lateral line 71-77. Height of scales or scutes in curved 
lateral line, 4.8-6.9 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 5.0-7.3 per 
cent SL. Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral line scales 
0.98-1.18. Total gillrakers 53-61. Pectoral length 27.2-29.7 per cent 
SL at sizes larger than 110 mm SL. Body depth 21.3-26.3 per cent 
SL. Eye diameter 8.0-9.7 per cent SL on specimens 78-160 mm SL, 
6.4-7.2 on three specimens 166-252 mm SL. 

Remarks. Our material is in relatively poor condition and in- 
sufficient for a thorough definition of this species. The three largest 
specimens are certainly distinctive. The 16 smaller specimens 
( which have relatively larger eyes ) are assigned to this species, but 
they are morphologically more similar to japonicus of the northwest 
Pacific. 

Relationships. T. mccullochi may be a southern hemisphere cog- 
nate of japonicus, but it has a larger eye than that species at sizes 
larger than about 220 mm SL. It is differentiated from lathami 
under the account of that species. 

Distribution. Australia and New Zealand. 

Trachurus declivis (Jenyns) 

Caranx declivis Jenyns 1841, p. 68 (type locality King George's Sound, New 
Holland, holotype BMNH 1917.7.14.30, 163 mm SL). 

Trachurus novae zealandiae Richardson, 1842, p. 21 (type locality New Zea- 
land; description based on the vernacular "Le saurel de la Nouvelle-Ze- 
lande" by Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833, p. 26). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between sixth to tenth softrays. Scales and scutes 
in curved lateral fine 40-43. Total scales and scutes in lateral fine 
81-82. Height of scales or scutes in curved part of lateral line, 7.5- 
8.0 per cent SL; in straight lateral fine, 6.8-7.4 per cent SL. Ratio 
of height of straight to curved lateral-line scales 0.85-1.00. Total 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 195 

gillrakers 53-55. Pectoral length ca. 25.0-28.0 per cent SL. Body 
depth 22.0-23.1 per cent SL. Eye diameter ca. 7.0-8.3 per cent SL. 

Remarks. Examinatin of the holotype (by Berry) confirms the 
identity of this species; the dorsal accessory lateral line is difficult 
to discern in the somewhat damaged specimen but apparently ends 
under the 10th dorsal softray on the left side and under the 9th on 
the right. 

Distribution. Australia and New Zealand. 

Trachurus japonicus (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Caranx trachurus japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, 1844, p. 109 (type locality 

Japan ) . 
Trachurus argenteus Wakiya, 1924, p. 145 (type locality Amakusa, Japan; 

paratype FMNH 59421, 285 mm SL). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between ninth spine and second softray. Scales 
and scutes in curved part of lateral line 36-39. Total scales and 
scutes in lateral fine 69-73. Height of scales or scutes in lateral fine, 
5.5-7.0 per cent SL curved, 6.1-7.4 per cent SL straight. Ratio of 
height of straight to curved lateral line scales 0.98-1.24. Total gill- 
rakers 51-56. Pectoral length 28.9-30.9 per cent SL at 227 mm SL 
and larger. Body depth 24.6-26.6 per cent SL at 227 mm SL and 
larger. Eye diameter 7.8-8.3 per cent SL at 227 mm and larger. 

Relationships. T. japonicus appears to be closest morphological- 
ly to the most geographically distant species, lathami, but the sim- 
ilarity may represent parallel evolution of morphological characters 
in similar ecotypes. It is also similar to mccullochi. See under the 
accounts of those two species. 

Distribution. Japan and China. 

Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres) 

Caranx symmetricus Ayres, 1855, p. 62 (type locality San Francisco Bay, 
California ) . 

Decapterus polyaspis Walford and Myers, 1944, p. 45 (type locality off Reeds- 
port, Oregon; holotype SU 14375, 380 mm SL). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between eighth spine and second softray. Scales 



196 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

and scutes in curved part of lateral line 46-56. Total scales and 
scutes in lateral line 93-107. Height of scales or scutes in curved 
lateral line, 2.3-3.1 per cent SL; in straight lateral line, 3.9-4.4 per 
cent SL. Ratio of height of straight to curved lateral line scales 
1.29-1.73. Total gillrakers 54-59. Pectoral length 24.4-25.9 per cent 
SL above 145 mm SL. Body depth 19.2-21.5 per cent SL. Eye 
diameter 7.6-8.6 per cent SL. 

Relationships. T. symmetricus and murphyi appear to be an 
antitropical species pair; they may be separated by the smaller 
scales and scutes in the lateral line of symmetricus and its fewer 
average number of gillrakers on the lower limb. 

Distribution. Alaska to southern Baja California, Mexico, and 
the Gulf of California. 

Trachurus murphyi Nichols 

Trachurus murphyi Nichols, 1920, p. 479 (type locality Central Island of the 
Chimchas, Peru; putative neotype AMNH 7259, 296 mm). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral line extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between first and fifth sof trays. Scales and scutes 
in curved part of lateral line 52-56. Total scales and scutes in lateral 
line 94-106. Height of scales or scutes in lateral line, 4.6-5.6 per 
cent SL curved, 4.8-5.7 per cent SL straight. Ratio of height of 
straight to curved lateral line scales 0.98-1.07. Total gillrakers 58- 
63. Pectoral length 30.2-32.1 per cent SL at sizes larger than 180 
mm SL. Body depth 20.5-24.0 per cent SL. Eye diameter 8.0-9.1 
per cent SL to about 300 mm SL, decreasing to ca. 6.3 per cent SL 
at sizes larger than 400 mm SL. 

Remarks. The type specimens of murphyi have been confused. 
Nichols (1920:478) mentioned having two specimens from Peru in 
the American Museum of Natural History when he described the 
species as new, and he listed the "type" as AMNH 7259. The 
AMNH catalog lists the holotype under this number and presum- 
ably the second specimen as AMNH 7260. With the assistance of C. 
Lavett Smith, three unlabeled or mislabeled AMNH specimens 
were examined by Berry; they were the only three AMNH speci- 
mens that could be regarded as types of murphyi. One measuring 
256 mm bore a paper label with the number "7260" inside the 
operculum, but because that specimen appeared to be japonicus, it 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 197 

was assigned a new number. A 295-mm specimen, with the tail 
broken off and no label, is murphyi and is associated with AMNH 
7260. An unlabeled 296-mm specimen with a damaged and over- 
grown area of scutes on the straight lateral line of the left side fits 
the brief description of the species by Nichols. That specimen is 
assigned AMNH 7259 and is herein designated as the putative neo- 
type of T. murphyi (in the sense of Whitehead, Boeseman, and 
Wheeler, 1966, pp. 14-15). 

Relationships. T. murphyi is most closely related morphological- 
ly and geographically to T. symmetricus, which see. T. murphyi is 
intermediate between the seven species that have the dorsal acces- 
sory lateral line ending close to the first and second dorsal fins and 
declivis of Australia and picturatus of the eastern Atlantic; murphyi 
appears to be an ecotype of picturatus in that it has a large number 
of scutes in the lateral line. 

Distribution. Off northern Peru to south-central Chile. 

Trachurus lathami Nichols ( Fig. 3 ) 

Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920, p. 479 (type locality Long Island, New 

York; holotype AMNH 7351, 96 mm SL). 
Trachurus picturatus binghami Nichols, 1940, p. 2 (type locality off Mobile 

Bay, Alabama; holotype AMNH 15212, 73 mm SL). 
Trachurus picturatus australis, Nani, 1950, p. 178 (type locality Quequen, 

Argentina; holotype SIMACN 4175, 188.5 mm TL). 

Diagnosis. Dorsal accessory lateral fine extending posteriad be- 
neath dorsal fin to between eight spine and fourth softray. Scales 
and scutes in curved lateral line 31-42. Total scales and scutes in 
lateral line 68-77. Height of scales or scutes in curved lateral line, 
4.2-6.2 per cent SL; in straight lateral line 5.0-6.8 per cent SL. Ratio 
of height of straight to curved lateral-line scales 1.08-1.28. Total 
gillrakers on lateral side of first arch 46-54. Pectoral length 26.8- 
32.8 per cent SL at sizes larger than 100 mm SL. Body depth 24.2- 
27.5 per cent SL. Eye diameter 7.8-10.0 per cent SL; 7.8-9.2 per 
cent SL at sizes larger than 200 mm SL. 

Remarks. Many subjective species synonyms have been prolifer- 
ated in certain groups of the Carangidae. Most of these are from 
specimens of wide-ranging species collected in diverse places by 
earlier workers. The reverse has been true of the genus Trachurus, 



198 Quarterly Journal of the Flortoa Academy of Sciences 




Fig. 3. Trachurus lathami Nichols, Trinidad, 266 mm SL, 12.3 inches 
total length (TABL 101836). 

where the first-named species, T. trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), 
which occurs only in the northeastern Atlantic, often has been un- 
critically assigned a world-wide distribution. During the last 40 
years, Trachurus has been reported in the western Atlantic under 
the following names: T. trachurus, T. declivis, T. lathami, T. pic- 
turatus, T. picturatus binghami, T. picturatus australis, and two or 
three species have been considered to exist in the western Atlantic 
by several authors ( as Nichols, 1940 and Nani, 1950 ) . 

No account that lists species other than lathami from the western 
Atlantic is sufficiently convincing to justify the existence of any 
other species than lathami there. We suspect that the high total 
lateral-line scale counts (76-87) "estimated in 8 specimens of 27 to 
35 mm." from the western Atlantic by Nichols (1940) are in error. 
All specimens we examined from the western Atlantic represent a 
single species, and we presume that lathami is the only species of 
Trachurus that occurs in the area. 

We regard the poor description of Caranxom plumierianus 
Lacepede (1802, p. 82, pi. 2), based on a drawing by Plumier from 
Martinique, to be a nomen nudum. Jordan and Evermann ( 1896, 
p. 911) suggested that it might represent a western Atlantic Tra- 
churus. It might be equally well postulated that the description is 
a species of Decapterus, Selar, or Caranx. 

Relationships. T. lathami is morphologically most similar to 
three other species. T. mediterraneus has a shorter pectoral fin 
(24.5-26.7 per cent SL vs. 26.8-32.8 per cent SL for lathami, each 
for specimens larger than 100 mm SL) and a less deep body (22.0- 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 199 

24.2 per cent SL vs. 24.2-27.5 per cent SL). T. mccullochi, at 
sizes greater than 200 mm SL, has a smaller eye (ca. 6.4-7.2 per 
cent SL vs. 7.8-9.2 per cent SL for lathami), a more pointed head 
profile, and averages a lesser body depth. T. japonicus is the species 
most distant geographically and most similar morphologically to 
lathami; japonicus averages a slightly greater height of curved and 
straight lateral-line scales (Table 9). 

Distribution. From the Gulf of Maine to northern Argentina. 
We have examined specimens from off Massachusetts, New York, 
North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Texas, Mexico (Tabasco and Campeche), Colombia, Venezuela, 
Trinidad, Grenadines, Surinam, French Guiana, Brazil (Sao Paulo), 
and Argentina ( Rio de la Plata ) . 

Variation in Trachurus lathami 

Dorsal and anal fin spines. The dorsal fin had 8+1 spines and 
the anal 2 + 1 spines in all 115 specimens counted. The third dorsal 
spine is the longest, measuring about 12.8-14.9 per cent SL. The 
first anal spine is normally longer than the second and measures 
about 4.2-5.8 per cent SL at smaller sizes, decreasing to about 3.5- 
4.2 per cent SL at sizes larger than 200 mm SL. 

Dorsal and anal softrays. The numbers of dorsal and anal soft- 
rays are positively correlated, with a mode at D31-A28 (Table 10). 
The number of dorsal softrays is usually three more than the num- 
ber of anal softrays, and ranges from one to seven more. The in- 
dividual frequency distributions are shown in Tables 1-2. The first 
softray of the dorsal and anal fins is usually the longest in each fin. 
The first dorsal softray ranges 12.2-14.5 per cent SL at smaller sizes 
decreasing to almost 11.5 per cent SL above 200 mm SL. The first 
anal softray ranges about 10.8-13.3 per cent SL. 

Pectoral fins. Each pectoral fin consists of one spine at its dorsal 
origin and 19-20 softrays. The number of softrays is usually the 
same on each side of a fish, but bilateral variation does occur ( 15.2 
per cent of 66 specimens). Seven of the ten bilaterally variable 
specimens had one less ray in the left fin than the right. The fol- 
lowing frequencies of softrays were obtained: 19 both (2), 19-20 
(4), 20 both (46), 20-21 (6), 21 both (8). 

The pectorals are blunter at smaller sizes and the fin length is 
about 20-22.5 per cent SL at 19-50 mm SL. The fins become longer 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



11 

I! 



*£ 



00 

u e s 

_l -O H3 

« s i 

< § a 

H P 8 



co co od tj! d o* cq ■* « h h 6 i> 

t^C0O>t>t>t>t>t-I>00I>©05 



cd§ 



c c 



t- —I 


CO CO CO — I — I 


zl 


—I —I | CO | 


CO 

co 


CO I I f M h- 


oo 

CO 


« (M H H H m 


PH 


rtt-ei I ~f 



E 2 



1-2* 



■5 § ts § § 









r-1 






CO 


c 


C3 
















i-H 
















o 


















o 




















<— ( 


1—1 


































o 
















CO 


o 


o 
































a> 


















a> 


^_£ 


,— C 














" 


C5 


in 














CO 


oo 


co 














00 


03 


03 














02 


^_; 


^4! 














^_c 


~H 


CO 














CD 


[~ 


t- 














t» 


03 


03 














a> 


_c 


^C 














s-Z 


1— 1 


i— I 


































-r 


BO 














CD 


05 


03 














CX> 


„ 


„ 




























^ 




^^ 


Cl 


cq 






















-c 




C9 


u 




- - 


CO 


-r 


5 


,3 


jg 




to 


3) 


co 

OS 


C5 


32 


'3 


"a 
u 
u 




5 


g. 


< ffl ... 


"S 




^ 


5 


3 








c 


s 


.e 


09 


g 









Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 201 

and pointed between about 55 and 95 mm SL, and are falcate 
(28.5-32.5 per cent SL) above 140 mm SL. In Fig. 4 average values 
are suggested, which were determined by a visual fit; 20.6 per cent 
SL at 20-40 mm SL, 23.7 per cent SL at 50-75 mm SL, and 30.2 per 
cent SL at 115-300 mm SL. 

Pelvic fins. Each pelvic fin has one spine at its lateral origin 
and five softrays (71 specimens). Pelvic fins averaged a greater 
length at smaller body sizes (16-18.2 per cent SL to 100 mm SL; 
14-16.2 per cent above 170 mm SL). 

Gillrakers. Gillraker numbers of the upper and lower limbs of 
the lateral side of the first arch tend toward a positive correlation, 
with a mode at U14-L36 (Table 11). The individual frequency dis- 
tributions are shown in Tables 3-4 and the combined counts of both 
limbs for individual specimens in Table 5. 



TABLE 9 
Relation of maximum heights of scutes in curved and straight parts of the 
lateral line in Trachurus. Shown as ranges of per cent of standard length for 
both straight and curved part scutes and as ranges of ratio of straight scute 
height divided by curved. 



Species 


Curved 


Straight 


Ratio 


lathami 


4.2-6.2 


5.0-6.8 


1.08-1.28 


mediterraneus 


3.3-4.3 


4.5-5.3 


1.15-1.47 


picturatus 


3.6-5.1 


3.9-5.4 


1.03-1.21 


trecae 


2.1-2.9 


3.2-4.0 


1.39-1.61 


trachurus 


6.3-8.2 


6.5-7.9 


0.96-1.15 


capensis 


4.8-5.2 


5.5-5.9 


1.05-1.23 


margaretae 


4.7-6.0 


6.5-7.5 


1.09-1.48 


indicus 


3.6-5.1 


4.8-5.4 


1.06-1.34 


mccullochi 


4.8-6.9 


5.0-7.3 


0.98-1.18 


declivis 


7.5-8.0 


6.8-7.4 


0.85-1.00 


japonicus 


5.5-7.0 


6.1-7.4 


0.98-1.24 


symmetricus 


2.3-3.1 


3.9-4.4 


1.29-1.73 


murphyi 


4.6-5.6 


4.8-5.7 


0.98-1.07 



A single rudimentary gillraker on the anterior end of either the 
upper or lower limb of the lateral side of the first arch was found 
in 25.4 per cent of 126 specimens; 5 had the rudiment on the upper 
limb and 27 had the rudiment on the lower limb. 

Numbers of gillrakers over the hypobranchial portion of the low- 
er limb for 118 specimens ranged 11 (10), 12 (47), 13 (40), 14 



202 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

TABLE 10 
Frequency distributions of numbers of dorsal and anal softrays, correlated for 
individual specimens of Trachurus lathami 



Anal softrays 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


30 






1 


1 


2 


1 




29 






1 


7 


12 


2 


1 


28 






12 


19 


6 


2 




27 


1 


6 


10 


13 


3 






26 


1 


2 


5 


2 








25 


2 






2 








24 






1 


1 









(17), 15 (3), 16 (1). The ceratobranchial counts ranged 21 (3), 
22 (4), 23 (46), 24 (38), 25 (22), 26 (5). Apparently there is 
only slight positive correlation between hypobranchial and cerato- 
branchial numbers of gillrakers. A dual mode for combined counts 
occurs at H12-C23 and H13-C23. 

Gillraker numbers apparently do not change as body length in- 
creases between 60-305 mm SL. 

Lateral line. The point of junction of the curved (anterior) part 
of the lateral line with the straight (posterior) part is usually below 
the eighth or ninth dorsal softray, ranging from the sixth to the 
tenth softray. The junction is often bilaterally asymmetrical, end- 
ing from 1-4 softrays farther forward on one side than the other 
(this variation seems to be random, right or left). 

The chord of the curved part of the lateral line (33-38.5 per 
cent SL ) is shorter than the length of the straight part ( 39-45.5 per 
cent SL), and the lateral-line ratio ranges about 1.1-1.35. A slight 
bilateral variation in the lengths of each part is apparently random. 

Scales (non-scutellated) in the curved part of the lateral line 
range 29-39 with the following frequencies: 29 (3), 30 (2), 31 (13), 
32 (11), 33 (17), 34 (19), 35 (20), 36 (12), 37 (3), 38 (0),39 (1); 
counts from both sides of 50 specimens showed 17 with the same 
number on each side, 21 with one more scale on one side, 11 with 2 
more scales, and 1 with 3 more scales. Bilateral variation was ap- 
parently random, right or left. The posterior end of the curved later- 
al line has zero to nine scutes (pointed) with the following 
frequencies: (1), 1 (6), 2 (11), 3 (28), 4 (30), 5 (14), 6 (7), 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 203 

TABLE 11 
Frequency distributions of numbers of upper and lower limb gillrakers, corre- 
lated for individual specimens of Trachurus lathami 











Lower limb gillrakers 








Upper limb 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 38 


39 


40 


41 


16 








1 


1 2 








15 




6 


6 


6 


2 7 


3 






14 






9 


20 


10 7 


2 


2 




13 


1 


3 


15 


9 


5 4 


1 




1 


12 




2 















7(0), 8(1), 9(1); counts from both sides of 51 specimens showed 

20 with the same number on each side, 22 with one more scute on 
one side, 8 with 2 more scutes, and 1 with 3 more scutes, and the 
variation was apparently bilaterally random. Frequency distribu- 
tion of the sum of scales and scutes in the curved lateral line is 
shown in Table 6. The relation between the numbers of scales and 
scutes in the curved lateral line for individual fish appears to be 
inversely correlated; higher scale counts are associated with lower 
scute counts. 

Frequency distribution of the numbers of scutes in the straight 
lateral line is shown in Table 7. Counts of straight lateral line scutes 
of 58 specimens showed 18 with the same number on each side, 26 
with one more scute on one side, 8 with 2 more, 4 with 3 more, 1 
with 4 more, and 1 with 5 more. This bilateral variation is appar- 
ently random; 19 specimens have more scutes on the left side and 

21 specimens have more scutes on the right side. 

The pored scales of the lateral line terminate over the median 
caudal fin rays. The one to four scales ( lacking points and thickness 
of scutes), which form the end of the lateral line [1 (12), 2 (26), 
3 ( 24 ) , 4 ( 6 ) ] , are frequently lost in preserved specimens and thus 
were not included in the counts of straight lateral line of the total 
lateral line. 

Frequency distribution of the total number of scales and scutes 
in both parts of the lateral line ( excluding the 1-4 terminal scales ) 
are shown in Table 8. Bilateral variation (apparently random) oc- 
curs in this total count; in 57 specimens 11 have the same count on 



204 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



TABLE 12 
Frequency distributions of character index sums for dorsal-anal softrays, 
upper-lower limb gillrakers, and scales-scutes in the lateral line for Trachurus 
lathami, grouped by geographic area. 



Dorsal-anal softrays 




53 54 


55 


56 


57 


58 59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


Mean 


Atlantic U. S. 






4 


5 


9 5 


3 


6 


2 


2 


58.9 


Gulf U. S. 


1 


1 


3 


1 


5 10 


5 


5 


- 


1 


58.8 


Mexico 






1 


1 


1 3 


2 


2 


1 




59.3 


Colombia-Surinam 




3 


5 


5 


8 6 


3 


2 






57.8 


Brazil-Argentina 


2 1 


- 


- 


2 


2 










55.7 










Upper-lower limb 


gillrakers 










46 


37 


48 


49 50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


Mean 


Atlantic U. S. 




1 


2 


7 


4 9 


3 


5 


3 


1 


49.9 


Gulf U. S. 








4 


4 13 


6 


2 


3 


2 


50.4 


Mexico 






1 


- 


3 3 


- 


- 


2 


1 


50.4 


Colombia-Surinam 




2 


- 


4 


7 6 


8 


4 


2 


1 


50.1 


Brazil-Argentina 










1 


2 


1 


- 


3 


52.3 










Seal 


les-scutes 


in lateral line 








68 


69 


70 


71 


72 73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


Mean 


Atlantic U. S. 




1 


5 


4 


11 6 


3 


2 






72.0 


Gulf U. S. 






3 


3 


6 4 


2 


1 


1 




72.3 


Mexico 






2 


1 


2 1 


1 


1 






72.1 


Colombia-Surinam 








2 


6 10 


5 


3 


3 


1 


73.5 


Brazil-Argentina 


1 


- 


- 


1 


3 2 










71.6 



both sides, 23 have one more scale or scute on one side, 15 have 2 
more, 6 have 3 more, and 2 have 4 more. 

Branchiostegal rays. Three ceratohyal and four epihyal rays on 
both sides of 41 specimens. 

Vertebrae. Ten precaudal and fourteen caudal centra in 21 
specimens. 

Body proportions. Head length about 27.6-32.8 per cent SL, de- 
creasing slightly above 200 mm SL. Snout length about 8.3-11.4 per 
cent SL. Eye diameter about 7.8-10.0 per cent SL, decreasing to 
less than 9.2 per cent SL at sizes larger than 200 mm SL. Postorbital 
head length about 10.0-13.8 per cent SL, decreasing slightly at 
larger sizes. Upper jaw length about 10.7-12.9 per cent SL. Maxi- 
mum depth of upper jaw about 2.8-3.8 per cent SL. Body depth 
(maximum vertical) 24.2-27.5 per cent SL, average of about 25 per 
cent SL (Fig. 4). 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 



205 




60 100 UO 180 220 

STANDARD LENGTH (mm) 



Fig. 4. Relation of body depth (maximum vertical) and pectoral fin 
length for Trachurus lathami. The regression lines and per cent SL values 
were determined visually. 



Geographic variation. Several meristic characters suggest shifts 
of values by area of capture. Three character index values are used 
in Table 12 to illustrate this suggestion, although the samples avail- 
able from different areas are insufficient to define or suggest the 
possible existence of subpopulations. Tabulations of the three char- 
acters disclose that specimens from the United States and Mexico 
are generally similar. 

Counts of the sums of dorsal and anal softrays disclose that the 
Colombia-Surinam sample averages more than one ray less than 
the North American sample; the Brazil-Argentina sample averages 
two rays less than the former. These counts suggest a decreasing 
cline from north to south. 



206 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Counts of the sums of upper limb and lower limb gillrakers 
show that the U.S. -Mexico and the Colombia-Trinidad samples are 
similar, but that the Brazil-Argentina sample has two or more addi- 
tional gillrakers, which suggests a south temperate shift. 

Counts of the sums of scales and scutes in the lateral line reveal 
that the Colombia-Surinam sample has the highest average value, 
which suggests a parabolic cline with increasing values in higher 
latitudes. 

Acknowledgments 

This research was conducted through the Systematics of Fishes 
Program of the Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory (TABL). 
It was sponsored in part by the Laboratory Research Program of 
Dade County Public Schools coordinated by James F. Miley. Phil- 
lip C. Heemstra, Tomio Iwamoto, and Grady W. Reinert of the 
TABL staff assisted in the research and preparation of the report. 

We are grateful to the following individuals and institutions for 
providing information on specimens and making specimens avail- 
able: Marie L. Bauchot, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
(MNHN); Heraldo A. Britski, Departamento de Zoologia Sao 
Paulo (DZSP); Harvey R. Bullis, USBCF Exploration and Gear 
Research Base, Pascagoula; Daniel M. Cohen and Bruce B. Collette, 
USBCF Systematics Laboratory, Washington; William N. Esch- 
meyer, California Academy of Sciences; Warren C. Freihofer and 
George S. Meyers, Stanford University (SU); Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. 
and Stanley H. Weitzman, U. S. National Museum (USNM); Carter 
R. Gilbert, University of Florida (UF); P. H. Greenwood and Peter 
J. P. Whitehead, British Museum of Natural History (BMNH); 
Leslie W. Knapp, Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center; G. 
E. Maul, Museu Municipal do Funchan (MMF); Giles W. Mead, 
Tyson Roberts, and Myvanwy Dick, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology ( MCZ ) ; J0rgen Nielsen, Universitetets Zoologiske Mu- 
seum (ZMC); M. J. Penrith and Frank H. Talbot, South African 
Museum (SAM); C. Richard Robins, Rosenstiel School of Marine 
and Atmospheric Sciences (UMML); Donn C. Rosen and C. Lavett 
Smith, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH); Margaret 
M. Smith, J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology; and Loren P. 
Woods, Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH). 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 207 



Specimens Examined 

Trachurus mediterraneus (26 specimens, 60.5-156 mm SL): Europe, 
USNM 3563, 1 (116). Italy, AMNH 1508, 1 (95). Sebastopol, USNM 37248, 
1 (127). Lebanon, TABL 104857, 6 (135-156); TABL 104707, 11 (60.5-135). 
Black Sea, UMML 22344, 1 (74); MCZ 41942, 5 (86.5-149). 

Trachurus picturatus (19 specimens, 95-435 mm SL): Azores, MCZ 16921, 
1 (95); MCZ 16922, 1 (98). Madeira, TABL 105887, 5 (150-356); MMF 
3858, 1 (240); MMF 3859, 1 (233); MMF 21674, 1 (204); MMF 3432, 1 
(158); MMF 4616, 1 (154); MMF 3421, 1 (152); MMF 8860, 1 (144); MMF 
3861, 1 (139); MMF 3430, 1 (113). France (Nice, MNHN B.869, 1 (415) 
holotype of Caranx suareus. Tristan de Cunha, BMNH 1935.5.2.3, 1 (412) 
holotype of Decapterus longimanus; BMNH 1927.12.6.76, 1 (412). 

Trachurus trachurus X T. picturatus (3 specimens, 146-200 mm SL): 
TABL 106537, 1 (146); MMF 5207, 1 (200); MMF 5305, 1 (192). 

Trachurus trecae ( 528 specimens, 29-225 mm SL ) : Mauritania, MNHN 
50-71, 2 (158-178) syntypes of T. trecae. Guinea, TABL 103676, 10 (147- 
194); TABL 103681, 11 (121-148); TABL 103664, 2 (104-163); TABL 
103672, 13 (114-124); TABL 102873, 1 (157). Ivory Coast, TABL 102762, 

1 (103). Ghana, TABL 105446, 3 (110-122); TABL 105440, 4 (111-151); 
TABL 105441, 1 (99); TABL 105440, 1 (108); TABL 103629, 3 (101-115). 
Dahomey, UMML 16398, 14 (89-109); UMML 16586, 1 (119); UMML 
16783, 4 (83-97). Nigeria, TABL 102764, 3 (129-134); TABL 102768, 1 
(110); UMML 21320, 1 (125); UMML 15792, 17 (90-101); UMML 16033, 

2 (91-107). Cameroon, TABL 102776, 3 (140-200). Gabon, TABL 102785, 
8 (102-182); TABL 102787, 9 (124-144); TABL 105445, 1 (147); TABL 
102781, 6 (120-140); TABL 103686, 7 (114-123); TABL 103684, 2 (117- 
126); TABL 102786, 4 (117-123); TABL 103691, 1 (120); TABL 103687, 5 
(110-119); TABL 105442, 6 (128-152). Congo, TABL 103688, 1 (120); TABL 
103689, 1 (111); TABL 105443, 11 (29-44); TABL 103666, 3 (103-107). 
Angola, TABL 102791, 6 (180-225); TABL 102792, 4 (181-210); TABL 
102790, 5 (160-190); TABL 103695, 102 (78-117); TABL 103784, 62 (54- 
153); TABL 103783, 36 (58-197); TABL 103722, 104 (89-184); TABL 
103271, 41 (71-172); TABL 105864, 1 (214); TABL 105867, 4 (155-176). 

Trachurus trachurus (32 specimens, 44.5-273 mm SL): Norway, USNM 
23047, 2 (44.5-67); USNM 22067, 2 (45-68); MCZ 2968, 2 (65.5-75.5). 
Denmark, USNM 39766, 1 (80). Spain (Cadiz), MCZ 22468-9, 2 (153-156). 
Italy, AMNH 7181, 2 (131-133). Lebanon, TABL 104887, 14 (63-95). Ma- 
deira, MMF 157, 1 (174); MMF 2733, 1 (160); MMF 3016, 1 (252); MMF 
3207, 1 (273); MMF 3409, 1 (256); MMF 3831, 1 (121); MMF 4052, 1 
(149). 

Trachurus capensis (6 specimens, 175-342 mm SL): Nigeria, TABL 103663, 

3 (209-242). South Africa, SAM 11915, 1 (175); SAM 11920, 1 (272); SAM 
11947, 1 (342). 

Trachurus margaretae (6 specimens, 68.5-175 mm SL): South Africa, 
USNM 153510, 3 (68.5-99); USNM 93661, 1 (123) holotype of T. marga- 
retae; SAM 16734, 1 (174); TABL 107267, 1 (175). 



208 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sconces 

Trachnrus indicus (9 specimens, 89-176 mm SL): Oman, TABL 105384, 
3 (168-176); TABL 105998, 1 (174); TABL 106517, 2 (89-103). Persian 
Gulf, ZMC CN. 3-5, 3 (118-126). 

Trachurus mccullochi ( 19 specimens, 78-252 mm SL ) : Australia, New 
South Wales, USNM 48810, 2 (111-120); USNM 59919, 10 (99-160); USNM 
83046, 1 (124); USNM 148618, 1 (100); USNM 177110, 2 (78-131). New 
Zealand, USNM 83061, 1 (252); USNM 177075, 2 (166-227). 

Trachurus declivis (4 specimens, 163-270 mm SL): Australia, BMNH 
1917.7.14.30, 1 (163) holotype of Caranx declivis; USNM 177009, 1 (164). 
New Zealand, USNM 177075, 2 (205-270). 

Trachurus japonicus (13 specimens, 70-295 mm SL): Japan, FMNH 59421, 
1 (285) holotype of T. argenteus; AMNH 26826, 6 (118-128). China, TABL 
107255, 1 (227); TABL 107256, 1 (295); USNM 130405, 1 (215); USNM 
130608, 1 (254); MCZ 26324, 2 (70-76.5). 

Trachurus symmetricus (26 specimens, 104-525 mm SL): Oregon, SU 
14375, 1 (380) holotype of Decapterus polyaspis; USNM 143676, 1 (392) 
paratype of D. polyaspis. California, TABL 106328, 7 (303-490). Mexico, Baja 
California, TABL 105868, 1 (148); TABL 105876, 6 (120-179); TABL 
105875, 3 (104-107); TABL 105871, 1 (141); TABL 105876, 6 (132-225); 
TABL 106329, 1 (525). 

Trachurus murphyi (17 specimens, 94-552 mm SL): Peru, AMNH 7859, 
1 (296) putative neotype of T. murphyi; AMNH 7260, 1 (295); TABL 
105862, 1 (176); TABL 103720, 3 (361-418); TABL 103718, 2 (378-392); 
TABL 104487, 1 (169); TABL 104481, 1 (200). Chile, TABL 103719, 4 
(126-270); TABL 104690, 1 (94); TABL 105587, 2 (548-552). 

Trachurus lathami (142 specimens, 19-305 mm SL); Massachusetts, MCZ 
37141, 1 specimen (91 mm SL). New York, AMNH 7351, 1 (96) holotype of 
T. lathami. North Carolina, TABL 105058, 1 (147); TABL 103653, 1 (115). 
Georgia, USNM 198978, 2 (132-134), TABL 105053, 2 (96.5-102). Florida 
Atlantic, TABL 103656, 3 (54.0-71.5); TABL 105056, 4 (120-145); TABL 
105066, 1 (35); TABL 105065, 3 (19-33); TABL 105436, 24 (122-146); 
TABL 103597, 2 (47.8-50.5). Florida Gulf, USNM 198972, 1 (106); USNM 
199025, 1 (60); USNM 198985, 2 (146-152); USNM 198981, 7 (62.5-71.5); 
TABL 106581, 3 (116-123); USNM 198980, 5 (55-73); UF uncat, 1 (150). 
Alabama, AMNH 15212, 1 (73) holotype of T. picturatus binghami. (87 
specimens, 57.5-305 mm SL): Mississippi, TABL 105083, 2 (115-125); 
USNM 198984, 2 (140-141); USNM 198975, 1 (69.5). Louisiana, USNM 
199033, 3 (140-143); USNM 198988, 3 (146-158); TABL 105073, 1 (156); 
TABL 105046, 1 (144); USNM 198989, 1 (182). Texas, USNM 198982, 2 
(102-104); TABL 105047, 2 (121-161). Campeche, Mexico, TABL 105048, 

1 (138); USNM 198979, 3 (112-140); USNM 199031, 2 (138-139); USNM 
199030, 1 (117); USNM 199030, 1 (139). Tabasco, Mexico, USNM 198971, 

2 (57.5-81). Colombia, TABL 103205, 4 (117-129); TABL 105077, 1 (153); 
TABL 101540, 8 (125-183); TABL 101475, 1 (251); TABL 105074, 11 
(75.5-103). Venezuela, TABL 105863, 1 (196); TABL 101474, 10 (115- 
127); TABL 107268, 1 (116); TABL 107269, 2 (106-110). Grenada, TABL 
105075, 2 (124). Trinidad, TABL 105072, 4 (169-200); TABL 101836, 2 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachurus 209 

(146-266); TABL 104854, 1 (305); TABL 105597, 1 (278). Surinam, TABL 
105596, 1 (285); UMML 4007, 1 (198). French Guiana, UMML 11586, 1 
(181). Brazil, Sao Paulo, DZSP 5249, 5 (135-146). Argentina, SU 52384, 
2 (83-150). 



Literature Cited 

Aleev, Y. G. 1956. The systematic position of the Black Sea mackerel Tra- 
churus. In Russian. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, vol. 7, pp. 174-184. 
Ayres, W. O. 1855. Description of new species of California fishes. Proc. 

California Acad. Sci., vol. 1, p. 62. 
Barnard, K. H. 1927. A monography of the marine fishes of South Africa. 

Part II. Ann. South African Mus., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 419-1065. 
Berry, F. H. 1968. A new species of carangid fish (Decapterus tabl) from 

the western Adantic. Contr. Mar. Sci., vol. 13, pp. 145-167. 
. 1969. Elagatis bipinnulata (Pisces: Carangidae): Morphology of the 

fins and other characters. Copeia, no. 3, pp. 454-463. 
Blanc, M., and M. L. Bauchot. 1961. Sur quatre generes de Carangidae 

(Teleosteens Perciformes) de la cote occidentale d'Afrique: Decapterus, 

Caranx, Trachurus, Suareus. Affinites et rapports phylogeniques. Bull. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 2 Ser., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 484-497. 
Bowdich, T. E. 1825. Fishes of Madeira (In) Excursions in Madeira and 

Porto Santo . . . G. B. Whittaker, London, pp. 121-125. 
Cadenat, J. 1949. Description de quatre Teleosteens nouveaux de la cote 

occidentale d'Afrique. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 2e Ser., vol. 21, no. 

6, pp. 663-671. 
Capello, F. B. 1868. Description de trois nouveaux poissons des mers du 

Portugal. Journ. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa, vol. 1, pp. 318-322. 
Castelnau, F. L. 1861. Memoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe. Paris, 

vii + 78 p. 
Cocco, A. 1829. Sopra un nuovo specie di Trachurus. Giorn. Inominato, 

Messina, 1 p. 
Cuvzer, G, and A. Valenclennes. 1833. Histoire naturelle des poissons. F. 

G. Levrault, Paris, vol. 9, pp. 1-512. 
Fowler, H. W. 1938. Descriptions of new fishes obtained by the United 

States Bureau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross," chiefly in the Phillippine 

Seas and adjacent waters. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. (1938), vol. 85, no. 

3032, pp. 31-135. 
Furnestin, J., J. Dardignac, C. Maurin, A. Vincent, R. Coupe, and H. 

Boutlere. 1958. Donnees nouvelles des poissons du Maroc Adantique. 

Rev. et Trav. Inst. Peches Mar., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 380-493. 
Giglioli, E. H. 1880. Pisces. In Elenco dei mammiferi . . . e catalogo degli 

anfibi e dei pesci italiani. Firenze, pp. 18-55. 
Gronovius, L. T. 1854. Catalogue of fish collected and described by . . . now 

in the British Museum. Ed. J. E. Gray. London, 196 p. 
Jenyns, L. 1841. Fish. In Charles Darwin editor. The zoology of the voyage 



210 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

of H. M. S. Beagle. Smith, Elder, and Co., London, pt. IV, XVI + 

172 p. 
Jordan, D. S. 1917. The genera of fishes. Stanford Univ., Univ. Ser. no. 1, 

pp. 1-161. 
Jordan, D. S. and B. W. Evermann. 1896. The fishes of North and Middle 

America. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 47, pt. 1, 1240 pp. 
Lacepede, B. G. E. 1802. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Plassan, Paris, 

vol. 3, pp. 1-803. 
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. L. Salvii, Holminae, ed. 10, vol. 1, pp. 

1-824. 
Lowe, R. T. 1841. Synopsis of the fishes of Madeira. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don, vol. 2, pp. 173-200. 
McCulloch, A. R. 1915. Report on some fishes obtained by the F.I.S. "En- 
deavour." Part III. Commonwealth of Australia, Dept. Trades and 

Customs, Fisheries. 
Malm, A. W. 1877. Goteborgs och Bohuslans fauna. Ryggradsdjuren. 

Goteborg, 674 p. 
Nani, A. 1950. Una nueva subespecie de "Surel," Trachurus picturatus aus- 

tralis (Pise. fam. Carangidae). Pri. Cong. Nac. Pesq. Mar. Ind. Deriv., 

vol. 2, pp. 167-194. 
Necrassov, V. V. 1966. A new subspecies of Trachurus ( Trachurus mediter- 

raneus indicus Necrassov subsp. n.) in the Indian Ocean. In Russian. 

Zool. Zh., vol. 45, pp. 141-144. 
Nichols, J. T. 1920. A key to the species of Trachurus. Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 477-481. 

. 1934. On Trachurus capensis Castelnau. Copeia, 1935, no. 2, p. 104. 

. 1940. Notes on carangin fishes. V. — Young Trachurus in the Gulf of 

Mexico. Amer. Mus. Novit, no. 1067, 4 p. 
Nelsson, S. 1832. Prodromus ichthyologiae scandinavicae. Bertingianis, 

Lundae, 124 p. 
Norman, J. R. 1935. The carangid fishes of the genus Decapterus Bleeker. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, no. 16, pp. 252-264. 
Pallas, P. S. 1811-1842. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica. Petropoli, 3 vols. 
Poll, M. 1954. Poissons. IV. Teleosteens acanthropterygiens (Premiere 

partie). Exped. Oceanogr. Beige Cot. Afr. Atl. Sud (1948-1949), Res. 

Sci., vol. 4, no. 3A, pp. 1-390. 
Rafinesque, C. S. 1810. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di 

animali e piante della sicila. Sanfilippo, Palermo, 105 p. 
. 1815. Indice d'ittiologia siciliana ossia catalogo metodico dei nomi 

latini, italiani, e sicilani dei pesci. Presso Giovanni del Nobolo, Mes- 
sina, 70 p. 
Richardson, J. 1842. Report on the present state of the ichthyology of New 

Zealand. Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 12th meet., pp. 12-30. 
Slastenenko, E. P. 1965. The species composition of genus Trachurus in the 

Black Sea. Rapp. Reun. Comm. Int. Explor. Scient. Mer. Mediterr., vol. 

18, pp. 269-272. 



Berry and Cohen: Synopsis of Trachuras 211 

Smith, J. L. B. 1961. The sea fishes of South Africa. Cent. News Agency, 

Ltd., Cape Town, 4th Ed., XVI + 580 p. 
Steindachner, F. 1868. Ichthyologischer Bericht iiber eine nach Spanien und 

Portugal unternommene Beise. V. Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1. Abth, 

pp. 351-424. 
Temminck, C. J., and H. Schlegel. 1842-50. Pisces. In F. Siebold, editor, 

Fauna Japonica. A. Arnz et Socios, Lugduni Batavorum, 323 p. 
Tortonese, E. 1952. Monografia dei carangini viventi nel Mediterraneo. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia Nat. Genova, vol. 45, pp. 259-324. 
Wakiya, Y. 1924. The carangoid fishes of Japan. Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 

15, nos. 2-3, pp. 139-293. 
Walford, L. A., and G. S. Myers. 1944. A new species of carangid fish from 

the northeastern Pacific. Copeia, no. 1, pp. 44-47. 
Whitehead, P. J. P., M. Boeseman, and A. C. Wheeler. 1966. The types 

of Bleeker's Indo-Pacific elopoid and clupepoid fishes. Zool. Verh., vol. 

84, pp. 1-159. 



ADDENDUM 

A publication reviewed after our submission of this manuscript 
recommended a change in synonymy for one of the two Australian 
species of Trachurus. In "A check list of the fishes recorded from 
the New Zealand region," Australian Zoologist, vol. 15, pt. 1, pp. 
1-102, G. P. Whitley listed as synonyms four species described in 
1843 by John Richardson, namely: Scomber clupeoides, Scomber 
dimidatus, Trachurus novaezelandias, and Caranx sinus-obscuri. 
We presume that these four might all be junior synonyms of Tra- 
churus declivis ( Jenys, 1841 ) . 

South Carolina Marine Research Laboratory, Charleston, South 
Carolina 29412; Oberlin College New Media Workshop, Oberlin, 
Ohio 44074. Contribution no. 205, National Marine Fisheries Serv- 
ice, Southeast Fisheries Center, Miami Laboratory, Miami, Florida 
33149. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Defensive Behavior in Rana areolata and Hyla avivoca 
Ronald Altig 

Agonistic behavior patterns have been reported recently for a 
number of anurans in several families (e.g., Duellman, 1966; Bratt- 
strom and Yarnell, 1968; Rivero and Esteves, 1969; Villa, 1969). 
The functions of these patterns have usually been interpreted as 
being territorial during breeding activities or as protection from 
predators. Rana areolata might be expected to have aggressive be- 
havior patterns for protection in the burrow against predators and 
accidental intruders. Male Hyla avivoca call from elevated perches 
that they occupy repeatedly each night, and agonistic behavior was 
observed between such males. 

Materials and Methods 

Rana areolata from near breeding choruses at State College, 
Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, were tested. A 65 diameter glass 
tube projecting at a 20° angle through the floor of a large wooden 
box served as an artificial burrow. Except for an observation slit 
that could be covered by an opaque sheath, the tube was painted 
black. Soil was placed on the floor of the box. Resident frogs ( three 
different individuals) readily ate small crayfish and appeared well 
adjusted. After a week acclimation period, a shrew (Rlarina brevi- 
cauda), mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), snakes (Natrix rhombifera, 
Agkistrodon piscivorous), and other R. areolata were guided down 
the burrow with at least a day between tests. Each intruder was 
used several times. Other specimens were grouped in 20-gal 
aquaria. 

Male-male interactions between calling Hyla avivoca were ob- 
served near State College, Mississippi. 

Results 

As soon as the shrew approached the frog in the burrow, the 
frog inflated, tilted the body forward so the head was nearly verti- 
cal to the substrate, and lunged at the shrew. The frog moved for- 
ward rather than move to the end of the burrow, but did not at- 
tempt to bite. Multiple lunges followed, depending on the prox- 



Altig: Frog Defensive Behavior 213 

imity of the intruder, or the frog stood quietly in the tilted posture. 
Loud screams typically accompanied the lunges and the shrew 
immediately exited from the burrow. A dead shrew elicited a sim- 
ilar response. Two of the frogs reacted more violently than the 
other. 

When confronted by the mouse or either species of snake, the 
frog moved to the end of the burrow, inflated, and sat quietly with 
its head tilted down. Contact by any of the animals did not elicit 
the overt behavior above. When other frogs were introduced, the 
resident showed little response, but if the frogs were maintained in 
a group, each individual seen chose a favored resting place that 
did not contact another frog if space allowed. Several times during 
a feeding frenzy, a frog went beneath a piece of cardboard that was 
the hiding place of a large male; usually the intruder would exit 
rapidly, often in reverse, and the resident often followed to the 
edge of the cardboard. Food was not involved. 

If a specimen fresh from the field or one that had been allowed 
to live in the artificial burrow was placed in the open, it routinely 
assumed the posture shown in Fig. 1 when harrassed. Grouped 
specimens seemed to lose this response quickly. Particularly touchy 
individuals would behave thusly if one waved a hand over them 
three feet away, while others needed to be touched. Contact on the 
side caused the frog to tilt toward the contact point, and contact 
on the head caused the frog to tilt the head down, stretch the rear 
legs posteriorly, and lunge when touched. No sound or biting was 
noticed. 




Fig. 1. Defensive behavior in Rana areolata. Position assumed at approach 
by shrew (left) and mouse or snakes (right). 



214 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

On two occasions, the calling perch of the male Hyla avivoca was 
invaded by another male; fighting ensued and in both cases the 
resident won and the intruder retreated. In the first incidence, the 
resident became aware of the other from about 18 inches away, 
switched from a normal call to a short trilling chirp, oriented to- 
ward the other frog, and approached him. Without contact, the 
resident seemingly recognized the intruder as non-female and in- 
itiated a grappling fight that start with an amplectic-type grasp 
around the head from the frong. He chirped continually and jerked 
the frog with his front legs about once every 5-10 seconds. The in- 
truder tried to escape, the pair fell about 10 inches to a lower 
branch, and the intruder finally escaped. The resident returned to 
near his original post and began calling within 4 min. The total 
encounter lasted about 8 min. 

The second fight was similar, although the resident often seemed 
to be losing the fight, and the total fight lasted about 15 min. Grasp- 
ing with the front legs, jerking the intruder with the front legs, 
kicking with the back legs, and chirping were prominent compon- 
ents of the fight. The intruder in each case seemed to be primarily 
concerned with getting away. 

Discussion 

Rana areolata resembles only R. pipiens behaviorly. Most in- 
dividuals are caught crossing roads to breeding choruses, and when 
approached they seem complacent and often crouch with the fore- 
legs over the eyes. If handled gently, they continue this posture 
even after being picked up, but if they became alarmed, they es- 
caped in frantic leaps or kick wildly if restrained. Perhaps in the 
grassy areas where they spend most of their time they rely on cam- 
ouflage, and the crouching position and dorsal pattern facilitates 
this; observations of individuals in pens bear this out. 

Rlarina enter the burrows of R. areolata frequently and prob- 
ably would not hesitate to attack at least a small frog. The response 
of the frog indicates this intruder is not a welcome symbiont, and 
the elicitation of the behavior by dead shrew may indicate that ol- 
faction and not movement is important in causing a response. A 
mouse of similar size caused no response, but Peromyscus are not 
noted carnivores and lack salivary venom. It seems the frog would 
respond to the snakes, but perhaps a motionless frog is less attrac- 



Altig: Frog Defensive Behavior 215 

tive to the snake (Diefenbach and Emslie, 1972). In such an in- 
flated position at the end of the burrow, the frog presents large 
areas of the glandular dorsolateral folds to the predator as well as 
being turgid and difficult to grasp in the confines of the burrow. 

The response of individuals in the open to motion overhead may 
indicate birds (such as marsh hawks, Circus) are common preda- 
tors. If crouching and camouflage fails, the frog stands high on its 
legs to increase its apparent size and attempts to place large gland- 
ular areas in the line of attack of the predator. 

In summary, this solitary species has defensive behavior pat- 
terns directed at predators and conspecifics. Perhaps the behavior 
would have been more intense had the test animals not been breed- 
ing, a time when at least the later behavior would have to be nulli- 
fied. The defensive stance is similar to that of Leptodactylus pent- 
adactylus (Villa, 1969), also a burrow-inhabiting species. No de- 
fensive postures could be elicted from Scaphiopus holbrooki. 
Rhinophrynus dorsalis that had been allowd to burrow would 
react when harrassed. They spread the hind legs straight behind, 
stood high on the front legs, and bent the head vertically between 
the legs. This posture plus the inflated body nearly hid the head. 
Neither of these species was tested with predators. 

The behavior of the male H. avivoca likely serves as a spacing 
mechanism around the pond; at this small pond there is a large 
population of H. avivoca, and they are concentrated primarily in 
small patches of button bush. The chirping call is typical of this 
species when another frog of similar size approaches and may serve 
to orient the female during the last few feet. H. cinerea and Gas- 
trophryne carolinensis have a similar call. 

Literature Cited 

Brattstorm, B. H., and R. M. Yarnell. 1968. Aggressive behavior in two 
species of leptodactylid frogs. Herptelogica, 24, no. 3, pp. 222-228. 

Diefenbach, C. O., and S. G. Emslie. 1971. Cues influencing the direction 
of prey ingestion of the Japanese snake, Elaphe climacophora (Colu- 
bridae, Serpentes). Herpetologica, 27, no. 4, pp. 461-466. 

Duellman, W. E. 1966. Aggressive behavior in dendrobatid frogs. Herpe- 
tologica, 22, no. 3, pp. 217-221. 

Rivero, J. A., and A. E. Esteeves. 1969. Observations on the agonistic and 
breeding behavior of Leptodactylus pestadactylus and other amphibian 
species in Venezuela. Breviora 585, no. 321, pp. 1-4. 



216 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Villa, J. 1969. Compartamiento defensive de la "Rana ternero", Leptodacty- 
lus pentadactylus. Rev. Biol. Trop., 15, no. 2, pp. 323-329. 

Department of Zoology, Mississippi State University, State Col- 
lege, Mississippi 39762. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Commercial Fishery on Lake Okeechobee, Florida 

Lothian A. Ager 

Lake Okeechobee is a fresh water lake of approximately 450,000 
surface acres with an average depth of 8.5 feet at elevation 13.5 feet 
above mean sea level. Maximum depth at normal elevation is about 
17 feet. Nearly one-seventh of the lake is littoral zone occupied 
with a variety of aquatic plants, but predominately Scirpus, Typha, 
Eleocharis, Fuirena, Eichhoria crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, Potamog- 
eton illinoensis, and Vallisneria americana. Bottom substrates vary 
from marl, sand, shell, muck, and rock. The lake basin is approxi- 
mately circular. Water control structures are located on all major 
inlets and outlets to prevent extreme fluctuation of the water level. 

Past data indicate that Lake Okeechobee was of great economic 
importance for commercial fishing and sport fishing. Until 1946 the 
commercial harvest consisted primarily of catfishes ( Ictalurus spp. ) , 
black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) , bluegill (Lepomis macro- 
chirus), and shellcracker (L. microlophus) and was a substantial 
influence on the local economy. When Lake Okeechobee came 
under the jurisdiction of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission in 1946 restrictions on both gear and species were in- 
duced by organized sportsmen in the belief that reduced or elimin- 
ated commercial harvest of the panfishes would increase benefits to 
sport fishermen. 

Much unsubstantiated argument has taken place, both pro and 
con, on the commercial aspects and their effects on sport fishing. 
I intend to present factual information concerning the present status 
of the commercial fishery and to explore ideas on the potential 
exploitation of the available resources. 

Gear and Species Harvested 

Under present regulations of the Florida Game and Fresh Water 
Fish Commission, legal commercial gear is limited to wire traps, 
trotlines, and pound nets and haul seines under special permit. 
Wire traps are limited to a maximum length of seven feet, a maxi- 
mum diameter of thirty-two inches, a minimum mesh size of one 
inch and a maximum mesh of one and one-half inches, and a fun- 



218 Quarterly Journal of the Flortoa Academy of Sciences 

nel in one end only. Traps may not be fished in less than four feet 
of water. Each licensee is permitted eighty traps. Trotlines are 
limited to 1500 hooks during the daylight hours and an unlimited 
number at night. Maximum length and depth of pound nets is lim- 
ited to ten feet by twelve feet with a minimum mesh size of two 
inches stretched. All devices must be adequately marked to identify 
the licensee. 

Wire traps are normally baited with pressed cottonseed and soy- 
bean cake broken into five or six inch squares and sandwiched to- 
gether with large rubber bands. Between one and two pounds 
of bait is placed in the trap at each fishing, which occurs about 
every third day. Each trap fisherman normally has about 150 traps 
and fishes fifty each day, weather permitting. 

Trotlines are baited with a variety of material, including shrimp, 
maggots, grubs, dead minnows, soap, and occasionally hooks are 
painted and fished without bait. Most trotlines are fished during 
the night, being set before dark and removed soon after daylight. 
However, some lines are left in the water at selected locations and 
fished daily. 

Commercial gear is to be used for the taking of non-game fish 
and turtles. In Lake Okeechobee the commercial harvest consists 
of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), white catfish (Ictalurus 
catus), brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus), yellow bullheads 
(Ictalurus natalus), assorted hard-shelled turtles, and soft-shelled 
turtles (Trionyx ferox). The catch of turtles is usually incidental to 
fishing operations. 

Commercial Licenses 

During the 1967-68 season, approximately 275 commercial fish- 
ermen operated under nearly 500 commercial licenses (data ob- 
tained from boat registration and license sales records of the Game 
and Fresh Water Fish Commission), compared to 138 fishermen 
during the 1952-53 season (Dequine, 1953). The larger number of 
licenses than fishermen results from the practice of some fishermen 
purchasing licenses in his relatives' names as well as his own, in 
order to be entitled to operate additional commercial fishing gear. 
A retail fish dealer's license is required in order to operate commer- 
cial fishing gear and entitles the holder to sell fish and supplies in 
any manner directly to the consumer or wholesaler. The license fee 



Ager: Fishery of Lake Okeechobee 219 

is $5.00 and must be accompanied by the possession of a valid 
sport fishing license at a cost of $3.25. 

Commercial fishing boats must be registered as such at a cost 
rate according to the size of the boat. 

Discussion 

Presently five wholesale fish dealers buy fish taken from Lake 
Okeechobee. One of these dealers is from another part of the state 
so that records on the poundages of fish that he purchased are not 
readily available. The poundages of fish from Lake Okeechobee 
included here (Table 1) were obtained from fish dealers in the 
area. During the period from 1 January 1968 to 1 January 1971, a 
total of 3,005,811 pounds of dressed channel and white catfish from 
Lake Okeechobee were handled by these wholesale fish dealers. 
This represents an annual average harvest of 1,001,937 pounds 
dressed weight. These figures represent an increase over a previous 
average figure for a ten-year period from 1936 through 1945 ( Table 
2) of 1,192,647 pounds of catfish rough weight (Dequine, 1951). 

The average annual catch of bullheads during the recent period 
was 45,600 pounds dressed weight. The average annual catch of 
turtles was 10,248 pounds dressed. 

The average annual catch of channel and white catfish repre- 
sents a value to the commercial fishermen of $450,871.65 at the 
average price paid of $.45 per pound dressed. The bullheads and 
turtles represent a value of $19,567.80 for an average annual total 
value to the some 275 commercial fishermen of $470,439.45. The 
total value of the channel and white catfish to the wholesale fish 
dealers at the average wholesale price is $651,259.05 as compared 
to $241,523.00 for all food fish during the 1952-53 study ( Dequine, 
1953). 

The costs of commercial gear to the fishermen is difficult to 
determine. Materials for wire traps are about $3.00 each plus labor. 
Trotlines cost 3-6 cents per hook depending upon the quality and 
quantity of the material used. No pound nets or haul seines are in 
operation at the present. Bait for traps cost 20-30 cents per trap. 
Bait for trotlines varies in cost depending upon the bait and the 
individual fishermen. Gasoline for operation of commercial boats is 
approximately $2.00 per trip. The cost of boats and motors has not 
been estimated. 



220 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 
TABLE 1. Monthly harvest (pounds dressed weight) of catfish and turtles 





Channel and 






Month 


White catfish 


Bullheads 


Turtles 


1968 January 


66,160 


11,165 


403 


February 


39,953 


8,120 


491 


March 


33,969 


5,669 


1,686 


April 


54,044 


2,495 


3,319 


May 


60,536 


1,477 


1,557 


June 


59,582 


1,230 


527 


July 


103,756 


1,267 


761 


August 


65,537 


1,808 


1,072 


September 


59,311 


2,138 


1,115 


October 


51,441 


2,952 


792 


November 


46,444 


3,065 


405 


December 


77,845 


5,045 
46,431 


227 


Total 


718,578 


12,355 


1969 January 


87,184 


9,670 


230 


February 


54,506 


3,586 


502 


March 


54,462 


2,288 


488 


April 


73,317 


2,416 


719 


May 


93,699 


2,186 


1,389 


June 


105,555 


1,652 


995 


July 


85,114 


6,068 


996 


August 


81,742 


4,833 


960 


September 


50,299 


3,658 


1,523 


October 


71,908 


2,209 


640 


November 


70,549 


4,047 


520 


December 


133,006 


3,754 


133 


Total 


961,341 


46,367 


9,095 


1970 January 


131,496 


2,380 


55 


February 


115,900 


3,198 


115 


March 


148,258 


3,190 


679 


April 


163,431 


1,384 


1,000 


May 


108,170 


2,040 


673 


June 


126,261 


2,084 


1,227 


July 


93,406 


2,700 


976 


August 


81,201 


6,452 


1,517 


September 


67,798 


5,675 


1,144 


October 


83,569 


4,674 


1,023 


November 


86,326 


6,106 


381 


December 


120,076 


4,300 
44,183 


506 


Total 


1,325,892 


9,296 


Grand total 


3,005,811 


136,981 


30,746 


Monthly average 


83,495 


3,805 


854 


Annual average 


1,001,937 


45,660 


10,248 


Lbs./acre/year 


2.2 


0.1 


0.02 



Ager: Fishery of Lake Okeechobee 221 

TABLE 2 
Total catch (pounds rough weight) of bream, catfish, and crappie reported 
from Lake Okeechobee 1936 through 1945 (Dequine, 1951). 



Year 


Bream 


Catfish 


Crappie 


1936 


258,900 


1,714,100 


302,100 


1937 


541,800 


932,400 


343,700 


1938 


540,100 


1,074,900 


434,700 


1939 


540,800 


1,180,600 


721,000 


1940 


396,800 


1,529,900 


605,800 


1941 


121,628 


1,551,924 


784,351 


1942 


103,492 


446,385 


91,074 


1943 


682,717 


919,469 


359,613 


1944 


607,281 


1,143,626 


292,123 


1945 


494,991 


1,433,168 
11,926,472 


287,913 


Total 


4,288,509 


4,222,374 


Average 


428,851 


1,192,647 


422,237 


Average lbs. 








per acre 


0.95 


2.65 


0.94 



Figures from 1936 through 1940 were obtained from "Fishery Industries of 
the U.S." published by the U.S. Department of Commerce and Interior; those 
from 1941 through 1945 were obtained from annual bulletins entitled "Re- 
capitulation of Fish Census" issued by the Florida Board of Conservation. 



Projection 

The harvest of channel and white catfish during the three year 
period from 1 January 1968 to 1 January 1971 represents a catch of 
about 2.2 pounds dressed per surface acre of water per year. Over 
a year's time this figure is below the potential natural production as 
indicated by an annual removal of 61.71 pounds per acre rough 
weight of catfishes from Lake George (Table 3) over a ten year 
period (Dequine, 1951). One may assume that Lake Okeechobee 
has a greater potential primary productivity per unit area now than 
formerly because of the increased harvest so that potential produc- 
tion of fish is greater. This results from more intensive agricultural 
practices, the increased population of the area together with canal 
construction and levee confinement of the lake and tributaries af- 
fecting the nutrient content of the water. Because of the tremen- 
dous sport fishery on Lake Okeechobee, however, commercial re- 
strictions are so stringent as to prevent the harvest of any game 
fish and thus limit the harvest of catfish. The harvest of catfish from 
Lake Okeechobee does represent a significant portion of the econ- 



222 



Quarterly Journal of the Florhoa Academy of Sciences 



TABLE 3 
Total catch (pounds rough weight) of bream, catfish, and crappie reported 
from Lake George 1936 through 1945 (Dequine, 1951). 



Year 


Bream 


Catfish 


Crappie 


1936 


382,900 


2,320,000 


146,100 


1937 


249,300 


3,087,700 


146,600 


1938 


506,500 


2,569,200 


114,100 


1939 


81,500 


— 


401,100 


1940 


— 


— 


136,100 


1941 


425,790 


2,561,562 


129,271 


1942 


626,983 


2,797,681 


166,841 


1943 


583,552 


3,356,977 


367,747 


1944 


780,684 


2,868,075 


261,119 


1945 


885,298 


3,672,136 


389,340 


Total 


4,522,507 


23,233,431 


2,258,318 


Average 


502,501 


2,904,178 


225,831 


Average lbs. 








per acre 


10.67 


61.71 


4.79 



Figures from 1936 through 1940 were obtained from "Fishery Industries of 
the U.S." published by the U.S. Department of Commerce and Interior; those 
from 1941 through 1945 were obtained from annual bulletins entitled "Be- 
capitulation of Fish Census" issued by the Florida State Board of Conservation. 

Figures for catfish for 1939 and 1940 were available only for the eastern 
"district" of Florida and could not be broken down into the area concerned. 



Figures for bi 



for 1940 in question. 



omy of the five surrounding counties and to those individuals who 
rely in whole or in part on commercial fishing for their livelihood. 
During the two-year study by the Florida Game and Fresh Wa- 
ter Fish Commission from 1948 to 1950 (Dequine, 1951), there was 
no evidence that the harvest of catfishes had either beneficial or 
detrimental effects on the composition of game, commercial, or 
rough fishes. The past data demonstrated that the harvest of fish 
by the methods employed did not reduce numbers of the species 
from year to year because of the relatively small percentage of 
younger fish taken in the operations. This assured the following 
year's crop. During the study from 1952 to 1953 in which bream 
and crappie were included as commercial species, no indications of 
decreased yield of desired species of fish to either sport or com- 
mercial fishermen were evident other than those of a seasonal na- 
ture (Dequine, 1953). The natural potential production of bream 



Ager: Fishery of Lake Okeechobee 223 

TABLE 4 
Estimated potential annual harvest of bream, catfish, and crappie from Lake 
Okeechobee based on sustained annual harvest from Lake George with re- 
spective monetary values. 



Bream 


Catfish 


Crappie 


Surface acres 450,000 


450,000 


450,000 


Estimated Potential 






Annuar Harvest/ Acre 10 lbs. 


61 lbs. 


5 lbs. 


Total Harvest 4,500,000 


27,450,000 


2,250,000 


Average Market 






Price/Pound $.25 


$.45 


$.25 


Estimated Potential 






Annual Value $1,125,000 


$12,352,500 


$562,500 


Grand Total $14,040,000 







Prices quoted are those paid to the commercial fishermen by the wholesale 
fish dealers or illegal fish buyers. 

and crappie (Table 3) is evidenced by the commercial removal of 
10.67 and 4.79 pounds per acre, respectively, over a ten-year period 
from Lake George (Dequine, 1951) without any measurable detri- 
ment to the sport fishery resource. 

In order to more fully utilize the fishery resources available in 
Lake Okeechobee, a more intensive commercial harvest program 
must be applied. In addition, harvest of all species of fish must be 
accomplished which necessitates creation of a demand for pres- 
ently undesirable rough fish. An expansion of the commercial fish- 
ery would provide a direct economic benefit to the fishermen in 
excess of $14,000,000.00 per year based on potential harvest infor- 
mation and present market prices (Table 4). To accomplish this 
objective, commercial gear other than that allowed must be per- 
mitted. To provide for supervision of the expanded industry, legis- 
lative action must occur to establish a tax based on poundages har- 
vested in order that the industry is regulated by monies of its own 
creation. 

Summary 

Commercial fishing gear permitted on Lake Okeechobee con- 
sists of wire traps, trotlines, and pound nets and haul seines under 
special permit. Channel catfish, white catfish, brown bullheads, 
yellow bullheads, and turtles comprise the commercial harvest. Ap- 
proximately 275 commercial fishermen took 3,005,811 pounds of 



224 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

channel and white catfish dressed weight during the period 1 Jan- 
uary 1968 through 1 January 1971; 136,981 pounds dressed of bull- 
heads, and 30,746 pounds dressed of turtles representing a direct in- 
come to the fishermen of $1,411,318.35. The harvest represents a 
catch of 2.2 pounds of channel and white catfish per surface acre 
per year which is about 5 per cent of the potential harvest. Re- 
strictions on fishing gear to prevent harvest of bream and crappie 
as well as bass restrict the harvest of the present commercial spe- 
cies. Previous studies by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission determined that the commercial harvest of crappie, 
bream, and catfishes would have neither detrimental nor beneficial 
effects on sport or commercial fishing. To utilize more fully the 
fishery resource of Lake Okeechobee, the commercial harvest of 
virtually all species of fish must occur with commercial gear other 
than that presently allowed. With a commercial harvest approach- 
ing known potential production, the result would be an increase to 
the local economy in excess of $14,000,000.00 annually and through 
legislative action could provide monies for supervision and regula- 
tion of the industry. 

Literature Cited 

Dequine, John F. 1961. Investigations of the Saint Johns River and Lake 
Okeechobee, 1948-1950, with recommendations for management. Florida 
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 46 pp. (unpublished report). 

. 1953. Preliminary progress report on Florida's controlled seining pro- 
gram, 1 April 1952 through 28 February 1953. Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission, 31 pp. (unpublished report). 

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 1140 S. Os- 
ceola Stree, Okeechobee, Florida 33472. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Nuclear DNA and Developmental Rate in Frogs 

K. Bachmann 

Goin et al. ( 1968 ) described a relation between the time spent 
as a tadpole in 21 species of frogs and their diploid nuclear DNA 
amount. The interval from hatching to metamorphosis is from two 
to four weeks in frogs with low nuclear amounts of DNA (Scaphi- 
opus, Hyla septentrionalis) whereas species of Rana with high nu- 
clear DNA amounts may overwinter as tadpoles. The tadpole stage 
is subject to a variety of factors that influence its duration, such as 
temperature and differences in the stage at hatching. 

Early embryonic development can be timed much more accu- 
rately and the strong dependence of embryonic developmental rate 
on temperature allows adjustments for temperature effects (Bach- 
mann, 1969). When the time elapsed at 20 °C between the two-cell 
stage and early tail bud stage (stage 16 of Pollister and Moore, 
1937) is compared with nuclear DNA amounts in eleven species of 
frogs for which such data exist, there results a straight-line relation 
( Bachmann, in preparation ) . 

Such striking correlation between nuclear DNA and develop- 
mental rate could be of considerable significance if it holds true for 
all frogs. Precise data on developmental rates under controlled con- 
ditions are rare and all species for which such data have previously 
been available are found in relatively mesic regions. Recently, the 
temperature dependence of developmental rate has been deter- 
mined for several anuran species of the arid southwestern United 
States (Zweifel, 1968). Since no species from such an environment 
was in the earlier sample, they presented particularly suitable mate- 
rial for another test of the relation between nuclear DNA and de- 
velopmental rate. 

Experimental Methods 

Specimens of Bufo cognatus, B. debilis, B. punctatus, Rana 
pipiens, Scaphiopus bombifrons, S. couchi, and S. hammondi were 
obtained from the vicinity of the Southwestern Research Station at 
Portal, Arizona. Nuclei were prepared from kidney and liver tissue 
fixed in a 3:1 mixture of ethanol and glacial acetic acid for two 



226 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

hours and from liver tissue fixed in ice cold 10 per cent formalin by 
homogenizing in a 0.1 per cent solution of Tween 80. Washed free 
from the detergent the nuclei were spread on slides, air dried, and 
stored dry until staining. Feulgen staining was preceded by hydrol- 
ysis in 5 N HC1 at room temperature for prolonged periods of time 
(30, 50, 60, 90 or 100 minutes) or in 1 N HC1 at 60°C for 15 min- 
utes. Total dye bound by individual nuclei was measured at 550 
nm on a Barr and Stroud Integrating Microdensitometer. In order 
to convert the absorption measurements to picograms (pg) of DNA, 
specimens of Bufo bufo, B. marinus, B. terrestris, or Rana speno- 
cephala were included in the experiments. Approximate diploid 
DNA amounts for these species are 14.6, 11.3, 11.1, and 15.0 pg re- 
spectively (Bachmann, 1970 a, b). 

Developmental rates for the anurans of Portal, Arizona, have 
been published (Zweifel, 1968). Determinations of the time inter- 
val between the two-cell stage and beginning of gill circulation 
(stage 20 of Pollister and Moore, 1937) have been taken from that 
publication. Time intervals between the two-cell stage and stage 16 
determined by Dr. Zweifel in the same experiments are published 
here for the first time. These allow comparison with data on other 
species compiled by Bachmann ( 1969 ) . 

TABLE 1 
Diploid nuclear DNA amounts in eleven species of anurans. 





Relative Nuclear 






Deter- 


Species 


DNA Amount pg 


DNA 


Specimens 


minations 


Bufo bufo 


8.19 


±0.69 


±0.31 


15.5 


2 


5 


Bufo cognatus 


5.91 


±0.49 


±0.25 


11.2 


2 


4 


Bufo debilis 


5.59 


±0.22 


±0.09 


10.6 


2 


6 


Bufo marinus 


5.77 


±0.07 


±0.04 


10.9 


1 


3 


Bufo punctatus 


5.61 


±0.65 


±0.27 


10.6 


2 


6 


Bufo terrestris 


5.75 


±0.42 


±0.14 


10.9 


5 


10 


Rana pipiens 


9.48 


±0.34 


±0.20 


17.9 


1 


3 


Rana sphenocephala 


7.97 


±0.71 


±0.29 


15.0 


2 


6 


Scaphiopus bombifrons 


1.50 


±0.15 


±0.06 


2.8 


2 


6 


Scaphiopus couchi 


1.95 


±0.07 


±0.02 


3.6 


3 


11 


Scaphiopus hammondi 


1.62 


±0.07 


±0.03 


3.1 


2 


6 



The columns represent relative DNA amount with standard deviation of 
the sample and standard error of the mean, absolute DNA amounts in pico- 
grams calculated from these, and number of specimens and preparations. 



Bachmann: Nuclear DNA in Frogs 227 

Results and Discussion 

Table 1 lists the results of the DNA determinations. Repeated 
determinations on nuclei from different specimens isolated after 
either formalin or ethanol-acetic fixation, and stained after a variety 
of different hydrolysis schedules lead to rather large variation in the 
results, but tend to cancel out systematic errors introduced by any 
one preparative method. The DNA values obtained here therefore 
represent a clear improvement over our earlier estimates (Goin et 
al., 1968; Bachmann, 1970 a). In particular, the higher ratio between 
the DNA values for Bufo bufo and Bufo marinus found in these de- 
terminations agrees well with a higher ratio found by Ullerich 
( 1966 ) . The measurements also confirm our earlier finding of the 
virtual identity of nuclear DNA values in B. terrestris and B. marinus 
and reaffirm the value of 15 pg DNA for the diploid DNA amount 
of R. sphenocephala ( and Eastern R. pipiens ) . Continued recalib ra- 
tion of the DNA values of certain marker species in our laboratory 
leads to an increasing reliability of our relative DNA determinations 
and their calibration in absolute units. 

On the basis of these calibrations, Scaphiopus bombifrons ap- 
pears to possess the lowest diploid DNA amount ever recorded for 
an amphibian. Our earlier determination of the DNA amount in S. 
holbrooki (Goin et al., 1968) corresponds to an absolute value of 
about 3.2 pg and agrees well with the values recorded here. This 
emphasizes the striking difference between the earlier value of 
about 7.1 pg for S. hammondi (Goin et al, 1968) and the value of 
3.1 pg reported here. The difference is too large to be due to meas- 
uring error, and may even be suggestive of polyploidy. 

All three Bufo species from Portal have intermediate DNA val- 
ues for the genus. This includes B. debilis, while the very similar 
species B. retijormis has a markedly higher DNA amount (Bach- 
mann, 1970 a). The high value for the nuclear DNA of Portal Rana 
pipiens is based on determinations made on a single specimen. Var- 
iation in nuclear DNA, both in amount and in kind, among differ- 
ent local populations of "Rana pipiens" might result in further evi- 
dence on the puzzling problem of evolution in this species group. 

The DNA values for Scaphiopus (about 3 pg), the three Bufo 
species (about 11 pg) and Rana pipiens (18 pg) fall into distinct 
non-overlapping groups. The same grouping of species is found 



228 



Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 



when developmental times are compared (Zweifel, 1968, p. 48). 
Table 2 lists Zweifel's determinations of developmental times be- 
tween the two-cell stage and stage 16 at various temperatures. Val- 
ues for the developmental times at 20 °C have been interpolated 
from the data using the equation proposed by Bachmann (1969). 

Figure 1 summarizes these data and shows the calculated re- 
gression lines between developmental time and nuclear DNA 
amount. It may be noted that both lines have intercepts. This sug- 
gests that there is a minimum timing beyond which the nuclear 
DNA amount exerts its slowing effect. The close relation between 
developmental timing and nuclear DNA amount is particularly sur- 
prising since the mechanism relating the two must act very indirect- 
ly, possibly by way of the nucleic acid metabolism of the growing 
oocyte. 



/— o 
















V) 


-125 














£ 












^ • 




D 
















O 
















z 








••^/ 








>-• 


-100 














III 
















s 








^S* 








^ 


- 75 














ml 
















< 












^w 




H- 
















z 








■^^ 








III 


-5JX 


4 












2 
















QL 
















o 
















—1 
















III 
















> 
















LU f" 














o I 




5 


10 


15 




20 



















DIPLOID DNA AMOUNT (PICOGRAMS) 

Fig. 1. Developmental rate and nuclear DNA amount for seven anuran 
species. Times between the two-cell and stage 16 (squares) and stage 20 
(dots) against nuclear DXA amounts in picograms. 



Bachmann: Nuclear DNA in Frogs 229 

TABLE 2 
Time interval in hours between the two-cell stage and stage 16 in seven species 
of anurans from Portal, Arizona. 



°c 


Bufo 


Bufo 


Bufo 


Rana Scaph. Scaph. 


Scaph. 




cognatus 


debilis 


punct. 


pipiens bombif. 


couchi hammondi 


13.6 










91 




15.5 








63 


63 




15.6 


117 
108 
100 


101 




121 




47 


17.1 






77 








18.2 




91 




33 


34 




20.0 


(56) 


(55) 


(48) 


(66) (52) 


(29) 


(29) 


20.3 


48 








22 




21.0 




38 








24 


21.3 












24 


24.5 


27 
27 
23 








15 




25.8 


25 












26.2 






27 




11 




31.2 


15 












31.5 








31 






31.7 










... 8 





These values have been determined by Dr. R. G. Zweifel. Values at 20 °C 
are interpolated from the data. 

This is indicated by two observations: (1) polyploid amphib- 
ians produced by suppressing the second maturation division do not 
show an increase in developmental times proportional to the in- 
crease in nuclear DNA in every somatic cell; ( 2 ) the frog Ascaphus 
truei is the only anuran species known at present which does not fit 
the DNA-developmental rate correlation. Developmental times are 
considerably longer (H. A. Brown, cited in Bachmann, 1969) than 
the relatively low DNA amount of about 7 pg (Macgregor and 
Kezer, 1970) would suggest. This species is the only anuran species 
known to have eight functional oocyte nuclei throughout oogenesis 
( Macgregor and Kezer, 1970 ) . Mediation of the DNA effect on de- 
velopmental rate by way of oogenesis, for instance through mes- 
senger RNA synthesis for early development, would explain the ob- 
served correlation as well as these exceptions. The closeness of the 
correlation in spite of the obviously indirect mechanism involved is 



230 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

remarkable. A clear relation between nuclear DNA amount and a 
physiological feature of the whole organism, particularly one of 
great ecological importance, should subject the nuclear DNA amount 
directly to natural selection. This may be an indication of one set 
of factors determining the size of the genome. 

Summary 

The diploid nuclear DNA amounts of three species of Scaphio- 
pus, three species of Bufo, and of Rana pipiens, all from Portal, 
Arizona, fall into distinct groups with 3, 11, and 18 pg DNA re- 
spectively. The developmental rates of these species from Portal 
also fall into three distinct groups with Scaphiopus showing the 
fastest rate, Bufo developing at intermediate rates, and Rana devel- 
oping slowly. If such diverse factors as environmental adaptation 
and nuclear DNA amount enter into the determination of the de- 
velopmental rate of frog species, direct selective effects on genome 
size can be expected. 

Acknowledgments 

I thank Dr. Noel Snyder for providing the specimens used for 
the DNA determinations, Dean Theodore A. Ashford for travel 
funds, and Dr. Ronald R. Cowden for his kind permission to let me 
use the Barr and Stroud Integrating Microdensitometer at the Uni- 
versity of Denver. I am especially grateful to Dean William H. 
Taft for providing funds for an Integrating Microdensitometer for 
research at the University of South Florida, and to Dr. Richard G. 
Zweifel of the American Museum of Natural History, who provided 
the data of table 2 and critically read a first-draft of this paper. 

Literature Cited 

Bachmann, K. 1969. Temperature adaptations of amphibian embryos. Amer. 

Nat., vol. 103, pp. 115-130. 
Bachmann, K. 1970a. Specific nuclear DNA amounts in toads of the genus 

Bufo. Chromosoma, vol. 29, pp. 365-374. 
Bachmann, K. 1970b. Feulgen slope determinations of urodele nuclear DNA 

amounts. Histochemie, vol. 22, pp. 289-293. 
Goin, O. B., C. J. Goln, and K. Bachmann. 1968. DNA and amphibian life 

history. Copeia, vol. 1968, pp. 532-540. 
Macgregor, H. C. and J. Kezer. 1970. Gene amplification in oocytes with 8 



Bachmann: Nuclear DNA in Frogs 231 

germinal vesicles from the tailed frog Ascaphus truei Stejneger. Chro- 

mosoma, vol. 29, pp. 189-206. 
Pollister, A. W. and J. A. Moore. 1937. Tables for the normal development 

of Rana sylvatica. Anat. Rec, vol. 68, pp. 489-496. 
Ullerich, F. H. 1966. Karyotyp und DNS-Gehalt von Bufo bufo, B. viridis, 

B. bufo X B. viridis und B. calamita (Amphibia, Anura). Chromosoma, 

vol. 18, pp. 316-342. 
Zweifel, R. G. 1968. Reproductive biology of anurans of the arid Southwest, 

with emphasis on adaptation of embryos to temperature. Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 140, pp. 1-64. 

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. 
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Some Airborne Algae from North Central Florida 

R. T. Parrando and J. S. Davis 

Although airborne algae have been collected and studied in 
several widely scattered locations in the United States (Luty and 
Hoshaw, 1967), there are no records previous to this study of air- 
borne algae from Florida. The purpose of this paper is to report the 
algae collected from the atmosphere over the University of Florida 
campus from January to August of 1969. It is part of the M.S. thesis 
of the senior author submitted to the Graduate School of the Uni- 
versity of Florida. 

Materials and Methods 

The culture medium used in this investigation was Bristol's 
medium ( Bold and Parker, 1962 ) enriched by adding 2 drops of a 
3 per cent solution of NaSiO t to each liter. This medium is widely 
used for the culture of soil algae, soil being the source of most air- 
borne algae. 

All plates exposed to the atmosphere, receiving the rain water 
or coated collector rods from the Rotorod sampled were cultured 
under fluorescent lamps (Plantgro, Westinghouse) with an intensity 
of 400 foot-candles and with a 16-8 hr. light-dark cycle. The tem- 
perature in the culture room was kept at 25±2°C. Viable algae de- 
veloped into macroscopically-visable colonies after 2 to 4 weeks. 
Each of these colonies was transferred to a tube containing sterile 
Bristol's nutrient agar and kept as a stock culture under the lights 
for subsequent study. All transfers were made in a sterile transfer 
chamber. 

Sampling Methods 

Hand-held agar plate. Agar plates containing the modified Bris- 
tol's medium were exposed from a moving automobile, from January 
1969 to July 1969, according to methods of Brown, Larson and 
Bold ( 1964 ) . The plates were held by hand and in a vertical posi- 
tion for 20 seconds to 5 minutes; the speed of the vehicle was 25 
mph. After exposure, the plates were placed under the fluorescent 
lights in the culture room. 



Pabrando and Davis: Airborne Algae 233 

Rain water. Rain water was collected in a sterile 125-ml Erlen- 
meyer flask fitted with a small funnel. The flask and funnel assem- 
bly was placed 10 feet above the ground at the time that the rain 
started falling. Immediately after collecting the water, 2 ml por- 
tions were transferred by a sterile 5-ml disposable pipette to agar 
plates containing sterile Bristol's medium. The water was dispersed 
over the surface of the agar by swirling the dish on a flat surface, 
and the plate was then placed under the fluorescent lights in the 
culture room. 

Rottorod sampled. This air sampling apparatus ( Metronics As- 
sociates, Palo Alto, California, Model 65A) is capable of sampling 
particles from 5 to 100 microns in size and has a filtering rate of 60 
liters per minute. The particles are impacted on the leading surface 
of the clear plastic rotating collector rods coated with a thin layer 
of silicone compound (General Electric G-697). Immediately after 
each 10 minute sampling, the collector rods were taken from the 
metal holder by sterile forceps and placed in a sterile transit vial. 
In the laboratory, the exposed rods were taken from the transit vial 
and streaked on the surface of an agar plate containing the sterile 
nutrient medium. This procedure was conducted in a sterile transfer 
chamber. Once streaked, the rods were left on the agar with the 
silicone-coated surface down so that any viable cells left on the rods 
would develop into colonies (Brown, Larson and Bold, 1964). The 
plates were then placed under the fluorescent lights in the culture 
room. The silicone compound was chosen to coat the rods since it 
strongly retains the impinged particles. 

Ten-minute samples were taken with the Rotorod sampler from 
the 4 stations listed below located on the campus of the University of 
Florida, from June 25, to August 19, 1969. Two of these stations 
were located 12 feet above the ground in open fields and 2 stations 
were located 12 feet above the roof tops of 2 different buildings. 
The buildings were chosen for their height and for the lack of algal 
growth on the roof, as far as the authors could observe. 

Station 1. Top of the press box, Florida Field, approximately 90 
feet high. 

Station 2. Observation platform, Space Sciences Center, approx- 
imately 60 feet high. 

Station 3. Parking lot (paved), corner of Center Drive and 
Museum Road. 



234 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Station 4. Parade review grounds. 

Sedimentation method. Sterile agar plates were exposed from 
10 p.m. to 9 a.m. on 5 different occasions, 10 feet above the ground 
in front of McCarty Hall. These samples were taken on clear and 
relatively calm nights during the month of July, 1969. After ex- 
posure, the plates were placed under the fluorescent lights in the 
culture room. 

The morphology of the algae was studied by making fresh 
mounts from cultures grown on agar or in the liquid medium. The 
morphology of the chromatophore of the green algae, an important 
criterion established by Starr ( 1955 ) in the taxonomy of the Chloro- 
coccales, was studied by using a blue light filter as proposed by 
Friedmann ( 1966 ) . The presence of a gelatinous matrix was dem- 
onstrated by using a solution of methlene blue. Sudan IV was 
used to determine the presence of fat or oil within the cells, and 
solutions of L-KI were used to demonstrate the presence of starch. 
The number and position of the nuclei was determined by the 
acetocarmine technique according to the method of Cave and Po- 
cock (1951). 

In order to promote the formation of zoospores in the zoospore- 
producing genera of the Chlorococcales, the following technique 
proved successful. A culture was started from a stock culture by 
streaking the algae on fresh agar plates containing sterile nutrient 
medium. When the culture was growing vigorously, the plate was 
flooded with sterile liquid nutrient medium or sterile distilled water, 
and the culture was then placed under the fluorescent lights for 24 
hours. Microscopic observations were made the following morning. 

All algal isolates were surveyed, and only Chlorophyta and Cya- 
nophyta were present. All the blue-green isolates were identified; 
Dr. Francis Drouet determined a number of the species in the Os- 
cillatoriaceae. Although all the filamentous species of the Chloro- 
phyta were identified, only 80 of the coccoid Chlorophyta were 
identified because of time limitation; all of these belonged to the 
orders Chlorococcales or Chlorosphaerales. In species determination 
of the coccoid members of the Chlorophyta, Starr (1955), and 
Brown, Larson and Bold ( 1964 ) emphasized the necessity of long 
periods of observations of unialgal cultures before successfully dis- 
posing of the taxonomy of most of these genera. 



Parrantdo and Davis: Airborne Algae 235 

Results 

Hand-held plates. Seventy three samples were taken by this 
method, 39 of which contained viable algae, yielding 193 colonies. 
The usual number of impactions per plate ranged from 4 to 6; the 
speed of 25 mph was found to yield the most impactions. The num- 
ber of impactions was slightly higher during the spring and summer 
months than during the winter. Twenty-five species were recovered 
by this method of sampling. The most common species thus ob- 
tained was the blue-green Schizothrix calciola, with 23 impactions. 

Rain water. Thirty six plates were inoculated with rain water, 
12 of which developed algal colonies after 2 to 3 weeks under the 
fluorescent lights. Twenty unialgal cultures were obtained. Schizo- 
thrix calcicola was the only blue-green recovered from rain water. 
The most common species of the green algae thus obtained were 
Chlorella vulgaris, C. saccharophila and an unidentified species of 
Oocystis. 

Sedimentation method. Five agar plates were exposed, 4 of 
which were positive with 31 colonies isolated into unialgal cultures. 
Only by this method was Scytonema ocellatum recovered. Several 
members of the Chlorophyta were also obtained by sedimentation. 
Rotorod Sampler. Sixty samples were taken by this method, 42 
of which were positive, yielding 189 isolates when grown under the 
fluorescent lights. Thirty-four samples were taken during the morn- 
ing hours, between 9 a.m. and 12 noon. Twenty-one of these sam- 
ples were positive, yielding 53 colonies which were isolated into 
unialgal cultures. The morning samples yielded an average of 2.6 
impactions per cubic meter of air sampled. Twenty six samples 
were taken in the afternoon hours, between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m. dur- 
ing the sampling period. In contrast with the morning samples, all 
but 2 of the afternoon samples developed algal colonies when placed 
under the fluorescent rights. A total of 136 colonies were isolated 
into unialgal cultures from the afternoon sampling, yielding an aver- 
age of 8.7 impactions per cubic meter of air. In the counting of the 
number of impactions, the assumption was made that each impac- 
tion was from a single cell which produced a single colony when 
the collector rod was streaked on the agar surface. 

The largest number of impactions obtained by the Rotorod sam- 
pler was recovered during the dry part of the sampling period, when 
the total amount of precipitation recorded was 0.10 inches of rain. 



236 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Scdsnces 

TABLE 1 

Number of algal isolates obtained by 4 sampling methods 



Species 


Hand Held Rotorod 


Rain 


Sedimen- 






Plates 


Sampler 


Water 


tation 


Total 


CHLOROPHYTA 












Ankistrodesmus sp. 






1 


1 


2 


Chlamydomonas globosa Snow 


1 


6 






7 


Chlamydomonas sp. 


1 






1 


2 


Chlorella luteoviridis Chodat 


1 


1 


1 




3 


Chlorella saccharophila 












(Kruger) Migula 


3 


9 


3 




15 


ChloTella vulgaris Beijerinck 


3 


3 


4 




10 


Chlorococcum ellipsoideum 












Deason & Bold 




2 






2 


Chlorococcum scabellum 












Deason & Bold 








1 


1 


Chlorosarcina sp. 




2 






2 


Chlorosarcinopsis aggregate 












Arce & Bold 




1 






1 


Chlorosarcinopsis dissociata 












Hemdon 


1 








1 


Chlorosarcinopsis minor Herdon 




1 






1 


Chlorosarcinopsis sp. 


1 








1 


Hormidium flaccidium A. Braun 


1 




1 




2 


Nannochloris bacillaris Naumann 


1 


1 






2 


Neochloris sp. 


1 








1 


Oocystis polymorpha Grover & Bold 


4 


5 


2 




11 


Oocyst is sp. 




1 






1 


Scenedesmus quadricauda 


4 


1 






5 


Oocystis sp.' 






3 




3 


Spongiochloris incrassata 












Chantanachat & Bold 








1 


1 


Stichococcus bacillaris Nag. 


3 








3 


Stichococcus mirabilis Lagerh. 


3 








3 



The temperature during the sampling period ranged from 20 °C at 
night to 37 °C during the day. The wind direction seemed to have 
little influence on the number of impactions. However, a wind speed 
of 15 mph yielded samples with the largest number of impactions. 
Partly cloudy skies favored higher numbers of impactions than did 
clear skies. The relative humidity during the sampling period 
ranged from 40 per cent to 100 per cent on several occasions dur- 
ing the month of July. 



CYANOPHYTA 






Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb. ) Breb. 


1 




Anabaena variabilis Kiitzing 


5 


1 


Anabaena sp. 




2 


Calothrix parietina (Nageli) Thuret 


4 


1 


Fischerella ambigua (Nag.) Gom. 


1 


1 


Oscillatoria formosa Bory. 


1 




Oscillatoria submembranacea 






Ard. & Straff. 


1 




Nostoc commune Vaucher 


7 




Nostoc muscorum Ag. 


5 




Nostoc sp. 


1 


1 


Porphyroshiphon notarisii 






(Menegh. ) Kiitz 


1 




Scytonema ocellatum Lyngbye 






Schizothrix calcicola (Ag. ) Gom. 


23 


5 



Parrando and Davis: Airborne Algae 237 

TABLE 2 
Number of algal isolates obtained by 4 sampling methods 

Species Hand Held Rotorod Rain Sedimen- 

Plates Sampler Water tation Total 



2 
5 

2 

1 

1 

7 
5 
2 

1 

2 2 

3 32 



Eighteen species were recovered using the Rotorod sampler. Six 
of these species belonged to the blue-green algae and 12 species to 
the green algae. The most common genera recovered by the Roto- 
rod sampler were Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Oocystis and Schizo- 
thrix. 

The identified species obtained by the various collection methods 
are listed in Tables 1-2. 

Discussion 

Schlichting ( 1969 ) indicated that several workers in the United 
States and other countries have found a number of diatoms species, 
yellow greens, and Euglenoids, from the air. The lack of diatoms 
can not be the fault of an inappropriate culture medium, for other 
investigators who have reported diatoms from the air used the same 
basic inorganic medium used in this investigation. Furthermore, 
our medium was made more favorable to diatoms by the addition 
of silicon. It seems clear that Florida air over the University Cam- 
pus from January to August of 1969 contained very low diatom con- 
centrations. The Euglens omissions from our collections may well 
be due to our culture medium which was not enriched with organic 



238 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sctences 

carbon compounds. These missing algal groups also might be due 
to our algae-poor soil (Smith, 1944; Smith and Ellis, 1943), which 
is the source of most airborne algae. 

Although many workers have reported Chlorococcum species to 
be among the most common of airborne algae, only 3 isolates of 2 
species were found in the investigation. The infrequently reported 
Schizothrix calcicola was the most commonly occurring airborne 
alga in our area. 

Literature Cited 

Bold, H. C, and Parker, B. C. 1962. Some supplementary attributes in classi- 
fication of Chlorococcum species. Arch. Mikrobiol., vol. 42, pp. 267-288. 

Brown, R. M., D. A. Larson and H. C. Bold. 1964. Airborne algae: their 
abundance and heterogeneity. Science, vol. 143, pp. 583-585. 

Cave, M. S., and M. A. Pocock. 1951. The aceto-carmine technique applied 
to the colonial Volvocales. Stain Technol., vol. 26, pp. 173-174. 

Frtedmann, I. 1966. Microscopy of algal chromatophores. Phycologia, vol. 6, 
pp. 29-36. 

Groover, R. D., and H. C. Bold. 1968. Phycological notes 1. Oocijstis poly- 
morpha sp. nov. Southwestern Nat., vol. 13, pp. 129-135. 

Luty, E. T., and R. W. Hoshaw. 1967. Airborne algae of the Tucson and 
Santa Catalina mountain areas. Jour. Arizona Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 
179-182. 

Schlichting, H. E. 1969. The importance of airborne Algae and Protozoa. 
APCA Journal, vol. 19, pp. 946-951. 

Smith, F. B. 1944. The occurrence and distribution of algae in soils. Proc. 
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 44-49. 

Smith, F. B., and H. R. Ellis. 1943. Preliminary report on the algal flora of 
some Florida soils. Proc. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 6, pp. 59-65. 

Starr, R. C. 1955. A comparative study of Chlorococcum meneghini and 
other spherical, zoospore-producing genera of the Chlorococcales. In- 
diana Univ. Publications, sci. ser., no. 20, 111 pp. 

Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 
32601. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972 (1974) 



Bird Remains from Pre-Columbian Middens in the Virgin Islands 
Pierce Brodkorb 

During excavation of kitchen middens in the American Virgin 
Islands Ripley P. Bullen of the Florida State Museum collected a 
number of bird bones which he has asked me to study. In April 
1960 he worked at the Magens Bay midden on the north shore of 
St. Thomas. On the island of St. John he studied sites at Turtle 
Point on Turtle Bay, at Francis Bay, and at Coral Bay. All the 
middens are of pre-Columbian age with approximate dates of A.D. 
500-1000, but Mr. Bullen believes that the Magens Bay site is the 
youngest and the Coral Bay site the oldest. From Coral Bay only 
a single indeterminate shaft of a humerus was obtained. Identified 
remains from the other localities are listed below. 

The only previous records of bird remains from the Virgin 
Islands are from Magens Bay and from middens on the island of St. 
Croix ( Wetmore, 1918, 1937). 

1. Puffinus Iherminieri Lesson. Audubon's Shearwater. Ma- 
gens Bay, 5 bones, 2 individuals. Turde Point, 8 bones, 6 indi- 
viduals. Wetmore also recorded this widespread seabird from 
Magens Bay and from St. Croix. 

2. Sula leucogaster (Boddaert). Brown Booby. Magens Bay, 
2 bones, 1 individual. Recorded from Magens Bay and St. Croix. 

3. Fregata magnificens Mathews. Magnificent Frigate-bird. 
Magens Bay, 4 bones, 1 individual. Also recorded by Wetmore. 

4. Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus). Yellow-crowned Night 
Heron. Magens Bay, 1 ulna. Francis Bay, 1 ulna. Recorded from 
Magens Bay. 

5. Butorides virescens maculatus (Boddaert). West Indian 
Green Heron. Magens Bay, right femur, length 41 mm. Seven 
Floridian specimens of the mainland subspecies, B. v. virescens 
(Linnaeus), have femur lengths of 47.0-48.7 mm. Oberholser 
(1912) showed that resident green herons from the West Indies 
are smaller than the northern migratory form. This is the first fossil 
record of the species from the West Indies. 

6. Anas americana Gmelin. Baldpate. Magens Bay, humerus. 
Reported from the St. Croix midden. This duck is a winter visitant 
to the West Indies. 

7. Nesotrochis debooyi Wetmore. Magens Bay, 1 bone. Francis 



240 Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 

Bay, 3 bones, 2 individuals. Magens Bay is the type locality of this 
extinct genus of large rail. It has also been recorded from St. Croix 
and Puerto Rico (Wetmore, 1922) but not previously from St. 
John. Although sexual dimorphism in size is marked in the Ral- 
lidae, it appears that this flightless bird may also show geographic 
variation, as published measurements of Puerto Rican fossils exceed 
those from the Virgin Islands. 

8. Sterna fuscata Linnaeus. Sooty Tern. Magens Bay, 2 right 
humeri. Turtle Point, right and left humeri. This seabird occurs 
in tropical waters throughout the world, but the only previous 
fossil records are from the Bahamas and St. Helena (Brodkorb, 
1967 ) . In Sterna the distal end of the humerus is more compressed 
and the brachial depression deeper than in Anous. In S. fuscata 
the external edge of the ectepicondylar process is nearly straight 
or a little concave, so that its tip is only slightly set off from the rest 
of the process; in S. anaethetus and Anous the external edge of the 
process is constricted in the middle, so that the free half forms a 
distinct spur. In S. anaethetus the shaft of the humerus is more 
slender than in the other two species. 

Literature Cited 

Brodkorb, Pierce. 1967. Catalogue of fossil birds, Part 3 ( Ralliformes, 

Ichthyornithiformes, Charadriiformes ) . Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 

11, no. 3, pp. 99-220. 
Oberholser, Harry C. 1912. A revision of the subspecies of the green 

heron (Butorides virescens [Linnaeus]). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 42, 

no. 1916, pp. 529-577. 
Wetmore, Alexander. 1918. Bones of birds collected by Theodoor de Booy 

from kitchen midden deposits in the islands of St. Thomas and St. 

Croix. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 54, no. 2245, pp. 513-522, pi. 82. 
. 1922. Bird remains from the caves of Porto Rico. Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., vol. 46, pp. 297-333, figs. 1-25. 
. 1937. Ancient records of birds from the island of St. Croix with 

observations on extinct and living birds of Puerto Rico. lour. Agr. 

Univ. Puerto Rico, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 5-16, pi. 1. 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Flor- 
ida 32611. 

Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci. 35(4) 1972(1974) 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

of the 

FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



VOLUME 35 



Editor 
Pierce Brodkorb 



Published by the 

Florida Academy of Scdznces 

Gainesville, Florida 

1972 



Publication Dates of Volume 35 

Number 1: August 25, 1972 
Number 2-3: November 5, 1973 
Number 4: March 15, 1974 



New Taxox Proposed in Volume 35 
Trachurus margaretae Berry and Cohen 191 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 35 



Number 1 

The Armadillidae of Florida (Isopoda, Oniscoidea) George A. Schultz 1 

Reassignment of Balanus tintinnabulum maroccana Broch Dea B. Beach 5 

Intestinal parasites of the lizard Lygosoma laterale Garnett R. Brooks 8 

Observations on the arboreal snail Orthalicus floridensis Alan K. Craig 15 
Nereid shell blisters in the southern quahog clam 

John L. Taylor and Carl H. Salomon 21 
Occurrence of a rare skate in the western North Atlantic 

Robbin R. Blackman 27 
First Gulf of Mexico record of Ranzania laevis 

Robert W. Topp and David L. Girardin 29 
Five-year creel survey of two Florida lakes 

Forrest J. Ware, Wesley V. Fish, and Louie Prevatt 31 

The presence of Hyla squirella in the Bahamas Ronald I. Crombie 49 
Additions to the Pleistocene avifauna of Arredondo, Florida 

Carl David Frailey 53 

Avifauna of Little Tobago Island James J. Dinsmore 55 
Birds of the Lluidas Vale (Worthy Park) region, Jamaica 

Alexander Cruz 72 



Number 2-3 

First occurrence of the violet goby in Georgia 

Paul L. Wolf, Sheryl F. Shanholtzer and R. J. Reimold 81 
Vegetational changes in the National Key Deer Refuge-II 

Taylor R. Alexander and John D. Dickson III 85 
Composition of Thalassia testudinum and Ruppia maritima 

Gerald E. Walsh and Thomas E. Grow 97 
Noteworthy marine fishes from eastern Louisiana Jerry G. Walls 109 

Antarctica, isostacy, and the origin of frogs 

Coleman J. Goin and Olive B. Goin 113 
Characteristics of the western Atlantic reef-fish fauna 

Carter R. Gilbert 130 
Annotated checklist of the Boynton Beach hammock 

Daniel F. Austin and Joanne G. Weise 145 
A sediment trap for use in soft-bottomed lakes 

Frank G. Nordlie and John F. Anderson 155 
New records for fishes in South Carolina waters 

David M. Cupka and Robert K. Dias 158 



Number 4 

Notes on Parasites of gray squirrels from Florida 

P. C. Parker, E. J. Riggs, and R. B. Holliman 161 
Occurrence of two trematodes in Florida anoles 

Richard Franz and Sam R. Telford, Jr. 163 
Reproductive rates in white-tailed deer of Florida Richard F. Harlow 165 
Food of the barn owl on Grand Cayman, B. W. I. David W. Johnston 171 
Balanomorph barnacles on Chrysemys alahamensis 

Crawford G. Jackson, Jr., and Arnold Ross 173 
Synopsis of the species of Trachurus (Pisces, Carangidae) 

Frederick H. Berry and Linda Cohen 177 
Defensive behavior in Rana arcolata and Hyla avivoca Ronald Altig 212 

Commercial fishery on Lake Okeechobee, Florida Lothian A. Ager 217 

Nuclear DNA and developmental rate in frogs K. Bachmann 225 

Some airborne algae from North Central Florida 

R. T. Parrando and J. S. Davis 232 
Bird remains from pre-Columbian middens in the Virgin Islands 

Pierce Brodkorb 239 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Institutional Members for 1972 

American Medical Research Institute 

Archbold Expeditions 

Barry College 

Edison Community College 

Florida Atlantic University 

Florida Institute of Technology 

Florida Presbyterian College 

Florida Southern College 

Florida State University 

Florida Technological University 

Jacksonville University 

Manatee Junior College 

Miami-Dade Junior College 

Mound Park Hospital Foundation 

Ormond Beach Hospital 

Rollins College 

St. Leo College 

Stetson University 

University of Florida 

University of Miami 

University of South Florida 

University of Tampa 

University of West Florida 



FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Founded 1936 



OFFICERS FOR 1972 

President: Dr. Richard E. Garrett 

Department of Physics, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 

President Elect: Dr. James G. Potter 

Department of Physics, Florida Institute of Technology 

Melbourne, Florida 32901 

Secretary: Dr. Robert W. Long 

Department of Botany, University of South Florida 

Tampa, Florida 33620 

Treasurer: Dr. Richard A. Edwards 

Department of Geology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 

Editor: Dr. Pierce Brodkorb 

Department of Zoology, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 



Membership applications, subscriptions, renewals, changes 

of address, and orders for back numbers should 

be addressed to the Treasurer 



Correspondence regarding exchanges 
should be addressed to 

Gift and Exchange Section, University of Florida Libraries 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 




inniSNi NviNOSHiiws^saiavaan libraries smithsonian^institution 

5 \ co zz CO 




Z -J 2 _j Z 

JRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIlfUllSNI NVINOSHJLIWS S3IHVUai 








m 

CO ™ CO 

linillSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3 1 dViJ a II LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Z CO Z w. CO Z 

co z co * z co 

BR ARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIinilJLSIMI NVINOSH1IWS S3IHVHai' 

m — CO — 

■-2 /^*&\ - /Srm§\ I 

< 1« 

q; 

m 

linili.SNrNVIN0SHHWS 2 S3 I H VU 8 ll^LI B R AR I ES^ SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE 
r- > z r- z 

^^\ m ^ 2 X^^X m /^2^X 2 ^g^ DO /^fjgfcv 











co ^ ± — co to 

3RARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIinillSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3IHVHai" 
co z \ co z co 

co "'■* Z CO z 

linillSNI_NVINOSHllWS S3 I d VM 8 H_LI B RAR I ES SMITHSONIAN ^INSTITUTION 

z '** _J z — _l z 
BRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOllfllllSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3IUVH3I 
Z r- ^ Z l- Z 





oiilTllonkllAKI IMCTITIITIrt^ 





z v) -•* z w — -z co 

rilllSNI_NVINOSHllWS S3 I bl Vd S IH LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION N 

2 \ CO ^ 5 CO ^ ~ C/) 



o ", vf — vrs^ o 

Z _J z 

{ARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIlfUllSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3IUVHai"l_L 

co t: co \ ± co 

nillSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3IHVUan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION l> 

CO 2 „,. CO 2 CO 

RARIES^SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIlfUllSNI NVINOSHIIWS^SS I H Vd 3 I ~l L 

to ^ co — . en 






nuiSNiAiviNOSHiiws S3iavuan libraries^smjthsonianjnstitution ^ 

oo "*• £ CO ± CO ± 

VARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniilSNI NVIN0SH1IWS S3 I UVU a IT L 
<£ „ Z \ co z co z 



r /' t Vwss 
CO -*"' Z 00 2 CO 

nillSNI_NVINOSHHWS S3IHVHan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION * 
CO — co — CO 





RARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniilSNI NVIN0SH1IWS SSIHVHail 1 
Z r- Z i- z 




co s: co *■• :r co 

ws s^iavaan libraries smf^^hsw - )0 n i